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清原县中医院地址在哪During the past year, Chinese anti-monopoly watchdogs raided four Microsoft offices, investigated chip maker Qualcomm, and vowed to punish Audi and several BMW dealers for essentially charging unfair prices. This week, food giant H.J. Heinz Co. found itself in a storm as Chinese regulators said they found “severely high levels of lead” in the company’s infant cereals.去年,中国反垄断监管部门曾突访微软(Microsoft)4个办事处、调查芯片制造商高通(Qualcomm),并称要就价格垄断处罚奥迪(Audi)及一些宝马(BMW)汽车经销商。最近一周中国有关部门又发现亨氏(H.J. Heinz Co)婴儿米粉“含铅量严重超标”,将这个食品巨头推向了风口浪尖。With yet another high-profile investigation of a foreign brand in China, many argue that the government is singling out foreign firms to support domestic players. The European Union Chamber of Commerce in China has written a white paper criticizing the government’s efforts, suggesting the moves are unfair and protectionist. Foreign direct investment into China dropped 16.9% in July from a year ago, giving ammunition to critics of the government’s investigations.随着一起起针对外国品牌的高调调查,很多称中国政府正为了扶植国内企业而排挤外企。中国欧盟商会(European Union Chamber of Commerce)发表了一份白皮书,批评中国政府的此类举动,表示这些举措并不公平,属于保护主义行径。今年7月,中国的外商直接投资(Foreign direct investment)比去年下跌16.9%,更令外界有了批评政府调查的理由。But are critics of China’s anti-trust investigations right? Or do they indicate attempts by the government to catch up to international standards and even the playing field to eventually create more competition and spur more consumption through lower prices?但这些对中国反垄断调查的批评正确吗?还是说,中国的反垄断调查实际上显示了政府正在向国际标准靠拢,甚至正在改善整体的商业环境,从而最终创造更多竞争,并通过更低的价格带动更多消费?First, it is a mistake to lump the anti-monopoly investigations and the consumer safety watchdogs together. The safety regulators have targeted McDonald’s , KFC, and now Heinz for selling tainted, mislabeled and toxic products to Chinese consumers. Executives have been fined and jailed. These companies have undoubtedly made mistakes that have endangered the health of Chinese consumers. McDonald’s, for instance, sold hamburgers made with expired meat.首先,我们不应该将反垄断调查和消费者安全监督混为一谈。安全监管部门瞄准了麦当劳(McDonald’s)、肯德基(KFC)以及现在的亨氏,原因是这些公司向中国消费者出售受污染的、有毒及虚假食品。涉案高管已被处以罚款及监禁。这些公司危害中国消费者的健康,错误昭然。比如麦当劳就出售用过期肉制作的汉堡包。The Chinese government is moving to safeguard the food supply chain in response to citizens’ demands. Food and product safety and pollution are the two biggest concerns in China – ahead of paying for medical care and education for family members, according to 5000 interviews my firm, The China Market Research Group, conducted in 2013 across15 cities. In response, the government for instance has been pushing for consolidation within the dairy sector – just as it had in the steel industry – to ensure better quality control and curb environmental degradation.中国政府正在响应民众要求,捍卫食品供应链安全。2013年中国市场研究集团曾在15个城市采访5,000名民众,结果显示,污染以及食品和消费品安全排在家庭医疗费用及教育出之前,是中国目前最受关注的两大焦点。为此,中国政府已采取不同措施,例如推动乳制品业整合,就像过去促进钢材制造业整合一样,从而确保实现更好的质量控制,防止环境进一步恶化。Second, many companies, such as Qualcomm and Microsoft , have come under fire in other jurisdictions like Europe for monopolistic practices in the past. Regulators investigated them and fined them over the course of several decades, while in China these companies have gotten a relatively free pass. Until recently, the Chinese government was overwhelmed by other priorities like poverty reduction and did not devote significant resources into things like anti-monopoly investigations.