广汉日式法式美甲美睫培训学校哪个好些导医问答

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年10月22日 05:55:10
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Women’s shoes are often regarded as small torture chambers for our feet, designed to give us an instant leg-up in the glamor charts while reducing us to an eye-watering hobble come the end of the day。女士高跟鞋通常被看作是脚的刑室,高跟鞋能够立即提升魅力指数,但一天结束时,你会累到泪流满面、蹒跚而行。But there is so much more to the female footwear story than this one cliché。但是有关女性高跟鞋,除了这种说法之外,还有很多说法。Manolo Blahnik莫罗·伯拉尼克On improving upon nature: The feet have always been the inspiration. If you have horrible feet, I always see the challenge to make it better. . Even the ugliest foot is going to be okay with a shoe that I do. This is the redeeming quality of a shoe well-made。改进天性:脚一直都是灵感所在。如果脚部不舒,我通常会看到需要改进改进的挑战。最丑陋的脚穿上我设计的鞋子也能差强人意。这也是好鞋子的补偿特质。On the wealth of history: I’ve always love extremities in statues, Greek and Roman, in museums all around the world. Some of the shoes [I design] go back to the Hellenistic period, and things like that, but they’re completely different. Nothing like that was in Hellenistic times. My mind works that way: I just put details that remind of me of that kind of period。历史财富:我一直非常喜欢世界各地物馆中希腊和罗马雕塑的肢体部分。我设计的一些鞋子可以追溯至希腊时期,但又完全不同。希腊化时期根本没有这样的鞋子。只是我的思维是那样的,在设计中融入一些可以让我想起那段时间的元素。On perfection: I like to do with absolute perfection the best I can. This is really my challenge nowadays. As you get to a certain age, you’ve got to do the best you can because it’s the only way you can really get satisfaction。完美:我喜欢尽善尽美,这正是我今天面临的挑战。到了一定年龄,你一定要做到最好,因为这是获得满足感的唯一方式。Charlotte Dellal夏洛特·德拉尔On the high heel as object of art: I love collecting beautiful things. I love objects and, to me, the shoe looks good on the foot, off the foot, or on your mantelpiece。将高跟鞋看做艺术品:我喜欢收集漂亮的东西,我喜欢物品,对我来说鞋子穿或不穿,或者放在壁炉边上时,都是漂亮的艺术品。Just from a design aesthetic, they have a wonderful shape. With the high heel, there’s the negative space between the heel and the ball of the foot, as well as the shoe itself. It becomes sculptural。从设计美学角度,高跟鞋拥有完美的外形。因鞋子有跟,高跟与前脚掌和鞋子之间是负空间设计。这样高跟鞋与雕塑就有很多相同之处。On the transformative power of accessories: It’s a cliché in saying, but I do think accessories -- shoes particularly -- change an outfit. You can literally dress up when you put on a pair of high heel shoes. It changes the whole thing: the posture, the attitude, the feeling. Everything. It elevates you in every sense of the word; it makes you feel somewhat special。配饰的转换性力量:这么说很老套,但是我确实认为配饰,尤其是鞋子,能够改变装效果。如果穿了高跟鞋,你自可以尽情着上盛装。高跟鞋能带来很大的改变:姿势,态度,感觉。它能改变一切。它在方方面面都将你提高至新的水平,赋予你与众不同的感觉。Pierre Hardy皮埃尔·哈迪On the future present: Fashion is short-view sci-fi. It’s sci-fi for tomorrow, not into a century or two centuries。时尚是短期的“科幻小说”,只是明天的“科幻小说”,而非一两百年之后的“科幻小说”。There is something about the projection that you have to reach to create new shapes and to invent a new type of object, but at the same time fashion talks about femininity and about elegance and about chic. All these notions are from the past and make reference to ideal shapes that we aly know。当然,设计时需要创造新的形状或者设计新型物品,但与此同时,时尚反应的还有女性气质、高雅与时髦。所有意向都源于过去,并参考我们一直的理想形状。That’s something I love about fashion: to combine the desire for the future with with the knowledge of what was before; to try to combine those two opposite elements。