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2018年12月19日 05:28:41 | 作者:中华问答 | 来源:新华社
It sounds like the sort of character who would have been deeply unpopular in one of his plays. William Shakespeare was a #39;ruthless businessman#39; and tax dodger, researchers have claimed.研究人员近日声称,恰似莎翁戏剧中那些令人深恶痛绝的角色——莎翁本人就是“冷酷无情的商人和偷税漏税的家伙”。Although he wrote plays that championed the rights of the poor and the needy, archived documents show the playwright was actually a wealthy landowner repeatedly dragged before the courts and fined for illegally stockpiling food and threatened with jail for evading taxes.尽管莎翁笔下维护穷苦贫弱民众的权利,但档案资料显示,莎翁本人却是个富有的地主,多次被揪上法庭、因非法囤积粮食而罚款,甚至因偷税漏税差点蹲监狱。He #39;stored grain, malt and barley for resale at inflated prices to neighbours and local tradesmen#39; at a time when Europe was suffering famines, the academics said, and channelled the profits into land purchases.研究人员说,莎翁囤积谷物、麦芽和大麦,等欧洲饥荒遍野时,再以高价转售给邻居及当地商人,以此牟取高额利润。They added that Shakespeare did all he could to #39;avoid taxes, maximise profits at others#39; expense and exploit the vulnerable – while writing plays about their plight#39;. And his approach of #39;combining both illegal and legal activities#39; meant he could retire after a working life of only 24 years.他们还说,莎翁一边创作有关弱势群体的戏剧,一边却又用尽一切办法逃税、从弱势群体身上尽可能地压榨利益。通过此类非法牟利手段,莎翁仅仅工作了24年便不劳而获、坐享其成了。Researchers at Aberystwyth University carried out an academic study looking into Shakespeare#39;s #39;other life#39; as one of Warwickshire#39;s biggest landowners and have uncovered the less than savoury side to Britain#39;s greatest playwright.在阿伯里斯特威斯大学,研究人员组织了一项学术研究,旨在挖掘莎翁作为沃里克郡大财主的“别样生活”,揭秘英国最伟大的文豪不为人知的阴暗一面。The allegation he exploited famine has also led to suggestions that his Coriolanus, for years regarded as a plea for the starving poor, was in fact his way of trying to expunge a guilty conscience.莎翁利用饥荒大发横财的推测恰好也表明,一直被认为是替穷苦民众伸张正义的《科利奥兰纳斯》,实不过是莎翁自己欲盖弥彰的良心不安作品罢了。Jayne Archer, a researcher in Renaissance literature at Aberystwyth University, said in the Sunday Times: #39;There was another side to Shakespeare besides the brilliant playwright — as a ruthless businessman who did all he could to avoid taxes, maximise profits at others#39; expense and exploit the vulnerable — while also writing plays about their plight to entertain them.杰恩-阿彻在阿伯里斯特威斯大学研究文艺复兴时期的文学。他对《星期日泰晤士报》说:“除了伟大的剧作家身份外,莎士比亚还有另外一面——即逃税避税、无情压榨他人、欺凌弱势群体的商人,尽管他笔下尽是些伸张正义的故事。”#39;Shakespeare is remembered as a playwright, but there was no copyright then and no sense that his plays could generate future income. That drove him to dodge taxes, illegally hoard [food] and act as a money-lender.“莎翁是家喻户晓的剧作家。但当时还没有版权保护,因此他的戏剧作品并不能带来收入。所以,莎翁便靠逃税、非法囤积牟利,完全是个高利贷商人。”Coriolanus depicts a famine created and exploited by rich merchants and politicians to maximise the price of food and includes the lines: #39;They ne#39;er cared for us yet: suffer us to famish, and their store-houses crammed with grain.#39;《科利奥兰纳斯》讲述了富商和政治家哄抬物价而造成大饥荒的故事,其中有句台词就是:“他们才不会管我们的死活呢。我们在这里忍饥挨饿,他们的店铺里却堆满了粮食。”It has now emerged that as Shakespeare wrote the play at the height of the 1607 food riots, he was himself hoarding grain. As one of the biggest landowners in Warwickshire, he was ideally placed to push prices up and then sell at the top of the market.如今看来,莎翁在戏剧中写到1607年粮食危机时,他本人正在囤积粮食。作为沃里克郡的大财主,莎翁占尽地利之便,抬高物价后又在市场上售卖。In a paper, the academics wrote: #39;Over a 15-year period Shakespeare purchased and stored grain, malt and barley for resale at inflated prices to neighbours and local tradesmen.