其次,许多公司,比如高通及微软也曾因为垄断在欧洲等其它司法管辖区受罚。欧洲等地的监管部门过去数十年来一直在调查并处罚这些公司的垄断行为,但是这些企业在中国却面对着相对宽松自由的环境。中国政府过去一直致力于脱贫等更重要的任务,因而并未向反垄断调查等事宜专门投入大量资源,但情况最近已有所改变。Some media reports have painted the wave of investigations as a sudden anti-foreign crackdown, suggesting that it is a move by President Xi Jinping to consolidate power. However, companies have been aware that investigations like these would be coming for some time now. China’s National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), the body charged with enforcing a portion of the anti-monopoly law, announced the start of many of these investigations in 2011. Xi did not take office until 2012 – a year later.部分媒体报道把车企反垄断调查描绘成一场突如其来的排外行为,并暗示这是中国国家主席习近平为巩固政权所采取的行动。但多家企业现在已意识到这类调查将持续一段时间。负责部分反垄断法执行的中国国家发展和改革委员会(NDRC)声称,其中一些调查早在2011年就已展开。而习近平出任中国国家主席是在之后的2012年。The series of investigations has given the appearance of a targeted crackdown, though in many ways the reason for this is simply that regulators are only now catching up with the task of regulating the market and reaching standards of market behavior held by other advanced economies. Domestic Chinese firms have also been targeted – many of the BMW dealers targeted for instance are locally owned by Chinese entrepreneurs, not BMW itself. However, these cases have not been in Western news as much.这一系列调查呈现出一种有针对性的打击模式,但从许多方面来看,这样做的原因很简单——监管部门现在开始着手规范市场,以达到其它发达国家的市场行为标准。中国国内的企业也成为调查目标,例如宝马公司的一些经销商其实隶属于当地企业。然而,这些情况在西方的新闻里并不会被大肆报道。It is true that regulators need to be more transparent in their investigations and rulings; they should allow lawyers representing the firms under investigation into meetings when decisions and judgments are made. The opaque way many investigations have been carried out has given the appearance of the government making decisions in back rooms to strong-arm brands into lowering their prices.的确,监管者需要让他们的调查和裁决更加透明化;他们应该允许律师代表被调查企业参与到判决结果的会议当中。而很多不透明的调查,已经给外界一种政府暗中制定决策并强迫品牌降价的印象。Finally, although the investigations are hurting profit margins and making executives nervous for now, in the long-term, this will help overall profitability for Chinese and Western brands alike.最后,尽管这些调查目前影响了企业的利润率,也令管理人员惶惶不可终日,不过从长远来看,这将有助于提升中国乃至西方汽车品牌整体的盈利能力。Over the past decade, Chinese consumers have been so worried about poor food and product safety standards that they tend to buy the most expensive items they could afford. For key items, such as infant milk formula, consumers shun more affordable brands because they equate lower prices with lower safety. As a result, a few ultra-premium players with high prices have dominated the market, while other brands that aren’t naturally premium-positioned have had little choice but to use high pricing to attract consumer interest.过去十年间,中国的消费者由于担心食品质量差、产品安全标准低,所以宁愿尽己所能去购买最贵的产品。而对于一些重要的产品,比如婴儿配方奶粉,消费者往往会回避那些价格更实惠的品牌,因为他们认为便宜就等同于食品安全没有保障。导致一些高价的超高档品牌占据了市场,而其它不属于高端定位的品牌则别无选择,只能通过提高价格来吸引消费者。Promoting better accountability on safety will allow consumers to be more confident in product quality standards and make decisions based on other factors than simply price. In turn, that will give brands the opportunity to carve out new market niches rather than race each other to the top.建立更好的产品安全问责机制,可以让消费者对产品质量标准更有信心,在决定购买意向时不再只看价格,综合考虑其它因素。这样一来,品牌也将得到更多机会开拓新的市场定位,而不是只在价格上你追我赶。(财富中文网)Shaun Rein is the founder and managing director of China Market Research Group, a strategic market intelligence firm focused on China. He is author of the forthcoming book, The End of Copycat China: the Rise of Creativity, Innovation, and Individualism in Asia, which is expected to release in October.雷小山是战略市场情报公司中国市场研究集团(China Market Research Group)的创始人兼董事总经理。他的新书《中国山寨走向终结:创意,创新,以及个人主义在亚洲崛起》预计将于今年10月出版。 /201408/323615抚顺第一人民医院男科 抚顺望花区医院预约

