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宜宾加盟美甲用品工具批发电话地址和微信qq

2018年10月24日 07:22:13 | 作者:安心热点 | 来源:新华社
Three doctor are in the duck blind and bird flies overhead.三名医生藏身在观察野鸭的隐蔽处,有一只鸟从头上飞过。The general practitioner looks at it and says,一般家庭医生看着他说:;Looks like a duck,flies like a duck,it#39;s probably a duck,;“看起来像-只鸭子,飞起来像一只鸭子……它可能是一只鸭子”。shoots at it but misses and the bird flies aay.就对着它射击,但是没射中,这只鸟飞走了。The next bird flies overhead,第二只鸟从头上飞过。and the pathologist looks at it,then looks through the pages of a bird manual,and says,病理学家看着它,然后仔细翻翻阅好几页的野鸟手册说;Hmmmm,green wings,yellow bill,quacking sound,might be a duck.;“嗯……绿色的翅膀,黄色的鸟嘴,嘎嘎的叫声……可能是一只鸭子。”He arises his gun to shoot it,but the bird is long gone.他举起他的来射它,但是这兵鸟飞一了好远。A third bird flies over .第三只鸟从头上飞过。The surgeon raises his gun and shoots almost without looking,brings the bird down,and turns to the patholoogist and says,外科医生举起他的松,看都不看就射击,把鸟击落后就转向病理学家说:;Go see if that was a duck.;“你去看看那是不是一只鸭子。” /201503/361477How To Make Friends: This Will Subtly Help People Open Up怎样交朋友:无形之中帮你变外向When people tell each other something intimate, it deepens the relationship.当人们告诉彼此很亲密的一些事情的时候,能够加深相互之间的感情。Laughter encourages people to open up and this is the secret to how to make friends, a new study finds.一项新研究发现,笑声能鼓励人们变得外向起来,这就是交朋友的秘诀。People in the study were more likely to disclose something personal about themselves after laughing together, although they didn#39;t realise it.这项研究中的人更能在一起大笑过后更能说一些私人的话题,尽管他们并没有意识到这一点。;Self-disclosure has long been regarded as critical to relationship development and is typically considered as an exchange, where intimacies are traded as a means of deepening and developing relationships.;自我公开好久以来就被认为是人际关系发展的至关重要的因素,通常会被当做交换,亲密是用来被交换的加深和发展人家关系的手段。;Indeed, people tend to like those to whom they disclose as well as those who disclose to them, and disclosure intimacy typically increases as relationships develop.;确实,人们往往喜欢那些开诚布公的或者对自己讲很多的人,通常将亲密讲出来人际关系会更加牢固。So the study may explain one way that laughter can help people connect.因此,这项研究或许解释笑声帮助人们加强联系的一种方式。How to make friends如何交朋友?For the research, published in the journal Human Nature, 112 people watched one of three s in groups of four (Gray et al., 2015).在《人类自然》杂志中刊登的这项研究,112人分四组观看了三部影像之中的一部(Gray et al., 2015)。The researchers were careful to make sure people in the groups were strangers to each other.研究者确保这些人都是彼此不认识的人。Some groups watched a comedian, another a boring golf and a third a nature documentary.一组观看了一个喜剧演员,另一组看了一部令人厌烦的高尔夫视频,第三组看了一部自然纪录片。The results showed that when the groups laughed together more, they also shared more intimate information with each other.结果显示当人们在一起笑的越多,他们彼此分享的亲密的信息也越多。Alan Gray, who led the study, thinks the effect is about more than just feeling good.领导这项研究的Alan Gray,认为结果再好不过了。Laughter releases the #39;happy hormones#39; endorphins, which are what may encourage people to share intimate details of their lives.大笑能够减轻;开心的荷尔蒙;内啡肽,这或许能鼓励人们分享生活中亲密的细节。The authors write:作者写道:;Given laughter#39;s ability to trigger endorphin activation and the role of endorphins in the formation of social bonds, laughter may increase willingness to disclose intimate information because the opioid effect of endorphins makes individuals more relaxed about what they communicate.;;笑声能够触发内啡肽的活性和内啡肽在社交联系形成汇中的作用。大笑能够增加公开个人亲密信息的意愿,因为医内啡肽的类鸦片作用使得个人对他们交流的内容更加放松。;One of the fascinating findings of the study was that people did not seem aware they had shared more with others.这项研究的一个大有吸引力的发现就是人们似乎没有意识到他们跟别人分享了很多。Although objective observers rated the disclosures of people who#39;d been laughing as more intimate, people themselves did not.尽管客观的观察者责骂人们公开大笑时泄露的秘密,但是当事人自己不这么认为。Mr Gray said:Gray 先生说:;This seems to be in line with the notion that laughter is linked specifically to fostering behaviors that encourage relationship development, since observer ratings of disclosure may be more important for relationship development than how much one feels one is disclosing.;似乎这跟笑声与培养鼓励人际关系发展行为的理念是一致的,因为比起人们觉得他们在泄密,观察者对于泄密的控诉或许对于人际关系发展更重要。;These results suggest that laughter should be a serious topic for those interested in the development of social relationships.;这些结论表明那些对社交关系发展感兴趣的人,对他们而言,笑声应该成为一个严肃的话题。 /201506/382151Eight Dishes for the Eight Immortals鹤庆-八大碗 Eight Dishes for the Eight Immortals, consisting of seven meat dishes and one vegetable dish, are often served at celebrations in Heqing. As the name suggests, the dishes are connected with the Eight Immortals .在我国民间,每逢喜事节日宴宾会客。最是讲究用八仙桌上八大碗,七荤一素。而八仙桌与八大碗的由来,传说与蓬莱八仙有关。Legend has it that when the Eight Immortals went across the East Sea, they accidentally offended the Dragon King , also known as the God of Rain. Being furious, he launched the war which lasted for hours. Since both sides could not win the battle, they, starved plus exhausted, decided to cease fight to search for food. Unfortunately, there seemed no chance finding food around the boundless sea. Disappointed, all of the immortals except Royal Uncle Cao decided to head home.相传八仙过海时无意惹怒龙王,东海龙王便与之交战起来。因两边实力相当而久战难胜,劳累疲惫,退踞海滩稍憩,颇觉腹中空空,饥饿难忍,便分头寻食充饥,哪知一眼望去的海滩薄地,荒无人烟。除曹国舅一人未回,其余个个扫兴而归。It turned out that Royal Uncle Cao traveled a great distance to the inland to search for food. When arriving at Heqing, he was fascinated by the pleasant flavor floating from a local house where mortal people were celebrating the 50th birthday of the host. Disguised as a farmer, he gazed around and found the inviting dishes were served one after another to the table seating eight. “Being the brother-in-law of the emperor, I have tasted all the splendid dishes in the imperial court, but I have never tried farm food. I must have a good taste of it. ” He murmured. But before doing so, it occurred to him that it was unfriendly to enjoy the dishes alone while other immortals were starved. Therefore, he decided to bring seven dishes for them. In addition, he suddenly realized that the only Goddess in the group, Immortal Woman He, was a vegetarian, so he took another dish just for her. Before leaving, he left a message to the locals: Royal Uncle Cao had borrowed eight dishes for the Eight Immortals and promised to pay back in the near future. Since then, in order to have an auspicious year, people in Heqing began to name the table “the table for Eight Immortals”, which could seat eight people with eight dishes served.原来曹国舅一人不辞劳苦,远行至内地,忽闻一股奇香扑鼻,不觉垂涎三尺,立即寻香进入凡间一庄上,乔装农家村夫在庄主宅院窥视,只见四方桌上八人围座、诱人的菜肴一个接一个地上。国舅寻思道:我原乃朝廷国舅,宫廷菜肴我享用得发腻,农家菜肴我未曾见过,何不先让我大饱口福,忽想众仙友腹空我岂可独享,继而采带了七样菜肴,又想起仙姑不食荤,所以又为其独带了—素菜,计八大碗并留言:国舅为众仙借菜八碗,日后定当图报。 /201506/378354Last week, website How Old - which claimed to automatically detect your age from a photo - went viral with millions of intrigued users rushing to test it out.上周,声称从一张照片中自动检测到您的年龄的How Old 网爆红,吸引数以百万计的感兴趣用户尝试。The app, which gathered 35,000 users in a matter of hours, allowed people to upload photos of themselves or their friends, and then analysed their facial structure to determine how old the person might be - with varied results.这个软件几小时内聚集了3.5万用户,允许人们上传自己或朋友的照片,然后分析他们的面部结构来判断这个人的年龄——结果不尽相同。And now, keen to jump on the face recognition technology, a new app claiming to tell a guy how manly he is has launched.现在,借着人脸识别技术的东风,一个宣称能识别男人的男子气概的新软件被推出。How-Dude.me claims to determine #39;how dude#39; a man is. All you have to do is upload a snap of yourself or someone else to the #39;#HowDudeRobot#39; and it tells you what percentage #39;dude#39; you are.How-Dude.me 声称能判断一个男人有多“男人”。您需要做的只是上传一张自己的或其他人的快照到“#HowDudeRobot;,它就会告诉你你的男子气概的百分比。The software also provides you with a one liner describing the picture in question, such as #HandsomeRedefined, #Mysterious and #SelfMadeMan.该软件还为图片提供一个线性描述,例如#帅的新定义,#神秘和#自我塑造之人。We put the website to the test with the help of a few famous faces volunteers - and the results were rather insightful.在几个著名面孔志愿者的帮助下,我们对网站进行了测试,而结果非常有见地。Most of the men scored above 50 per cent - with one man even being rated 99 per cent dude.大多数男人的得分都在50%以上,甚至还有一个男人被评为99%的男子气。FEMAIL put One Direction#39;s heartthrob, Harry Styles, to the test and he received a 66 per cent dude rating and was dubbed #39;Captain Fun#39;. His bandmate Niall Horan, meanwhile, was analysed by the app and told he had #39;hot friends#39;.FEMAIL 把One Direction组合的成员哈利#8226;史戴尔斯的照片拿来测试,他得到了66%的男人评级,被称为“船长的乐趣”。与此同时,他的乐队成员奈儿#8226;霍朗被该软件分析后告知他有“火辣的朋友”。FEMAIL also tested the app on political party leaders David Cameron, who was dubbed #39;adventurous#39;, Nick Clegg, who was credited for his ability to make ladies laugh, and Ed Milliband, who was ranked 94 per cent dude.FEMAIL还用这个软件测试了政党领袖戴维#8226;卡梅伦,他被描述为“爱冒险”;尼克#8226;克莱格,被称“拥有能让女人们笑起来的能力”;爱德华·米利班德,男子气概评级为94%。