学者在文献中写道:“大概有15年之久,莎士比亚购买并囤积谷物、麦芽及大麦,然后再以高价转售给邻居和本地商人。”#39;In February 1598 he was prosecuted for holding 80 bushels of malt or corn during a time of shortage. He pursued those who could not pay him in full for these staples and used the profits to further his own money-lending activities ...“1598年2月,莎士比亚因在粮食短缺时囤积了640加仑的麦芽或玉米而被告上法庭。他通过向贫弱的民众收购主要粮食来牟取利润,然后进行高利贷交易……”#39;Profits were channelled into land purchases. He also acquired tithes on local produce, including ;corn, grain and hay;, allowing him to cream off the profits from others#39; manual work.“获得的盈利用来购置土地。他还从玉米、谷物、干草等农产品中牟取什一税,也就是从他人的血汗中榨取利润。”#39;By combining both illegal and legal activities, Shakespeare was able to retire in 1613 as the largest property owner in his home town, Stratford-upon-Avon. His profits — minus a few fines for illegal hoarding and tax evasion — meant he had a working life of just 24 years.#39;“通过正当或不正当的买卖,莎士比亚很快就在家乡埃文河畔的斯特拉特福积累了巨大财富,扣除少数因非法囤积和逃税而缴纳的罚款,他可谓获利匪浅。早在1613年仅仅工作了24年,莎翁便可坐享其成了。”Shakespeare#39;s experience as a rich landowner at a time of famine may be reflected in plays such as King Lear, which depicts an ageing monarch trying to divide his lands, and the food they produce, between his daughters.莎翁在大饥荒时期的大财主经历在《李尔王》等戏剧中可见一斑——年迈的君王试图在两个女儿之间划分土地和生产的粮食。Professor Jonathan Bate, the Shakespeare scholar and provost of Worcester College, Oxford, said Archer and her colleagues had performed a valuable service in setting Shakespeare#39;s work in the context of the famines and food shortages of the period.乔纳森-贝特是牛津大学伍斯特学院的教务长,同时也是研究莎士比亚的学者。他说,阿彻女士及其团队的发现对研究莎翁笔下大饥荒与粮食短缺时期的作品很有价值。 /201307/246517ARIES白羊座(Mar. 21- April 20)When your Aries dad is poking fun or picking a fight with you, believe it or not, he is saying that he loves you. Aries dads like action-oriented contests of any sort, and they often show their affection by urging you to flex your own competitive muscles. You can rest assured that despite his jostling and wrangling, your Aries dad is always on your team.白羊座父亲:信不信由你,当白羊座的父亲用严厉的语言来指责你的时候,实际上他是想说他爱你。以行动为导向的他通常都是通过这种方式来表达感情的。放心,尽管他言辞苛责,但他永远是你的好爸爸。TAURUS金牛座(Apr. 21 - May 21)The Taurus father is the strong silent type who will never let you down. Sure, he might not give you the extra you want for your big night out at the movie theater, but he will pick you up afterwards at the very moment he said he would. One unique aspect to the Taurus dad is that he is one of the few fathers who you can actually trust to go clothes shopping with. Top-notch quality is virtually assured.金牛座父亲:沉默寡言的金牛爸爸从来不会让你失望。也许他不持你深夜跑去看电影,但事后一定会去接你的。金牛父亲最独特的表现在于,他是少有的能陪你一块去购物的父亲。这么优秀的父亲当然是最值得信任的人。GEMINI双子座(May 22 - June 21)There is never a dull moment when your Gemini dad is in the room. He is the one cracking jokes, telling stories, and doing his best to get to know every single one of your friends. He#39;ll want to know all the juicy gossip on everyone you hang out with, so get y to disclose everything. Doing so is worth your while. He#39;ll give you solid advice that#39;s actually helpful.双子座父亲:只要他在房间,就不会感到无聊。他爱讲故事,说笑话,喜欢听你谈论朋友,甚至对你漫无边际的闲扯也饶有兴趣。和他交流是件很快乐的事,他会给你实实在在、大有帮助的意见。CANCER巨蟹座(June 22 - July 22)Cancer dads are more like mothers than fathers in some way, although they may try to hide this fact by trying to appear tough and callous. The real truth is that they are big teddy bears. Breaking through their shell may not be easy, but it#39;s worth it, for inside you will find a treasure chest of warm sensitivity and receptivity. Cancer dads might be moody but they will be the most loyal friend you#39;ll ever have.