抚顺市新宾县盆腔炎哪家医院好的 When Americans think about Canada -- and that doesn#39;t happen often -- they usually think of us as the nice, predictable guy next door who never plays his stereo too loud. Even Rob Ford, Toronto#39;s ranting, crack-smoking mayor, has barely dented our squeaky-clean image.美国人想到加拿大的时候不多,如果想到,他们一般会把我们想成性情和善、作息规律的邻居,从来不把音响调得太大的邻居。即便是夸夸其谈、吸食霹雳可卡因的多伦多市长罗布#12539;福特(Rob Ford),也没有怎么玷污我们的纯洁形象。But Americans shouldn#39;t just think more about Canada. They should consider building on the two countries#39; free-trade deal and forming a more perfect North American union. It is past time for the U.S. and Canada to eliminate their border -- either by creating a customs and monetary union or, more radically, by merging outright into a single nation-state or a European Union-style partnership.但对于美国人来说,只是多花点时间想想加拿大还是不够的。他们应该考虑如何强化两国自由贸易协定,形成一个更加完美的北美联盟。美国和加拿大早就该取消它们之间的边界了,具体办法可以是建立一个关税与货币联盟,也可以做得更彻底,直接合并成一个单一民族国家或欧盟那样的合伙关系。Such a merger makes perfect sense. No two countries on Earth are as socially and economically integrated as the U.S. and Canada. They share geography, values and a gigantic border. Their populations study, travel and do business together and intermarry in great numbers. If they were corporations (or European states), they would have merged a long time ago. And each has what the other needs: The U.S. has capital, manpower, technology and the world#39;s strongest military; Canada has vast reserves of undeveloped resources.这样的合并完全说得通。地球上没有哪两个国家的社会、经济融合程度赶得上美国和加拿大。两国拥有共同的地理条件、价值观和漫长的边境线,两国人民一起学习、旅游、做生意,通婚现象也普遍。如果两国是企业(或欧洲国家),它们早就合并了。而且双方都拥有对方所需要的东西:美国有资金、人力、技术和世界上最强的军队,加拿大拥有庞大的未开发资源储备。Of course, even the most mild-mannered Canadian may sputter at the prospect of being swallowed up by the U.S., and Americans may wonder about the wisdom of absorbing their huge neighbor. But it needn#39;t be so radical. Nobody is proposing that Canada become the 51st state.当然,即使是最温和的加拿大人,想到加拿大被美国吞并的可能性,也可能气得语无伦次;而美国人则有可能怀疑一下子吸纳这个庞大的邻国是否明智。但合并不一定非得那么激进。没有谁提议让加拿大成为美国第51个州。Like modern businesses, modern nations must constantly recalibrate their economic and political models. The smartest people in a room prevail until a smarter group comes along. And unless winners adapt, they eventually lose out, in economic and political life as in nature. Today#39;s U.S. or Canada could become tomorrow#39;s Portugal or Greece. In the competitive and interconnected world of the 21st century, countries that stand still will be left behind.和很多现代企业一样,现代国家必须不断校正自己的经济和政治模式。一屋子里面最聪明的人会占据上风,但等更聪明的人进来的时候就不一样了。如果胜者不适应新的环境,他们终将出局。在大自然中如此,在经济和政治生活中也是如此。今天的美国或加拿大有可能成为明天的葡萄牙或希腊。在21世纪竞争激烈而又彼此勾连的世界里,僵化不动的国家将落后于人。