Although Prince Harry is the one known for being the life and soul of the party, it was his older brother Prince William who was branded #39;Captain Fun#39; by the app, and Harry was credited for his #39;epic smile#39;.哈里王子以“派对的生命和灵魂”著称,但却是他的哥哥威廉王子被该软件评为“船长的乐趣;,哈里则获赞“史诗般的微笑”。Hollywood stalwart George Clooney got a 77 per cent dude rating and the one-liner #39;Boy#39;s Got Game#39;, whilst British actor Eddie Redmayne, well know for his acting talents, apparently has #39;skills#39;.好莱坞大帅哥的乔治#8226;克鲁尼获得一个77%的男子气概评级和简短评语“游戏男孩;。英国演员艾迪#8226;雷徳梅尼以表演天赋著称,因此被评“有技巧”。The software was devised by the team at Lulu - an app that lets men upload their photos and ask girls for feedback and advice.该软件由Lulu的团队设计,Lulu是一款允许男人们上传自己的照片,问女孩的反馈和建议的应用软件。Men and women can also post anonymous questions for users to answer.男人和女人还可以发布匿名问题来让用户回答。Unlike How Old, this app doesn#39;t have scientific theory to back itself up but aims to be more of a fun activity.与How Old不同,这款应用本身并不具有科学的理论持,更像是一个更有趣的活动。 /201505/374396

BERKELEY, Calif. — As a child in Hilo, one of the less touristy parts of Hawaii, Jennifer A. Doudna felt out of place. She had blond hair and blue eyes, and she was taller than the other kids, who were mostly of Polynesian and Asian descent.加利福尼亚州伯克利——在游客稀少的夏威夷城市希洛(Hilo),孩提时的詹妮弗·A·杜德纳(Jennifer A. Doudna)感觉自己和这个地方格格不入。她拥有一头金发,蓝色的眼睛,又比其他孩子高出一截,周围的孩子大部分是波利尼西亚裔或亚裔。“I think to them I looked like a freak,” she recently recalled. “And I felt like a freak.”“我想在他们看来我像是一个怪胎,”不久前杜德纳回忆道,“而且我感觉自己也像是个怪胎。”Her isolation contributed to a kind of bookishness that propelled her toward science. Her upbringing “toughened her up,” said her husband, Jamie Cate. “She can handle a lot of pressure.”与外界的隔阂带给她的是促使她走向科学的一种书卷气。这样的生长环境“让她在磨砺中成长”,她的丈夫杰米·凯特(Jamie Cate)说。“她能够应对巨大的压力。”These days, that talent is being put to the test.近来,这位才女正面临着考验。Three years ago, Dr. Doudna, a biochemist at the University of California, Berkeley, helped make one of the most monumental discoveries in biology: a relatively easy way to alter any organism’s DNA, just as a computer user can edit a word in a document.杜德纳士是加州大学伯克利分校的生物化学家。3年前,她帮助完成了生物学界堪称不朽的一项发现:用一种比较简单的方法来改变任何生物体的DNA,犹如电脑使用者可以在文档中编辑一个单词一样。The discovery has turned Dr. Doudna (the first syllable rhymes with loud) into a celebrity of sorts, the recipient of numerous accolades and prizes. The so-called Crispr-Cas9 genome editing technique is aly widely used in laboratory studies, and scientists hope it may one day help rewrite flawed genes in people, opening tremendous new possibilities for treating, even curing, diseases.这一发现让杜德纳成为名人,她获得了无数的荣誉和奖项。这一被称为Crispr-Cas9的基因组编辑技术已经被广泛应用于实验室研究,科学家们希望,未来它可以帮助重新编写人类有缺陷的基因,为治疗甚至是治愈疾病带来新的、巨大的可能性。But now Dr. Doudna, 51, is battling on two fronts to control what she helped create.不过现在,51岁的杜德纳正奋战在两个战场,来控制她帮助发明的Crispr-Cas9技术。While everyone welcomes Crispr-Cas9 as a strategy to treat disease, many scientists are worried that it could also be used to alter genes in human embryos, sperm or eggs in ways that can be passed from generation to generation. The prospect raises fears of a dystopian future in which scientists create an elite population of designer babies with enhanced intelligence, beauty or other traits.就在每个人都乐见Crispr-Cas9成为治疗疾病的一种策略时,许多科学家担忧,它可能会被用于改变人类胚胎、精子或卵子中的基因,如此一来,这些基因改变可以被遗传给一代又一代人。这样的前景让我们对未来充满恐惧:在这个反乌托邦的未来,科学家制造出一个精英群体,经过设计的婴儿拥有增强的智力、美貌或其他特性。Scientists in China reported last month that they had aly used the technique in an attempt to change genes in human embryos, though on defective embryos and without real success.上个月,中国科学家宣称,他们已经使用这项技术尝试改变人类胚胎的基因,这个实验是在有缺陷的胚胎上进行,并没有成功。Dr. Doudna has been organizing the scientific community to prevent this ethical line from being crossed. “The idea that you would affect evolution is a very profound thing,” she said.杜德纳士一直在组织科学界人士防止伦理底线遭到破坏。“影响进化的想法是一件非常严重的事。”她说。She is also fighting for control of what could be hugely lucrative intellectual property rights to the genome editing technique. To the surprise of many, the first sweeping patents for the technology were granted not to her, but to Feng Zhang, a scientist at the Broad Institute and M.I.T.杜德纳同时也在争取控制这项基因编辑技术的知识产权,它可能会带来巨大的财富。令人惊讶的是,与这项技术相关的第一批专利并没有授予她,而是授予麻省理工学院和布罗德研究所(Broad Institute)的科学家张锋。The University of California is challenging the decision, and the nasty skirmish has cast a bit of a pall over the field.