这也是时尚吸引我的地方:将我们对未来的期待和之前的知识融为一体,试着融合两种对立的元素。There was a period when people were much more prospective, and believed much more in the future and in progress -- for example, in the 50’s and the 60’s, and even the 70’s sometimes. But nowadays we embrace a lot of different periods, a lot of different styles altogether. I think regarding artists and the history of art, our period is very baroque moment, a much combined moment。有段时间,人们更具前瞻性,更加相信未来和进步。比如,在五六十年代甚至在七十年代的一些时候。但现在,我们接纳不同阶段,不同风格。我认为对于艺术家以及艺术史来说,我们这个时代是巴洛克形式的,是个大融合的时代。In our society, you know, civilization, walking barefoot is forbidden. Totally. Even if you aren’t aware of it, this taboo is included in your mind. It’s an obligation, a constraint. I think shoes and this love of shoes is a way to twist this constraint into a pleasure. It’s the definition of feminism or desire. Because you don’t have this reason to go barefoot, let’s make the shoe as glorious as possible。在当今社会文化下,不允许赤脚步行。即使你对此并不了解,这种禁忌也是隐藏在你的意识之中的。这是一种义务一种约束。我认为鞋子以及都鞋子的热爱是将这种约束转化成乐趣的一种方式。它是对女性主义或欲望的诠释。鉴于你不能赤脚行走,那么我们尽可能设计好的鞋子吧。 /201507/385621

These spiders can purr这种蜘蛛能发出低沉的声音Wolves howl to let others know that they#39;re around - and maybe even that they are looking for a mate. But not the wolf spider known as Gladicosa gulosa. It makes a kind of a purr. It#39;s quite a trick for guys of this species. And that#39;s because it#39;s not clear that the target of their attentions can actually hear a purr. A female may just feel the effects of that sound as vibrations in her feet. But even that may not happen unless both he and she are standing on the right surface.狼通过嚎叫的方式告知周围它们的存在,甚至还会用这种方式求偶。但一种被称为Gladicosa gulosa的狼蛛则不然,它们会发出一种低沉的咕噜声,对于这种生物来说这样做也的确算得上是一项独门秘技。因为他们所关注的目标实际上能否听见其低鸣尚不清楚,或许雌蜘蛛只能感觉到雄蜘蛛发出声音时在它们脚底下产生的振动,可是当他们没有站在合适的平面上时雌蛛可能连振动都感觉不到。How the spider purrs蜘蛛如何发出低鸣声?At mating time, male wolf spiders try to catch a female#39;s attention by creating ;persuasive; vibrations, Sweger says. They strum one structure on their body against another - somewhat as a cricket does - to impress the gals. Getting the message right can be a matter of life and death to the guy who#39;s doing the wooing. If the female isn#39;t totally convinced that he#39;s the ;one,; it could be worse than just being rejected, Sweger explains. ;She could eat him.; About one out of every five male wolf spiders will be eaten by the female he had been wooing. But the guys who prove suitably persuasive will get to mate - and live to tell the tale.求偶时雄性狼蛛会使出浑身解数用;劝诱;的振动方式吸引雌性狼蛛的注意,他们用身体的一部分拍打另一部分发出震动声(就像蟋蟀一样),而后给雌蜘蛛留下印象。Sweger表示能否正确收到求爱信息关系着求爱者的性命,如果雌蜘蛛没能被完全说他就其 ;真命天子;,那么雄蜘蛛的情况有可能比被拒绝还要糟糕,他可能会被她吃掉。这并不稀奇,因为每五个雌性狼蛛中就有一个被他们的所追求的另一半吃掉。但如果事实明雄蜘蛛的确有劝诱能力,那么他们最终将会得到交配的机会,并向配偶讲述他们悲惨的;浪漫际遇;。Purring spiders ;are using the same vibratory tactics as every other wolf spider in North America. More or less,; Sweger says. ;They#39;re using the same structures. And they#39;re making vibrations.;But the scientists showed that compared to the wooing vibrations made by other wolf spiders, those by Gladicosa gulosa are far stronger.Swege称在北美这种能发出低吟声的蜘蛛或多或少使用的都是和所有其他狼蛛一样的振动技巧。它们使用的是同样的身体结构来产生振动。但科学家表示,与其他发出求爱振动信号的狼蛛相比,这种名为Gladicosa gulosa的狼蛛的振动更加强烈。Sweger discovered something else as well. When a purring spider was on a surface that is good at conducting vibrations, such as leaves, an audible sound was produced.Sweger还发现了其他一些东西。