巨蟹座父亲:在某些方面,他们更像母亲而不是父亲,尽管他想极力通过表现地严厉冷漠来掩饰这一点。剥开他坚硬的外壳虽然不易,但却很值得尝试,你将发现在他的内心深入,原来包含着如此丰富的感情。巨蟹父亲喜怒无常,但他会是你遇到的最忠诚的朋友。LEO狮子座(July 23 - Aug. 22)Your Leo dad may act more like the child than the parent, and this is not something that is going to change as time goes by. You may find that your dad becomes more like a kid as he gets older. The Leo dad is the kind of dad who is easy to be friends with. The problem is getting him to leave your party rather than worrying about him putting an end to your party. This king of the forest loves to be honored, and Father#39;s Day is made for Leo dads.狮子座父亲:他的行为举止像个孩子,即使随着时间的推移,也不能改变什么。年纪越大,他的孩子气越重。这样的父亲很适合做朋友。“森林之王”的狮子座父亲喜欢被尊敬的感觉,“父亲节”就是专门为他设的哦。VIRGO处女座(Aug. 23 - Sept. 23)When you find your Virgo dad worrying about you constantly, calling you every hour on the hour to find out your location, it#39;s not because he doesn#39;t trust you, it#39;s only because he loves you - and because he is the biggest worrier on the planet. Ease his mind by giving him a detailed itinerary at the beginning of the night telling him where you will be and who you will be with. He#39;ll have it dialed into his Palm Pilot.处女座父亲:要知道处女座父亲是这个世上最易操心憔虑的人了。如果你在外面,他会不停地叫你告诉他你确切的位置,这并不代表他不信任你,而是因为他太爱你了。无论你去哪儿或是和谁在一块,最好向他交代清楚,让他宽心。LIBRA天秤座(Sept. 24 - Oct. 23)Listen carefully to your Libra dad - his jokes are subtle, and if you aren#39;t quick, you might miss them the first time around. Stay tuned into his under-the-breath comments and you are in for a barrel of laughs. One other bonus - your Libra dad is one you can actually trust when picking out your outfit for the night. He#39;ll tell you what looks good and what doesn#39;t. Trust him.天秤座父亲:他讲的笑话很微妙,一定要注意听哦,否则你就跟不上了。他还是好的装参谋,如果你不知道参加晚宴时该选什么样的礼,不妨征求一下他的意见。SCORPIO天蝎座(Oct. 24 - Nov. 22)You won#39;t get a more loyal or supportive father than your Scorpio dad. He will always be there for you - no matter how much trouble you might get in. He#39;s the type who will fix your car, install smoke alarms in your house - and bail you out of jail. Although his feelings are wild and extreme, one emotion is certain and steadfast: his unwavering, intense love for you.天蝎座父亲:没有比他更好的给你更多持和信任的父亲了。无论你遇到了什么样的麻烦,他会一直和你站在一起。帮你修车、为你安装排烟警报,甚至为保释你出狱不惜倾家荡家,他都无怨无悔。虽然他有些粗野和偏执,但对你的爱却很坚定。SITTARIUS射手座(Nov. 23 - Dec. 21)Sagittarians are a fun bunch, and your dad is no exception. He isn#39;t one for setting limits since he has a hard time doing that for himself. He is the kind of dad who will take you to the racetrack and give you an advance on your allowance so that you can have some fun with it. Your Sagittarian dad is much more than your father. He is your best friend.射手座父亲:射手座都是开心果,你的射手座父亲当然也不例外。为了让你开心,他会带你去看赛马并且提前给你零花钱。他已经冲出了父亲的界限,变成你最好的朋友了。CAPRICORN羯座(Dec. 22 - Jan. 20)Your Capricorn dad is a hard worker, and sometimes it may be hard to feel his love for you since he is so caught up in his work. Just remember that the reason he is working so hard is for you and your happiness. He wants you to have everything you could possibly want - and more. He takes his fatherly role very seriously and considers it his most important job.羯座父亲:他是个工作狂,由于他全身心地投入工作,你也许很难感觉到他的爱。仅仅要记住的就是,他如此买命地工作都是为了你,为了让你生活地更好,可以拥有一切。实际上,他很在意父亲的角色,把它看作是自己最重要的工作。AQUARIUS水瓶座(Jan. 21 - Feb. 19)Your dad is one of a kind, and yes - his outrageous outfits and erratic behavior will indeed scare and embarrass you and your friends. Oh well - you#39;ve got to love him, for he is just being himself - and you can#39;t get down on him for that. More than anything else, he will encourage you to be independent and freethinking. Yours is the kind of dad who will teach you to think outside of the box.