加州大学对这一决议提出了质疑。因为巨大的争议,基因编辑技术笼罩在阴云之中。“I really want to see this technology used to help people,” Dr. Doudna said. “It would be a shame if the I.P. situation would block that.”“我真的希望看到这项技术用于帮助人类。”杜德纳士说,“如果知识产权机构阻止这么做,这将令人遗憾。”The development of the Crispr-Cas9 technique is a story in which obscure basic biological research turned out to have huge practical implications. For Dr. Doudna, though, it is only one accomplishment in a stellar career.Crispr-Cas9技术的发展,可以被认为是一个鲜为人知的基础生物学研究发展为巨大应用价值的故事。不过,对杜德纳士来说,Crispr-Cas9只是她辉煌职业生涯中的一项成就而已。“She’s been a high-impact scientist from the time she was a graduate student,” said Thomas Cech, a Nobel laureate and professor of chemistry and biochemistry at the University of Colorado, for whom Dr. Doudna was a postdoctoral researcher. “New topics, new fields of science, but she just has a knack for discovery.”“从研究生时代开始,她就一直是个具有高度影响力的科学家。”诺贝尔奖得主托马斯·切赫(Thomas Cech)说,他是科罗拉多州大学化学和生物化学教授,杜德纳曾跟随他做士后研究。“新的主题,新的科学领域,但是她就是有发现的技能。”Dr. Doudna was 7 when she moved to Hilo, where her father taught literature at the University of Hawaii campus there, and her mother lectured on history at a community college. Their daughter loved exploring the rain forests and was fascinated by how things worked. She found her calling in high school after hearing a lecture by a scientist about her research into how normal cells became cancerous.杜德纳7岁时,全家搬到希洛。父亲在夏威夷大学教文学,母亲在一个社区大学讲授历史,他们的女儿喜欢探索热带雨林,对事物如何运行很着迷。在高中时期,她听了一个科学家的讲座,这位科学家讲解了自己是怎样研究正常的细胞如何变成癌细胞的。因为这次讲座, 杜德纳找到了自己的使命。“I was just dumbstruck,” Dr. Doudna recalled. “I wanted to be her.”“我当时目瞪口呆。”杜德纳回忆道,“我希望自己成为像她那样的科学家。”After studying biochemistry at Pomona College in California, she went to Harvard for graduate school. There her adviser, the future Nobel laureate Jack Szostak, was doing research on RNA. Some scientists believe that RNA, not DNA, was the basis of early life, since the molecule can both store genetic information and catalyze chemical reactions.在加州的波莫纳学院(Pomona College)学习生物化学后,她去了哈佛的研究生院。她的导师、2009年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖获得者杰克·绍斯塔克(Jack Szostak)当时在做RNA的研究。一些科学家相信,RNA是早期生命的基础,而不是DNA,因为RNA分子可以同时存储遗传信息,又能催化化学反应。Dr. Doudna earned her doctoral degree by engineering a catalytic RNA that could self-replicate, adding evidence to that theory. But her inability to visualize this catalytic RNA hindered her work.杜德纳凭借改造催化性RNA使之具有自我复制能力获得士学位,这也为RNA是早期生命基础的理论增加了据。但是,无法使这种催化性RNA可视化阻碍了她的研究。So as a postdoctoral researcher in Colorado, she decided to try to determine the three-dimensional atomic structure of RNA using X-ray diffraction — and succeeded, though she had had no formal training in the technique. Structural and biochemical studies of RNA in action have been her forte ever since.因此,在科罗拉多州从事士后研究时,她决定尝试使用X射线衍射确定RNA的三维原子结构并且取得了成功,尽管她没有经过正规的技术训练。自那之后,RNA结构和生物化学研究成为她的特长。In 2000, while on the faculty at Yale, she won the Alan T. Waterman Award, given each year by the National Science Foundation to an exceptional young scientist. She moved to Berkeley in 2002.2000年,还是耶鲁教员的杜德纳获得艾伦·沃特曼奖(Alan T. Waterman Award),这一奖项由美国国家科学基金每年授予一位杰出的青年科学家。2002年,她赴伯克利任职。In 2005, Dr. Doudna was approached by Jillian Banfield, an environmental researcher at Berkeley who had been sequencing the DNA of unusual microbes that lived in a highly acidic abandoned mine. In the genomes of many of these microbes were unusual repeating sequences called “clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats,” or Crispr.2005年, 伯克利大学的一位环境科学的研究者吉利安·班菲尔德(Jillian Banfield)找到杜德纳,班菲尔德当时正在对高度酸性的废气矿井中的罕见微生物进行DNA测序。许多这些微生物的基因组存在罕见的重复序列,被称作“规律成簇的间隔短回文重复”,即Crispr。No one was quite sure what they did, though over the next few years scientists elsewhere established that these sequences were part of a bacterial immune system. Between the repeated sequences were stretches of DNA taken from viruses that had previously infected the bacteria — genetic most-wanted posters, so to speak.即便在此后的几年时间里,没有人确定它们的功能,直到其他地方的科学家实,这些序列是细菌免疫系统的一部分。这些重复序列之间的DNA片段源自于曾经侵染细菌的病毒——可以这么说,这是细菌最想得到的遗传标识。If the same virus invaded again, these stretches of DNA would permit the bacteria to recognize it and destroy it by slicing up its genetic material. Dr. Doudna was trying to figure out exactly how this happened.如果相同的病毒再次入侵,这些DNA片段将允许细菌识别这一病毒并通过切割它的遗传物质摧毁它。