当一只低吟的狼蛛处在更有利于传导振动的位置,比如说树叶上时它们会发声音。If a person is within a meter of the courting spiders, they can actually hear the sound. ;It#39;s very soft, but when we#39;re out in the field, you can hear them,; Sweger says. The sound, he explains, is a bit like a ;little strumming chirp; or a ;soft rattle or purr.; (You can judge for yourself.)Sweger表示当一个人距离一只正求偶的狼蛛仅一米时,他会听到这种声音,和柔和。但当我们在野外时,你也会听到它的声音. 这种声音类似于有节奏的唧唧声,或者是那种柔和的咯咯声、咕噜咕噜的声音等等(这就得靠你自己判断了)。译文属 /201506/382573

The world has passed a tipping point in the fight against Aids, according to data showing that more people gained access to HIV drugs last year than became infected with the virus.国际社会抗击艾滋病(Aids)的斗争走过了一个转折点。数据显示,去年,接受抗艾滋病病毒(HIV)药物治疗的人数超过了感染这种病毒的人数。This marks the first time since anti#173;retroviral medicines were introduced 27 years ago that treatment of HIV has expanded at a higher rate than the incidence of the virus itself.这是自27年前抗逆转录病毒药物问世以来,接受抗艾滋病病毒治疗的人数首次超过艾滋病病毒感染的人数。“We’re not saying the end of Aids is near but we have reached an important milestone where, for the first time, we are getting ahead of the disease,” said Erin Hohlfelder, health policy director for One, an anti-poverty group that highlights the watershed in a report to mark today’s World Aids Day.扶贫组织One的卫生政策主任埃琳#8226;霍尔菲尔德(Erin Hohlfelder)表示:“我们并不是说艾滋病即将被消灭,但我们已经达到了一个重要的里程碑,我们第一次跑在了艾滋病前面。”今日是世界艾滋病日(World Aids Day),在一份纪念这个日子的报告中,该组织强调了这个转折点。In 2013 – the most recent year for which data are available – 2.3m people were added to treatment programmes compared with 2.1m new infections.2013年,有230万人开始接受抗艾滋病病毒治疗,而新增艾滋病病毒感染者为210万人。目前还拿不到2014年的数据。This marked an improvement from the year before when 1.6m people gained access to medicines for the first time while 2.2m were newly infected.上述数据标志着,去年的情况较前年有所改善。前年,有160万人首次接受药物治疗,而新增感染者为220万人。Antiretroviral drugs now reach 13.6m people around the world, but this still represents less than half the estimated 35m people living with HIV.目前,全球累计有1360万人得到抗逆转录病毒药物治疗,但这个数字仍不到艾滋病病毒携带者人数的一半,后者估计有3500万人。Ms Hohlfelder warned there was a long way to go before victory could be declared. “We’ve passed the tipping point globally but not all countries are there yet, and the gains made can easily stall or unravel,” she said.霍尔菲尔德警告称,现在还远不到宣布胜利的时候。她说:“就全球而言,我们确实走过了这个转折点,但并非对所有国家都是如此。而且,我们取得的进展很容易陷入停滞或付诸东流。”Global funding for anti-HIV programmes reached .1bn last year but this is still below the annual bn-bn the UN says is needed.去年,全球用于抗艾滋病病毒的资金达到191亿美元,但仍低于联合国(UN)认为需要达到的水平,即每年220亿至240亿美元。Ms Hohlfelder said middle-income countries were beginning to contribute more but the three leading donors – the US, France and the UK – were carrying an “unsustainable” share of the #173;burden.霍尔菲尔德表示,中等收入国家开始捐出更多资金,但三个主要捐助国(美国、法国和英国)目前的负担比例是“不可持续”的。“Many donor countries – such as Australia, Japan and some in the Middle East – really haven’t stepped up as much as we’d have liked.”“很多捐助国——例如澳大利亚、日本及中东一些国家——的前进速度的确还赶不上我们的期望。”Activists and health officials warn against the risk of complacency when HIV is becoming seen in the developed world as a manageable chronic disease because of the potential for people to live an almost normal lifespan on the latest antiretroviral drugs.由于最新的抗逆转录病毒药物使得艾滋病病毒感染者的预期寿命有可能逼近正常人的水平,艾滋病在发达国家正慢慢地被视为一种可控的慢性病,但活动人士和卫生官员警告称,要提防可能出现的自满情绪。