水瓶座父亲:他反复无常的行为确实会令你和你的朋友感到害怕和尴尬。不过你不会因些而不爱他。因为更重要的是,他会鼓励你去学会独立、拓宽思维,以便看到更广阔的世界。PISCES双鱼座(Feb. 20 - Mar. 20)Just because your Pisces dad forgets to pick you up at the designated meeting spot doesn#39;t mean that he doesn#39;t love you. It merely is a reflection of his sometimes spaced-out mentality toward life. He likes to be in the clouds, so let him take you there. Fishing, painting, and boating are all good activities for you and your Piscean dad to enjoy together. One-on-one time is important for you and your dreamy dad.双鱼座父亲:不要因为他忘了在指定地点接你就认为他不爱你。那仅仅是他有时精神恍惚的一个正常反映。钓鱼、画画、划船都是增进你和父亲间感情的不错的活动哦。 /201211/210675

1. You never know how strong you really are until being strong is the only choice you have.1. 不到没有退路之时,你永远不会知道自己有多强大。2. You cannot change what you refuse to confront.2. 你不去面对又怎么能去改变呢。3. No matter how many mistakes you make or how slow you progress, you are still way ahead of everyone who isn#39;t trying.3. 无论你犯了多少错,或者你进步得有多慢,你都走在了那些不曾尝试的人的前面。4. Life isn#39;t about waiting for the storm to pass, it#39;s about learning to dance in the rain.4. 生活不是等待暴风雨过去,而是要学会在雨中跳舞。5. Letting go doesn#39;t mean that you#39;re a quitter. It doesn#39;t mean that you lost. It just means that you realize in that moment that#39;s it#39;s time to let go and move on.5. 放手不代表放弃,不代表你输了。那只代表你知道在那一刻你该放手了,然后继续生活。6. If you are passionate about something, pursue it, no matter what anyone else thinks. That#39;s how dreams are achieved.6. 如果你想要什么,那就勇敢地去追求,不要管别人是怎么想的,因为这就是实现梦想的方式。7. Give up worrying about what others think of you. What they think isn#39;t important. What is important is how you feel about yourself.7. 不要为别人怎么看你而烦恼。别人的看法并不重要,重要的是你怎么看待你自己。8. You can learn great things from your mistakes when you aren#39;t busy denying them.8. 当你不再急于否认错误时,你就学到了重要的一课。.9. Never let success get to your head, and never let failure get to your heart.9. 不要让成功冲昏了头脑,也不要把失败记在心里。10. Life is short and you deserve to be happy.10. 生命苦短,你应该过得开心些。 /201210/206183

According to a Netmums survey, 13 is the most difficult age. But it#39;s not only parents who find it hard going – it#39;s tough for the teenagers too. Here#39;s how to make it through to being 14, by Miranda Smith, aged 14 and four months.根据一项网上调查,13岁是最困难的年龄。但这不仅仅适用于那些发现很难度过的父母,对青少年来说也很难。下面是由14岁零4个月的米兰达#8226;史密斯来讲诉如何顺利长到14岁。1. Don#39;t put up pictures of yourself on Facebook with a bottle of WKD beside you and a comment like: ;Got SO drunk last night.; No one thinks it#39;s cool – and WKD is only 4% proof.1. 不要把你身边摆着一瓶沃可德酒的照片放在Facebook上,并加一个:“昨晚喝得太醉。”没有人认为这很酷——WKD酒只含4%的酒精。2. You#39;re going to feel a whole lot more grumpy when you#39;re 13 than you did at 12. But the thing is it#39;s not just you – every other 13-year-old feels exactly the same. Knowing that helps a bit.2.你在13岁时要比你在12岁更多地感到脾气暴躁。但问题不仅仅是你——每个13岁的孩子感觉都完全相同。知道那会有一点儿作用。3. It#39;s tempting, but try not to be on your phone 24/7. It really bugs your parents but, worse, it#39;s boring for your friends.3.这是诱人的,但不要一周中每天24小时都耗在你的手机上。它确实会困扰你的父母,但更糟的是对你的朋友来说是无聊的。4. Thirteen is the age when you#39;re likely to start getting attention from the opposite sex. Don#39;t get carried away by this – there#39;s nothing more moist than a lovesick 13-year-old.4.十三岁是你可能开始关注异性的年纪。不要对此得意忘形——没有什么比一个害相思病的13岁少年更滋润的。5. Don#39;t send pictures of yourself in your underwear to ANYONE – because they#39;ll end up being sp around, and you#39;ll regret it.5.