杜德纳试图弄清楚这到底是如何发生的。“I remember thinking this is probably the most obscure thing I ever worked on,” she said.“我记得,我当时认为这可能是我研究过的最难懂的东西。”她说。It would prove to have wide use. At a conference in early 2011, she met Emmanuelle Charpentier, a French microbiologist at Umea University in Sweden, who had aly made some fundamental discoveries about the relatively simple Crispr system in one bacterial species.日后它将被明有着广泛的用途。在2011年初的一个会议上,她遇到了瑞典于默奥大学(Umea University)的法国微生物学家埃马纽埃尔·卡彭蒂耶(Emmanuelle Charpentier),她已经在一个细菌物种中发现了一个相对简单的Crispr系统。The bacterial expert and the structural biologist decided to work together.细菌专家和结构生物学家决定联手研究。“It was very enjoyable, because we were complementary,” said Dr. Charpentier, who recalled sitting in her office near the North Pole while Dr. Doudna regaled her with stories about Hawaii.“合作很愉快,因为我们刚好互补。”卡彭蒂耶士说。她坐在靠近北极的办公室回忆起,杜德纳讲述的关于夏威夷的故事让她乐不可。Along with postdoctoral researchers Martin Jinek and Krzysztof Chylinski, the two scientists eventually figured out how two pieces of RNA join up with a protein made by the bacteria called Cas9 to cut DNA at a specific spot. The researchers also found that the two RNA pieces could be combined into one and still function.杜德纳的两个士后马丁·伊内克(Martin Jinek)和克日什托夫·黑林斯基(Krzysztof Chylinski),最终找到了两段RNA以及由细菌产生的蛋白质系统,又被称为Cas9蛋白系统,它可以在DNA特定位置进行剪切。研究人员还发现,这两个RNA片段可组合成一个片段,并仍能发挥作用。In a eureka moment, the scientists realized that this cellular defense system might be used to edit genomes, not just kill viruses.在这灵光闪现的时刻,科学家们意识到,这种细菌防御系统不仅可用来杀死病毒,也可用来编辑基因组。A specific sequence of guide RNA could be made to attach to a spot virtually anywhere on the genome, and the Cas9 protein would cleave the DNA at that spot. Then pieces of the DNA could be deleted or added, just as a film editor might cut a film and splice in new frames.Cas9蛋白系统中一个特定的向导RNA 序列可附着在基因组上几乎任何一个位置, Cas9蛋白会切开DNA序列的特定位点,然后在这个位点添加或删除特定的DNA片段,如同电影剪辑那样,删掉或拼接上一个新的电影片段。The researchers demonstrated this using DNA in a test tube. While there were other genome editing techniques, they found that Crispr-Cas9 was much simpler.研究人员在试管中演示了DNA编辑这一操作过程。虽然目前还有其他的基因组编辑技术,但是他们发现Crispr-Cas9技术要简单得多。The paper describing the technique, published by the journal Science in June 2012, set off a race to see if it would work in human, plant and animal cells.对这项技术的最早研究发表在2012年6月的《科学》杂志上,随后引发了一场对该技术是否可应用于人类、植物和动物细胞的争论。Dr. Doudna, whose expertise was in working with molecules, not cells, reported such a demonstration in human cells in January 2013. But her report came four weeks after two papers were published simultaneously, one by George Church at Harvard and the other by the Broad Institute’s Dr. Zhang.杜德纳士的专业知识是在分子生物学领域,而不是细胞生物学领域。2013年1月,她在开放期刊eLife上发表了这项技术在人类细胞中的应用,就在4周之前,哈佛大学的乔治·切奇(George Church)以及布罗德研究所的张锋士分别发表了一篇论文。Now the University of California and the Broad Institute are arguing before the federal patent office over whether Dr. Doudna or Dr. Zhang, who last year received the Waterman Award for young scientists that Dr. Doudna had won years earlier, was the first to invent the genome editing technique. So far, the patents have gone to Dr. Zhang.Crispr-Cas9技术专利之战悄然打响,现在,加州大学和布罗德研究所在美国联邦专利局就Crispr-Cas9技术专利应授予谁而争论不休。张锋士去年也获得了杜德纳多年前获得过的沃特曼奖。不过,到目前为止,张锋士仍是Crispr-Cas9技术专利的拥有者。The Broad Institute claims that the paper by Dr. Doudna and Dr. Charpentier in 2012 did not demonstrate how to alter DNA in cells with nuclei, including human cells, something requiring the inventive steps that Dr. Zhang took. His patent application included pages from a lab notebook he said demonstrated that he was doing Crispr genome editing even before the 2012 paper was published.布罗德研究所称,杜德纳士和卡彭蒂耶士2012年的那篇论文,并没有说明这项技术在包括人类细胞在内的有核细胞中如何改变DNA, 而张锋的工作则阐明了这一点。在Crispr-Cas9技术的专利申请材料中,包含有张锋的实验记录,显示他在2012年杜德纳的研究发表之前, 就在使用 Crispr编辑技术。The University of California says it filed for a patent months before Dr. Zhang did, though the Broad Institute says that initial application lacked necessary details. The university’s request to the patent office says that once the 2012 paper laid out the recipe, it was obvious how to use it in cells. The university also says Dr. Zhang’s notebook does not prove he could edit genomes before the 2012 paper.尽管布罗德研究所认为,最初的申请材料缺乏必要的细节,加州大学表示,他们提出专利申请的时间比张锋早几个月。加州大学还向美国专利局表示,杜德纳士2012年的这篇论文一经发表,在细胞中如何使用它就变得显而易见,还说,张锋的实验记录材料并不能明他在杜德纳发表论文之前就能编辑基因组。