They say HIV remains one of the #173;gravest health threats across much of the developing world, especially Africa, which has almost 70 per cent of cases.他们说,在许多发展中国家,艾滋病病毒依然是对人类健康的最严重威胁之一,特别是在非洲,那里的感染者占全球的近70%。More rapid gains may be hard to achieve as the virus becomes concentrated among hard-to-reach groups, such as sex workers and drug users, as well as gay people and youths who may shun testing and treatment.随着某些难以触及的群体成为这种病毒的主要感染者,比如性工作者和吸毒者、以及可能躲避检测和治疗的同性恋人群和青年,可能很难取得更多的快速进展。Michel Sidibé, executive director of UNAids, which leads the global response to HIV, says a push is needed to meet a target to end the epidemic by 2030. “We have bent the trajectory of the epidemic. Now we have five years to break it for good or risk the epidemic rebounding out of control.”领导全球抗击艾滋病的联合国艾滋病规划署(UNAids)的执行主任米歇尔#8226;西迪贝(Michel Sidibé)说,要实现到2030年时结束艾滋病疫情的目标,需要发动一场大规模攻势。“我们已经改变了这一疫情的发展轨迹。现在,我们有五年的时间来永久性地挫败它,否则疫情可能会反弹至失控的程度。”Pharmaceutical companies, once #173;pilloried for keeping HIV drugs out of reach of the poor, have lent support to the effort by licensing their medicines for generic manufacturers to make at a low cost in the developing world.某些制药公司曾因把穷人挡在抗艾滋病病毒药物治疗的大门之外而受到公众的嘲笑。现在,它们已通过授权发展中国家的仿制药厂商以较低成本生产它们的药物,来持抗击艾滋病的努力。AbbVie today became the fifth big company to grant a licence for generic production to the UN-backed Medicines Patent Pool, following Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead Sciences, Roche and ViiV Healthcare, a joint venture between GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer.今日,艾伯维(AbbVie)成为第五家授予联合国资助的药品专利池组织(MPP)仿制药生产许可的大公司。此前已签署许可协议的企业包括百时美施贵宝(Bristol-Myers Squibb)、吉利德科学公司(Gilead Sciences)、罗氏(Roche),以及葛兰素史克(GSK)和辉瑞(Pfizer)的合资公司ViiV Healthcare。The agreement with AbbVie involves two antiretrovirals formulated for paediatric use and helps address a shortage of treatments suitable for the 3.2m children with HIV in the world.艾伯维与药品专利池组织签署的协议包括两种为儿科使用配制的抗逆转录病毒药物,可帮助缓解儿童适用药物短缺的问题。全球有320万儿童感染了艾滋病病毒。AbbVie’s lopinavir and ritonavir drugs will be available to generic producers in the 102 countries where almost all children with HIV live.102个国家的仿制药厂商将可生产艾伯维的洛匹那韦(lopinavir)和利托那韦(ritonavir)药物。几乎所有感染了艾滋病病毒的儿童都生活在这102个国家。“This is a crucial licence for paediatric programmes in resource-limited countries,” said Greg Perry, executive director of the Medicines Patent Pool.药品专利池组织执行主任格雷格#8226;佩里(Greg Perry)说:“这对资源有限国家的儿科治疗计划而言是一项关键的授权。” /201412/346217

  Two years ago, Elizabeth Millard discovered a way to put fresh produce into car food. No, she’s not the one who smuggled shredded lettuce into the Doritos Cheesy Gordita Crunch-Fiery, a 490-calorie, zero-noun snack from Taco Bell. Rather, Ms. Millard, a sustainable farmer outside the Twin Cities, did something even more unlikely: she grew a crop of microgreens on the passenger-side floor mat of her 2005 VW Beetle convertible.两年前,伊丽莎白·米勒德(Elizabeth Millard)发现了一个方法,可以让新鲜的农产品成为车载食品。别多想,她可不是在Taco Bell快餐店出售的那种490卡路里、0营养的小食“多力多滋奶酪玉米片”(Doritos Cheesy Gordita Crunch-Fiery)里,偷偷放进碎生菜的人。不过,这位在双城市(Twin Cities)的市郊从事可持续农业生产的农夫,所做的事要离谱得多:在自己那辆2005年大众甲壳虫敞篷车的副驾座位地垫上,种出了一小块微型菜园(microgreen)。“We were shuttling our box of seeds back and forth from our rented greenhouse space to our house,” she said the other day. “And I tripped and they fell all over the place.” Cress, mustards, a little purple mizuna.