The two North American neighbors increasingly find themselves staring down the barrel of state capitalism, as practiced above all by China, whose state-owned enterprises and sovereign-wealth funds have made a concerted effort to capture markets and resources. In October, the International Monetary Fund#39;s World Economic Outlook database forecast that by 2018, China#39;s economy will be bigger than that of the U.S. -- and Asian economies will be bigger than those of the U.S., Canada, Germany, Britain, Italy, France and Russia combined.我们这两个北美邻国越来越发现自己正面对着国家资本主义的炮口。奉行国家资本主义最积极的是中国,它的国有企业和主权财富基金步调一致地夺取市场和资源。国际货币基金组织(International Monetary Fund)的《世界经济展望》(World Economic Outlook)数据库10月份预测,到2018年中国经济规模将超过美国,亚洲经济体的总规模将超过美国、加拿大、德国、英国、意大利、法国和俄罗斯的总和。If Canada and the U.S. were to join forces, the tables might well be turned. The North American neighbors would become an even more formidable superpower, with an economy larger than the European Union#39;s and a land mass bigger than South America#39;s. The new union would top the world in energy, minerals, water, arable land and technology, and all of it would be protected by the U.S. military. Size matters.如果加拿大和美国联合起来,形势就很有可能逆转。北美两邻国将成为一个更加强大的超级大国:经济规模超过欧盟,国土面积超过南美。新的联盟将在能源、矿产、水资源、耕地和技术方面称霸世界,而这一切都将受到美国军事力量的保护。规模很重要。Canadians have traditionally bristled at the thought of falling under the sway of the U.S., but without a deeper cross-border partnership, we face some grim existential challenges. With its small, aging population and relatively small economy, Canada lacks the resources to develop and defend its gigantic piece of real estate. Through a series of aggressive buyout attempts and transactions, China has targeted Canada#39;s resources and empty landmass. In 2007, Russia used a small submarine to symbolically plant its flag on the ocean floor beneath the North Pole and underscore its claim to a large swath of the resource-rich Arctic, and Russian President Vladimir Putin has been pushing the U.N. to affirm his claims to the region.在过去,加拿大人一想到听任美国摆布的可能场景就怒发冲冠;但如果不加强跨境伙伴关系,我们就会面临事关生死存亡的严峻考验。加拿大人口稀少且正在老龄化,经济规模又相对较小,因此缺少必要的资源来开发和保卫其辽阔的疆土。通过一系列激进的收购行动和交易,中国已经瞄准了加拿大的资源和空旷地皮。2007年,俄罗斯的一艘小型潜艇在北极之下的海底象征性地插了一面国旗,强调俄对资源丰富的北极大片地区的权利,俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔#12539;普京(Vladimir Putin)也一直在推动联合国确认他对该地区的所有权主张。The U.S. faces serious challenges of its own. It must create millions of jobs for its relatively young population, and even as its political system grows more sclerotic, it must compete for markets, resources and Arctic access with the aggressive practitioners of state capitalism.美国自己也面临着严峻的挑战。它必须为其相对年轻的人口创造数百万的就业岗位;在其政治体系变得日益僵化之际,它又必须跟国家资本主义的激进践行者争夺市场、资源和北极地区的使用权。Truth be told, the merger of the U.S. and Canada is aly well under way. As many as one in 10 Canadians (more than 3 million people) live full- or part-time in the U.S., and an estimated 1 million Americans live in Canada. As of 2010, U.S. enterprises controlled about 10% of Canada#39;s assets, 17% of its revenues and 13% of its corporate profits, according to Statistics Canada. Canadians bought more goods and services from Americans than did the 340 million people living in the European Union -- a population 10 times as large.实话实说吧,美国和加拿大的合并其实早就在进行。10个加拿大人当中就有一人永久或临时地居住在美国,总共超过300万人。居住在加拿大的美国人估计有100万。据加拿大统计局(Statistics Canada)数据,截至2010年,美国企业控制着加拿大10%左右的资产、17%的收入和13%的公司利润。加拿大人从美国人那里购买的商品和务比生活在欧盟内的3.4亿人从美国买的还多――欧盟的人口可是加拿大的10倍。