Patent disputes are often settled in time. In any event, Dr. Church of Harvard said, before Crispr-Cas9 could be used to treat disease, it would need important refinements from many other researchers.解决专利纠纷通常需要时日。哈佛大学切奇教授称,无论如何,在Crispr-Cas9技术可用来治疗疾病之前,还需要许多研究者对其加以改进。“It’s going to be hard to use Feng’s without Jennifer’s, and it would be hard to use either of them without further improvements,” he said.“如果没有杜德纳的发现,张锋的发明很难得到应用,而(这项技术)如果没有进一步的改进,他们二人的方法都难以应用。” 切奇教授说。The scientists have formed competing companies with rights to their patents and pending patents. Dr. Doudna co-founded Caribou Biosciences to work on research uses of Crispr-Cas9, and more recently, Intellia Therapeutics to work on disease treatments.此后,两位科学家凭借已有的专利以及申请中的专利分别成立了自己的公司。杜德纳士与其他人共同创立Caribou Biosciences公司来继续Crispr-Cas9技术的研究,最近则成立了另一家公司Intellia Therapeutics,专注于疾病治疗。Dr. Church and Dr. Zhang are co-founders of Editas Medicine, which Dr. Doudna also helped start but then withdrew from. Dr. Charpentier, who is now at the Helmholtz Center for Infection Research in Germany, helped start Crispr Therapeutics. She and Dr. Doudna remain friends, but no longer collaborate on research.张锋与切奇教授联合创立了Editas Medicine公司,杜德纳士也参与了公司的创建,但是之后她退出了。在德国亥姆霍兹感染研究中心(Helmholtz Center for Infection Research)工作的卡彭蒂耶士帮助创建了Crispr Therapeutics公司。尽管她和杜德纳仍是朋友,但是她们两人不再合作研究。Even before the dust settles, researchers are moving ahead. While contending with the patents, Dr. Doudna began hearing reports that researchers were trying to use Crispr-Cas9 to make inheritable DNA changes in embryos. Genetically altered monkeys had aly been created in China using the technique.在专利归属尘埃落定之前,研究人员仍在继续探索Crispr-Cas9技术。不过,最近杜德纳士开始注意到,有研究者开始利用这一技术修饰人类胚胎细胞DNA的报告。去年,中国研究者就利用这一技术让基因编辑猴子成为现实。“It’s very far afield from the kind of chemistry I think about and know about,” she said. Still, she felt it would be irresponsible to ignore the rumors.“这和我所理解以及思考的化学领域相距甚远。”杜德纳说。但是她认为如果自己忽视这一传言,将是不负责任的。She organized a meeting of leading biologists in Napa, Calif., in January. In a subsequent commentary published in Science, the group called for a moratorium on attempts to create altered babies, though they said basic research on inheritable changes should still be done.今年1月,杜德纳在加利福尼亚纳帕(Napa)地区组织了一场由顶尖生物学家参加的会议。随后,这一群体有关呼吁暂停尝试创造基因改造的婴儿的发表在《科学》杂志上,尽管他们认为,关于人类遗传物质改变的基础研究仍可以进行 。Dr. Doudna said it was not practical to prohibit basic research. “You can’t really put a lid on it, even if you wanted to,” she said. She and others are trying to organize a bigger international meeting with participants from companies and governments as well as universities, possibly to set new guidelines.杜德纳士称,禁止这一领域的基础研究工作并不现实。“即使你想要禁止,绝对的禁止显然是不可能的。”她说。目前,她正与其他研究者组织一个更大的国际会议,其中包括企业、大学以及政府的代表,将共同制定新的指导方针。She is also trying to cope with her newfound quasi-celebrity status. She has been invited to hobnob with entrepreneurs in Silicon Valley, to speak to science fiction writers, to advise Hollywood on science-themed movies. The garden, her hobby, has had to wait.杜德纳正在努力地适应她的准名人生活。她经常被企业家们邀请去硅谷演讲,参与科幻小说作家的畅谈,以及为好莱坞科学电影提供科学咨询。而她却无瑕顾及自己对花园种植的爱好 。In November, Dr. Doudna and Dr. Charpentier were each awarded million Breakthrough Prizes, endowed by leading Internet entrepreneurs. They accepted their awards at an Oscars-like black-tie affair attended by movie stars like Cameron Diaz and Benedict Cumberbatch. Recently Time magazine listed the two scientists among the 100 most influential people in the world.2014年11月,杜德纳士和卡彭蒂耶士共同获得了生命科学突破奖(Breakthrough Prizes),每人获得300万美元的奖金,该奖项由互联网领域的巨头企业家们创立。生命科学突破奖授奖仪式就如同奥斯卡奖一样隆重,参加者身着盛装,电影明星卡梅隆·迪亚兹(Cameron Diaz)和本尼迪克特·康伯巴奇(Benedict Cumberbatch)也受邀出席。同年,这两位女科学家被美国《时代》杂志评选为世界上100位最有影响力的人物。Dr. Doudna, who has a 12-year-old son, Andrew, also finds herself a role model for women in science. Her secret: “I have a great partner,” with whom she shares the chores.杜德纳有一个12岁的儿子,名叫安德鲁(Andrew)。杜德纳也深知自己成为女性科学家的榜样,而她的秘诀是,“有一个伟大的伴侣”,帮她分担家务活。Her husband, Dr. Cate, is also a professor at Cal-Berkeley. The couple have adjacent offices, with views of the Golden Gate Bridge in the distance. Dr. Cate also studies RNA; there is some overlap, but mostly they do their own research. Andrew walks to their office from his middle school each afternoon and hangs out until his parents are y to go home.她的丈夫凯特士,也是加州大学伯克利分校的一名教授。这对夫妇的办公室相邻,都可以远眺到金门大桥。凯特士也研究RNA,尽管研究上有一些重叠,但是他们主要还是做各自的研究。每个下午,安德鲁从学校步行到他们的办公室,会一直待到这对夫妇准备回家。“I don’t think of myself as a role model, but I can see that I am,” Dr. Doudna said. “I still think of myself as that person back in Hawaii.”“我不把自己看做是别人的榜样,但是我知道我的确如此 。”杜德纳士说,“我认为自己还是夏威夷的那个我。” /201505/375109