“当时,我们正从租用的温室里来来回回往家搬运一箱箱的种子,”她那天说了起来,“然后我绊了一跤,把那些种子撒得满地都是。”其中有水芹、芥菜,和一点紫色日本色拉菜。Ms. Millard added: “Being frustrated and lazy, I decided I would clean them up some time in my lifetime. Which means never.”米勒德继续道:“我心烦意乱,也懒得收拾,就决定另外再找个时间把它们清理干净。其实就是再也不管了。”It rained the next day. Ms. Millard, now 46, and Karla Pankow, her partner in life and in their C.S.A. business, called Bossy Acres, tracked mud into the car. After that, the June sun busted loose and they threw down the top. I think you can see where this is going.第二天下起了雨。今年46岁的米勒德和她的人生伴侣兼C.S.A.生意伙伴、Bossy Acres公司的合伙人卡拉·潘科(Karla Pankow),把满脚的泥带进了车里。再然后,六月里的炎炎烈日让他们放下了车顶棚。我想你能猜到后来发生了什么吧。“About five days after the incident, I came out to my car in the morning and there was a beautiful flush carpet of microgreens on the passenger side,” Ms. Millard said. “It looked like a Chia Pet.”“那次意外之后大约过了五天,我早上去开车门,发现副驾座位下面,有块整齐漂亮的微型蔬菜地毯,”米勒德说,“看起来就像芡欧鼠尾草娃娃(Chia Pet)。”The accident fed the philosophy behind her new book “Indoor Kitchen Gardening: Turn Your Home Into a Year-Round Vegetable Garden” (Cool Springs Press). This is a how-to guide that describes Ms. Millard’s experiments raising crops — sun-loving outdoor plants like herbs, carrots, radishes, potatoes and tomatoes — in her Minneapolis bungalow.这次意外事件充实了她的种植理念,成就了她的新书《室内厨房园艺:把你的家变成四季菜园》(Indoor Kitchen Gardening: Turn Your Home Into a Year-Round Vegetable Garden,由Cool Springs出版)。这是一本操作指南,描述了米勒德在自己那栋位于明尼阿波里斯市(Minneapolis)的平房里,是如何尝试在室内种植一些喜欢阳光的户外作物的,例如各种香草、胡萝卜、水萝卜、土豆和番茄。I, for one, have daydreamed about owning a conservatory: a bright, climate-controlled growing space with windows, supplemental lights and a handy watering source. And here was Ms. Millard to tell me that I aly possessed such a space, and it was called my condo.其实我本人就幻想过拥有一间温室:一个明亮的、可控制气候影响的生长空间,有几扇窗户、有补充光源、还有方便取用的水源。但米勒德郑重其事地告诉我,我已经拥有一个这样的地方了,那就是我的共管公寓。You don’t have to be a plant whisperer to enjoy success in this endeavor. Although, occasionally, you do have to be the bee. In a quest for bug-less indoor pollination, Ms. Millard stimulated the tomato’s reproductive parts with her electric toothbrush. (Talk about forbidden fruit.) But what she discovered, and what the book illustrates, is that it’s possible and even easy to cultivate shoots, greens and the odd root crop with almost no special equipment.你不必成为一名花语者(plant whisperer),也能在这一领域有所作为。不过有时候,你的确得充当一只蜜蜂。为了探索室内无虫授粉的问题,米勒德用她的电动牙刷来刺激番茄的生殖器(还谈起了禁果什么的)。但她在实践中发现——也在这本书中谈到,栽培芽类植物、绿叶植物和那些奇怪的块茎类作物,不但有可能、而且是很容易做到的,几乎无需特别的设备。The VW microgreens did not become the stuff of a piquant salad. “I can’t imagine the carpet of your car is a food-safe environment,” Ms. Millard said. (What vinaigrette goes with road salt?) Instead, it became a proof of concept. “The lesson is: Don’t worry about it so much,” Ms. Millard said of her indoor garden. “If the conditions are right, it will happen.”不过,她在甲壳虫车上栽培的那些微型植物,并没有成为一份鲜美色拉的配料。“我没法想象车上的地垫是食品安全级的环境,”米勒德说(谁能想象把香醋色拉汁和道路化冰盐搭配起来,会是什么味道呢?)。不过,这是一次理念的验。“经验是:别想太多,”米勒德谈起她的室内种植工作,“只要条件合适,该发生的自然会发生。”In many ways, the gardening conditions in the northland are best suited to ornamental berries, red-barked shrubs and alcoholism. The professional eschatologists (known elsewhere as meteorologists) were predicting scattered frosts for the night after Ms. Millard paid me a house call. It was early September.