不要把你自己穿内衣的照片发给任何人——因为他们最终会以四处传播而告终,你会后悔的。6. Your friends will annoy you, make you angry and get on your nerves. But don#39;t insult them on Twitter – 13-year-olds do that all the time. Twitter is a public forum, and if you start tweeting about your issues anyone can get involved even if it#39;s none of their business.6.你的朋友会惹恼你,让你生气让你愤怒。但不要在Twitter上侮辱他们——13岁孩子一直以来都是这样做的。Twitter是一个公共论坛,如果你开始在推特上抱怨你的问题,任何人都可以参与进来即使不关他们的事。7. A few months ago, you hardly thought about your body at all. Now it#39;s the only thing on your mind. Of course your body matters: but the thing to think is that no one else notices it as much as you do. So try to chill about it.7.几个月前你很难会想到你的身体。现在它是唯一萦绕你心间的事情。当然你的身体很重要:但要想到的是没有人会像你一样那么地注意它。所以尝试对此冷静。8. At precisely the moment when you decide there#39;s no better way to spend a Saturday than staying in bed till afternoon, your parents will become obsessed with you doing the chores for them. Rule of thumb: you can only say, ;I#39;ll do it later,; five times. After that, just do it.8.恰恰在这一刻你发现没有比呆在床上直到下午更好的方式来度过星期六,你的父母会变得痴迷于你为他们做家务。经验:你只能说“我稍后做”五遍。在那之后就动手吧。9. Thirteen-year-olds have massive fights with their friends, all the time. A year on, you won#39;t even remember what those fights were about – but you will remember how unhappy they made you feel.9.13岁的孩子所有这段时间与他们的朋友之间有大量的争斗。一年过去,你甚至不记得这些争斗是与什么有关,但你会记得他们让你感到那么得不高兴。10. Plan a really good party for when you reach 14. When the parents say they want to be around you#39;ll think, ;OMG no,; ... but it#39;s probably going to be best to let them stay. Agree on the conditions, and stick to your side of the bargain provided they stick to theirs.10.当你达到14岁时计划一个真正好的派对。当父母们说他们想要在你周围时你会想“天啊,不要啊”……但让他们待着可能是最好的。赞成一些条件,在协商中坚持你自己那边他们坚持他们的。 /201301/221794

How about buying a cup of coffee for someone you’ll never meet? It may sound like the latest trend in showy barista techniques, but a ;suspended coffee; is much more heartwarming than a snazzy latte.给你可能从未见过的人买杯咖啡,这个想法你觉得怎么样?“待用咖啡” 光听名字,像是时下最流行的花哨咖啡技艺,但其实一杯“待用咖啡” 比一杯拉花漂亮的拿铁要温暖得多。Born in the cafes of Italy’s southern city of Naples, the ;caffe sospeso; (which literally means “suspended coffee”) is a tradition in which someone pays in advance for an extra cup or two, which can then be consumed by a coffee-drinker-in-need later in the day.“待用咖啡” 的意大利语是caffe sospeso,这个传统起源于意大利南部城市那不勒斯的咖啡馆,在那里人们可以提前多买一两杯咖啡,给其他可能比较贫困的咖啡爱好者享用。 A customer-in-need can then later ask if there is a “suspended coffee” available and have a hot drink without having to pay for it.后来的囊中羞涩的顾客可以问问是否有“待用咖啡”,如果有就可以不用付钱也能喝上一杯热热的咖啡。The idea has become an international internet sensation with coffee shops in Europe and North America participating in the movement. The Facebook page alone has more than 28,000 “likes.”这个主意如今已经在全球范围内在网络上引起了轰动,欧洲和北美的咖啡店也都加入到了“待用咖啡”运动中来,该活动的脸书主页获得了超过2.8万个“赞”。The tradition of “suspended coffee” is a long-standing tradition in Italy that increased in popularity after the Second World War. Agence France-Presse reported last week that the practice was starting to take hold in other European countries hit hard economically. More than 150 cafés in Bulgaria were taking part.“待用咖啡” 在意大利有着悠久的传统,从二战开始慢慢流行起来。法新社上周报道称,在欧洲经济受到重创的情况下,这个传统在其他欧洲国家也渐渐固定下来。在保加利亚超过150家咖啡馆加入进来。At cafes that participate in the custom, customers can ask if there are any “suspended coffees” available, and if so, they are supplied with a beverage, thanks to the kindness of a stranger.在加入此项运动的咖啡店里,顾客可以询问是否有“待用咖啡”可以提供。这些都是陌生人的善举。 /201308/250928

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