PARIS — France, which often seems to have style and elegance written into its genetic code, is again confronting one of the dark sides of fashion: the glamorization of too-thin women.巴黎——时常被认为骨子里透着时尚和优雅的法国,再次要面对时尚领域的一个黑暗面:对过于纤瘦的女性的美化。The French Parliament is debating legislation that would effectively set minimum weights for women and girls to work as models, a step that supporters of the bill say is necessary to combat the persistence of anorexia.法国议会正在对一个提案进行讨论。该提案将对以模特为职业的女性的最低体重进行切实的规定;法案的持者称,要和持续存在的厌食症状况作斗争,这样的举措是有必要的。If it becomes law — it is backed by President Fran#231;ois Hollande’s Socialist government — modeling agencies and fashion houses that employ models whose body mass index measurements do not meet minimum standards would face criminal penalties.倘若它能成为法律——法国总统弗朗索瓦·奥朗德(Francois Hollande)所属的社会党政府对其表示持,模特经纪和时尚公司就不能聘用体重指数不符合最低标准的模特,否则将面临刑事处罚。Israel aly bans the use of underweight and underage models, while other countries, including Italy and Spain, have weighed legislation similar to the one under consideration in France but for now continue to rely on voluntary pacts with the fashion industry.以色列已经禁止使用体重不达标的模特和未成年模特,而包括意大利和西班牙在内的其他国家,虽然拥有与法国正在考虑的法规相似的体重法案,但目前仍然依赖与时尚行业之间的自愿协定。If France approves the legislation, it would almost certainly raise the debate to a new level, especially in Paris, the spiritual capital of the fashion world. An effort to pass similar provisions in 2008 failed after heavy criticism from the fashion industry.如果法国批准该法案,几乎肯定会把讨论提升到一个新层次,尤其是在巴黎——时尚界的精神之都。2008年,由于遭到时尚行业的猛烈抨击,一项相似的提案未能得到通过。“We can’t resolve it with a law but we can begin a public health policy to prevent and protect and limit the number of those suffering from anorexia,” said Olivier Véran, a neurologist and a member of the National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament.神经学家、法国下议院国民议会(National Assembly)议员奥利维耶·韦朗(Olivier Véran)说,“法律解决不了这个问题,但我们可以推出一项公共健康政策来预防厌食症,为这些人提供保护,并限制厌食症患者的人数。”He is the author of the anti-anorexia provision, which is part of a comprehensive health law being debated in the National Assembly. He estimated that 30,000 to 40,000 people in France suffer from anorexia.他是反厌食法规的起草者,这项规定是国民议会正在讨论的全面健康法律的部分内容。据他估计,法国有3至4万人患有厌食症。The proposed legislation would use as its base internationally accepted body mass index standards to determine whether a model was too thin and would set criminal penalties for hiring models who fell below the standards determined by the law. The index suggests that a woman who is 5 feet 7 inches tall should weigh at least 120 pounds. But the final legal standards would be determined by the French health authorities, who could adjust them for factors such as bone size.这项提案将以国际公认的体重指数标准来确定模特是否过于单薄,如果雇佣体重不符合法律标准的模特,还将接受一定的刑事处罚。根据这个指数,身高5英尺7英寸(约合170厘米)的女性的体重至少应该为120磅(约合54.5公斤)。但最后的法律标准还将由法国卫生部门决定,该部门可以根据骨骼大小等因素对标准进行调整。Violators would have to pay a fine of about ,000 and serve as many as six months in prison.违规者要付大约8.3万美元的罚款,最高可判6个月徒刑。The struggle over the appearance and health of fashion models is hardly a new one. It became more public in 2006 after the deaths of two models, a Brazilian and a Uruguayan, which set off a spate of voluntary standards in the industry and the effort in some places, including New York, to use healthier looking models.有关时装模特外形与健康的争论已经不算新鲜事。2006年一名巴西模特和一名乌拉圭模特死亡后,这一问题变得更加公开。该事件促使业界采用一系列自愿性标准,促使纽约等地开始雇佣看起来比较健康的模特。The death in 2010 of a French model and actress, Isabelle Caro, who at one point weighed just 55 pounds, fueled further calls for steps to address anorexia.2010年,法国模特兼演员伊莎贝尔·卡罗(Isabelle Caro)的去世进一步推动人们要求采取举措,解决厌食症问题。卡罗一度只有55磅重。So far the fashion industry has opposed legislation to address the issue, although a number of designers have spoken out in favor of using “healthy models” and promoting healthful lifestyles.到目前为止,时尚界仍然反对通过立法解决该问题,尽管很多设计师明确表示持雇佣“健康模特”,推广健康的生活方式。