从许多方面来看,北部地区的种植条件最适宜具有装饰性的浆果类植物、红皮灌木丛,以及酗酒。这天晚上,米勒德到我家上门务后,那些专业的末世论者(在其它地方又称气象学家) 开始预测哪儿会有霜降了。这才刚刚九月初呢。The parsley and sage in my backyard could hang on until Thanksgiving. But if I didn’t bring the basil inside now, I wouldn’t see it again until May or June.我后院里种的欧芹与鼠尾草还可以坚持到感恩节;但我现在如果不把罗勒移到屋里来的话,到明年五、六月之前,我可就别想再看见它了。While I was outside, I noticed a volunteer tomato seedling and a stray mint. What would be the harm in digging them up and converting them into house pets? (Ms. Millard recommends converting the garage or a three-season porch into a kind of halfway house where the plants can get acclimated.)我在外面忙活的时候,注意到了一株跃跃欲试的番茄幼苗和一株流浪的薄荷。如果把它们都挖出来变成室内宠物,会有什么坏处吗?(米勒德建议我把车库或三季门廊[three-season porch,类似于玻璃阳光房的门廊——译注]改成临时的种植园,让这些植物有个适应过程。)I asked Ms. Millard about what may still be growing at her house across town. But she had moved out soon after finishing a draft of the book. While she and Ms. Pankow shopped for farmland of their own, they were dwelling in a downscale version of that VW Microgreen: a 25-year-old Coachman fifth-wheel camper they bought from friends for ,000. The quarters were homey; a previous owner had gone through the effort of painting the wallpaper.我问米勒德,还有些什么植物仍然生长在她那位于小镇另一边的屋子里。但她把这本书的初稿写完不久,就搬了出来。她与潘科在购买她们自己的农场期间,就住在那辆甲壳虫微型植物基地的简约版里:一辆车龄25年的马车夫(Coachman)五轮野营车,是他们花2000美元(约合人民币12259元)从朋友手里买来的。车里舒得像在家一样;一位前车主还劳心劳力地绘制了壁纸。“It’s surprisingly spacious,” she said. “It’s like a New York apartment.”“那辆车宽敞得惊人,”她说,“就像一套纽约公寓。”Except, presumably, in New York it would have cost .65 million in an all-cash transaction and another million for a parking spot.只不过,在纽约购买这样一套公寓,大概得花265万美元(约合人民币1624万元),不仅是现金全款交易,还得再花100万美元(约合人民币613万元)去买个停车位。Ms. Millard has good news for the yardless metropolitan. Much of the equipment you need for indoor kitchen gardening is aly in the kitchen. Sprouts should grow in a Mason jar with a screen lid for air and drainage. Soak the seeds (Ms. Millard likes the flavor of broccoli). Then, after a day or two, turn the jar upside down and wait.米勒德给那些没有院子的都市人带来了喜讯。这项室内厨房园艺所需的设备,多数都已经在厨房里了。幼苗应该生长在一只梅森罐(Mason jar——一种玻璃食品罐)里,罐子要有网盖,可以透气和排水。把选好的种子(米勒德喜欢西兰花的味道)浸湿,然后等上一、两天,把这只罐子倒转过来,再继续等待。Are the white filaments edible food or some type of brassica thrush? Ms. Millard was noncommittal. “I will sprout things if people ask me to,” she said. “But I have not been a huge fan.”这些白色的纤维到底是可以吃的食物,还是某种芸苔属的病态植物呢?米勒德含糊其辞地说,“反正我会让东西长出芽来,只要有人要我这样做,”她说,“但我也不会特别沉迷于这些事。”Farther down in the cupboards, pie plates or baking sheets make satisfactory planters to grow microgreens or shoots. At the start, plastic wrap can keep the seeds humid. You may even have the shoot seeds in the bulk bin: say, dried peas, raw sunflower seeds or untreated popcorn.橱柜的很下方有几只馅饼盘或烤盘,可供那些能干的种植者们种植一些嫩茎类或芽类的蔬菜。刚开始的时候,用塑料袋包裹,可以让这些种子保持湿润。你甚至可以用散粒储存箱来装这些嫩芽植物的种子:比如干豌豆、生的向日葵籽,或是没经处理的玉米粒。Germination isn’t a sign of spoilage; it’s the goal here. Ms. Millard recommends soaking the seeds for a day or two beforehand, changing the water now and again. “If you leave them longer than that, they’ll give off a really vile smell,” she said, “like burning moldy feet.” At this point, you’re not raising food but developing a biological weapons program.发芽并不是变质的标志,而恰是我们此时此刻的目标。米勒德建议大家把种子提前浸泡一、两天,不时换换水。