A still deeper integration could drive major economic growth. Canada#39;s hinterland is largely without infrastructure or development, even though it contains enormous untapped natural resources. Political disputes have also stranded some of the world#39;s most promising hydroelectric and tidal power prospects in the Canadian provinces of Quebec, British Columbia, Manitoba, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia.再进一步融合的话,则有可能形成强劲的经济增长。加拿大内陆地区虽然蕴藏着巨量的自然资源有待开采,但那些地区基本上没有基础设施,没有开发。加拿大魁北克、不列颠哥伦比亚、马尼托巴、纽芬兰、新斯科舍这些省份一些最有前景的水电站和潮汐发电站项目,也因政治上的纠纷而搁浅。Despite the powerful logic of a U.S.-Canada merger, the obstacles remain daunting. Both countries are divided politically and heavily regionalized. To execute so audacious a move would require a level of statesmanship now lacking in both countries.尽管美加合并有着充分的理由,障碍仍然令人望而生畏。两国都存在政治上的两极化和严重的区域分化。要执行一场如此大胆的行动,必须具备相应的政治才能,然而这是目前两个国家都缺乏的。But remember, the Europeans pulled off something far more dramatic, uniting populations that shared no language and had slaughtered one another for centuries. Other recent examples of deeper integration include the Eastern Caribbean Economic and Monetary Union and the Economic Community of West African States. They all did it by opening their borders to trade and travel -- while at the same time leaving governments intact.但别忘了,欧洲人取得了更戏剧性的成就,把没有共同语言、数百年来互相残杀的人口都统一了起来。近期其他加深融合的例子还有东加勒比经济与货币联盟(Eastern Caribbean Economic and Monetary Union)和西非国家经济共同体(Economic Community of West African States)。它们加深融合的办法都是针对贸易和旅游开放边境――同时保持各自政府不变。Opinion surveys about an outright merger are scant, but as far back as 1964, a poll showed support from 49% of Canadians. In 2007, the World Values Survey Association, a research network of thousands of social scientists, found that about 77% of Americans and 41% of Canadians said they would opt for political union if it meant a better quality of life. In 2011, another poll by Harris/Decima showed that 65% of Canadians backed greater integration with the U.S. and supported a plan to eliminate the border by blending U.S. and Canadian customs, immigration, security and law enforcement efforts.有关直接合并的民意调查很少,但早在1964年的时候,就有调查显示49%的加拿大人持持态度。2007年,由数千社会科学家组成的研究网络“世界价值观调查协会”(World Values Survey Association)发现,77%的美国人和41%的加拿大人说,如果组建政治联盟能够提高生活质量,那么他们就会选择组建政治联盟。2011年Harris/Decima的另一项调查显示,65%的加拿大人持与美国加强融合,并持一项通过整合美加海关、移民、安全和执法行动来清除边界的计划。Those who oppose such a merger are on the wrong side of history. When the North American Free Trade Agreement passed in 1987, the U.S. and Canada (along with Mexico) began a mutually beneficial process of integration that now needs strengthening. Untended, the border has become clogged, damaging trade and tourism. And the wolves are at the door. Just this year China, Inc. picked off a large Canadian oil company and a large American food processor and exporter, without promising either country any reciprocal buyout privileges in China.反对合并的人站在了历史潮流的对立面。1987年北美自由贸易协定(North American Free Trade Agreement)通过的时候,美国和加拿大(以及墨西哥)开启了一段互惠互利的融合进程,现在这种融合需要加强。不加管理的边境已经变得拥堵起来,损害了贸易和旅游。而且狼群已来到门口。就在今年,中国拿下加拿大一家大型石油企业和美国一家大型食品加工出口企业,但并没有向这两个国家承诺任何在华收购特权。Serious discussion of a merger should be a top priority for both the U.S. and Canada. The continental neighbors need one another more now than ever before, and the status quo grows less viable by the day.认真讨论合并事宜,应当成为美国和加拿大的优先要务。两个同属一个大洲的邻国现在比以往任何时候都更加需要对方,而现状正一天比一天难以为继。 /201312/269902抚顺望花区医院网上预约顺城区医院男科预约



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