There is no official database of models’ heights and weights, and with regulations against using underweight models on the rise, most models and agencies are close-mouthed about the subject. Many in the industry say, however, that a number of the top models would likely weigh less than the healthy threshold set by the body mass index of about 18 or 18.5.目前还不存在有关模特身高及体重的官方数据库,随着禁止雇佣体重不足的模特的规定越来越多,大多数模特和经纪公司对该话题保持沉默。然而,很多业界人士表示,一些顶级模特可能没有达到体质指数18或18.5的健康临界值。Widely publicized figures for weights of models like Kate Moss at the height of her fashion career indicate she would have had a body mass index of 15 to 16, which was similar to that of Twiggy, a 1960s supermodel. More recent models, such as Naomi Campbell and Gisele Bündchen, are reported to have body mass indexes between 16 and 17. A body mass index of less than 18 does not necessarily mean that someone has an eating disorder.有一些模特的体重数据被广泛宣传,比如数据显示,凯特·丝(Kate Moss)在事业高峰期的体质指数为15到16,水平与20世纪60年代的超模崔姬(Twiggy)差不多。在她之后的纳奥米·坎贝尔(Naomi Campbell)、吉赛尔·邦臣(Gisele Bündchen)等模特的体质指数在16到17之间。体质指数低于18并不一定意味着存在饮食紊乱问题。The National Union of Modeling Agencies in France issued a statement saying it was complying with a voluntary charter that discourages the use of anorexic models and that was approved by the government in 2008. The statement also said that an appropriate minimum weight for models had yet to be determined.法国全国模特经纪公司联盟(The National Union of Modeling Agencies)发表声明称,该联盟遵照一项自愿性规定,不会雇佣存在厌食症问题的模特,该规定于2008年获得政府批准。该声明还表示,模特的最低体重标准尚未确定。“Anorexia is a mental illness that cannot be fought by a ‘arithmomania,’#8201;” the union’s statement said. It called on the fashion world to take a uniform approach internationally and deplored the use of “selectively repressive” measures, referring to those now under consideration.该联盟发表声明称,“厌食症是一种精神疾病,靠‘死抠数据’是无法与之对抗的。”该联盟号召时尚界在国际上采取统一方法,对使用“选择性压制”举措表示谴责,这里指的就是目前正在考虑之中的提案。Calls to 10 modeling agencies with offices in Paris found none willing to respond to questions on the issue.记者给10家模特经纪公司的巴黎办公室打电话,没人愿意就该问题作出回应。 /201503/365937

Early Career Success Guide: What If You Don#39;t Know What to Do With Your Life?早期职业生涯成功指导:如果对生活感到迷茫应该怎么做?Only 53 percent of college graduates get a first job related to their major. Obviously, this is even less likely to be the case, if you studied for love and not for money or a clear career path. But does that mean that you#39;re doomed to wander the job market, searching fruitlessly for a good-paying job that you#39;ll actually enjoy? The simple answer is: of course not. 仅有53%的大学毕业生第一份工作与专业相关。显而易见,如果人们只是因为喜欢,而非挣钱或者明确的职业方向来选择大学专业,真实结果也许还会小于这个比率。If you don#39;t feel driven to dedicate the rest of your life to your exact college major or don#39;t know how it#39;s even possible to do that, evaluate your reasons for choosing your major and whether you feel a real affection for it.如果你并不打算余生都奉献给自己的大学专业,或者有兴趣却不知道如何去做,认真想想为什么要去选择这个专业以及自己是否真正心存热爱。There are a few things you can do to start heading in the right direction:下面有几条比较有帮助的建议:1. Think about what you liked about both your major and your college experience.1.想下在专业学习和大学生活中你喜欢的东西Even if you couldn#39;t wait to graduate and never want to think about your classes again, there#39;s likely something you enjoyed about your college experience. Don#39;t dismiss what comes to mind, even if it was the parties, or your involvement in your favorite sports team, or even living in a community of people doing the same thing.即便你着急毕业,再也不想见到大学同学,大学生活中仍然会有值得你留恋的事物。抓住大脑里闪过的一切,即使是聚会或者参加最爱的体育队,甚至与喜欢同一样事物的家伙们共度的时光。2. Don#39;t forget about the stuff you hated, too.2.也不要忘记自己讨厌的东西Make a list of all the aspects of your experience that didn#39;t work for you, whether it was making your own study schedule or doing group projects or even some core aspect of your major. Again, be honest. 给大学中自己讨厌的事物列个清单,不论是学习计划、做团队项目,还是你专业的某些核心方面。同样,要诚实。3. Talk to people who know you.3.与了解你的朋友聊聊Do you have a favorite professor, or a bunch of friends from your major who really get you? Now#39;s the time to look them up. Sometimes, an outside perspective can show us sides of ourselves we never contemplated. Maybe one of these people has a line on a job that could put your skills to use. Even if the job doesn#39;t turn out to be your dream gig, you#39;ll learn something. 你们专业是否有比较了解你,你又喜欢的教授或者朋友?现在就是需要他们的时候了。有时,旁观者清。也许这群人中的某个会指导你找到能发挥专业所长的工作。即使这份工作并不是你最理想的,你也会有所收获。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201507/380329

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