“如果你浸泡的时间再长一点,它们就会发出相当难闻的气味,”她说,“就像在燃烧发霉的脚一样。”这样的话,你就不是在种植可食用的东西、而是在研发一种生化武器了。The easiest indoor gardening projects look a lot like seed-starting. You don’t need much dirt: an inch and a half for sprouts, and maybe half an inch for microgreens (a regular lettuce mix, harvested early). “You can do that on a paper towel,” she said. “They’re not going to grow into their fullest expression of what they could be.” But then, who among us hasn’t thought about their own dirt nap and harbored the same self-doubt?在室内栽培项目中,最简单的似乎就是让种子发芽了。你不需要太多土壤:铺上1.5英寸(约合38毫米)厚的土用来发芽,再铺半英寸(约合13毫米)用于那些嫩茎菜的生长(这是一种常见的混合生菜食材,很早就被采摘下来)。“这些活儿,你在一张纸巾上照样能做,”她说,“它们不会长成其成熟植株本来会是的样子。”但是仔细想想,我们当中有谁从没想过自己最终的结局,然后抱有同样的自我怀疑呢?Ms. Millard had dragged a full bag of vermiculite as big as a pillowcase up the three flights of stairs. This, of course, was a bit of a sight gag: the white filler looks like Styrofoam and weighs no more. The idea was to mix it with a bagged organic compost she likes, called Cowsmo. But any indoor potting mix with a little fertilizer would do.米勒德拖着枕头套那么大的一袋蛭石,爬了三段楼梯。这确实有点像滑稽表演:袋子里那些白色的东西看起来好像泡沫塑料,实际却沉重无比。她打算把这些“泡沫”和她喜欢的科兹(Cowsmo)袋装有机堆肥混在一起。不过任何室内盆栽混合土壤,只要含一点肥料,都是可以的。“You want something that drains really well,” Ms. Millard said. “Dirt from your garden is too dense.” As a no-pesticide farmer, she welcomed the chance for a clean start. There’s a book to be written about how to breed common garden bugs in the house, but let’s leave that to the newspaper’s entomology expert.“你要的是那种排水非常好的东西,”米勒德说,“从自己花园里挖来的土壤,密度太大。”她是一位不使用杀虫剂的农夫,喜欢从一开始就保持土壤的纯净。至于如何在屋里养殖常见的花园昆虫,这个话题可以写出一本书来,我们还是留给本报的那些昆虫学专家们吧。Ms. Millard totes a stack of 20-inch black plastic planting flats almost everywhere she goes, the same way a real estate agent seems to bleed a trail of lawn signs. Get the ones with the bottom watering slits and the translucent lids. They are a masterful piece of industrial design, they cost about .50 each and they look just like garbage.米勒德不管到哪儿,都拖着一堆20英寸(约51厘米)厚的黑色塑料种植板,就像一名房地产经纪人不管到哪儿都会竖起一连串草坪标牌那样。去购买这些底部裂口、带透明盖子的东西吧。它们是工业设计的杰作,每个大约1.5美元(约合人民币9元),看起来就像垃圾一样。A Pyrex casserole dish makes a smarter display. “It may help with the drainage to put a low layer of gravel in the bottom,” Ms. Millard said, prepping the planter. A few handfuls of soil mix flew into the trays. She was no more delicate with the pea seeds and the popcorn kernels, scattering a single layer over the surface. Being housebound, they wouldn’t need a coat of dirt on top.用派热克斯(Pyrex)烤盘则要气派得多。“在底部铺上薄薄一层碎石,可以帮助排水,”米勒德说,她正准备播种。几把混合土壤撒进了这些托盘里。她不再小心翼翼地处理这些豌豆种子和爆米花硬核,而是粗略地在土壤表面撒了薄薄一层。反正是在室内,它们不需要在顶上再铺一层土。You’ll want to sow at the kind of density you would see in front of the stage at Bonnaroo. Once the sprouts come up, Ms. Millard said, “you could have someone crowd surf without falling in.”你播撒种子的密度,要像你在波纳罗音乐节(Bonnaroo)舞台前方看到的人群密度一样。等这些幼苗长出来,米勒德说,“你都能让一个人在上面玩人体冲浪,也不会掉下去了。”At this point, Ms. Millard mentioned a piece of look-for-it-in-the-basement gear: a box fan. A little airflow helps ward off disease and stiffens a plant’s resolve.说到这,米勒德提起一件“要去地下室里找”的装置:一台箱式电扇。一点气流可以帮助植物避免疾病,并增强植株的抵抗力。My summer corn crop in the yard had been a mixed success. By that I mean it was a success for the squirrels that stripped the stalks clean and a total failure for me, who waited 80 days and got nothing.我夏天在院子里种的玉米算是成败参半吧。我的意思是,对于松鼠来说是成功的,它们把玉米杆子剥得一干二净;但对我而言则是彻头彻尾的失败,等待了80天,结果一无所获。“Depending on your conditions in here, after about two weeks you should be able to harvest them,” Ms. Millard said. “Cut them like you’re giving them the worst haircut in the world.”“这取决于你这里的天气状况,再过大约两周吧,你应该就能有收获了,”米勒德说,“收割玉米的样子,就像你要给它们剪全世界最难看的发型。”I said, “I think I’ve given someone that haircut.”我说,“我大概给人剪过那样的发型。”Ms. Millard said, “I think I’ve had that haircut.”米勒德说,“我大概被人剪过那样的发型。”What about lights? This is the question that every lay agronomist seems to ask, Ms. Millard said. It’s as if she has proposed a suspect workaround: school without homework, say, or an affair without text messaging (I mean, sex).那么光照呢?这似乎是每位外行的农学家都会提出的问题,米勒德说。那语气就好像她已经提出了一个可疑的变通方案:就像是,比方说不留家庭作业的学校,或是不发短信(我指的是,性)的外遇。Ms. Millard dutifully runs through the options in the book. A window with southern exposure will get you somewhere. But the plant will need to be close to the pane, where conditions may be drafty. Incandescent bulbs give off more heat than light. Ms. Millard doesn’t spend too much time on specialty lighting systems: HID, LED or plasma. This kind of expertise and budget are the province of the marijuana cultivator. We have a lot to learn from them.米勒德很负责地把书中的选项都浏览了一遍。一扇向南的窗户会对你有所助益,但是植物得靠近窗格,那里的环境可能比较通风。一些白炽灯泡会比自然光发出更多热量。米勒德没有在如何布置专门的光照系统上花太多HID啦、LED啦,或者等离子什么的。这种光照系统的专业程度和预算花销,是大麻栽培者熟悉的范畴。我们有许多东西得向他们学习。Ultimately, Ms. Millard recommends cheap shop lights, with full-spectrum bulbs (t5 or t8) and reflective hoods. The adjustable fixtures are better still: You can start them a couple of inches above the newly sprouted seeds and raise them as your plants grow.最终,米勒德建议大家采用廉价的店铺照明,这种照明系统有全光谱的灯泡(光管直径t5或t8[t5直径约16mm,t8直径约25.4mm——译注])和反光罩。最好让那些可调节灯具保持固定:你可以一开始把它们装在新发芽的种子上方几英寸的位置,然后随着植物的生长逐渐升高。We’d moved on to planting herbs and root crops. Untreated potatoes from the farmers’ market would turn into suitable plants. Just wait for the eyes to form. Ms. Millard suggested putting five or six in a 15-gallon pot. “They should get some light during the day,” she said. But, “potatoes do well with the whole benign-neglect situation.” They’re like children that way.我们又谈到了种植香草和根茎类作物。从农贸市场上买来的、未经处理的土豆,就会长成适合栽培的植株,只要等待芽眼形成就可以了。米勒德建议在每个15加仑大小的锅里,放五至六个土豆。“它们应该在白天得到一些光照,”她说。但是,“土豆很会适应被完全善意忽视的情境。”在这方面,它们就像孩子一样。Rounded carrots and radishes wouldn’t outgrow their Procrustean beds. She mentioned French baby carrots (“carefully bred in France!”) and a favorite radish called Parisienne, which had the soul of a carrot. Alas, indoors, they would grow about as fast as the European economy. “Carrots take forever,” Ms. Millard said. “About two months, if you’re lucky.”圆滚滚的胡萝卜和小萝卜,生长过程中都不会超出它们那张“普罗克汝斯忒斯之床”(Procrustean beds,源自希腊神话,形容强求一致的标准——译注)。她还提到了法国小胡萝卜(French baby carrots)(“在法国悉心栽培的!”),和一种叫做“巴黎女子”(Parisienne)、的讨人喜欢的小萝卜,它拥有一根胡萝卜的灵魂。唉,养在室内的话,它们的生长速度就能快得堪比欧洲经济了。“胡萝卜的生长周期很长,”米勒德说,“大约要两个月吧,如果你幸运的话。”In the end, she harvested maybe 10 carrots — not the kind of bounty to run through a juicer. “When you spend that much time and love,” she said, “you slice them up and eat them raw like carpaccio.”最后,她收获了大约十根胡萝卜——绝不舍得放进榨汁机里。“当你花了那么多的时间与爱心,”她说,“你只会把它们切成薄片,然后生吃,就像吃生牛肉片一样。”She wouldn’t blame anyone who concluded that indoor kitchen gardening is impractical. “There’s something of the hobbyist to it,” she said.如果有谁得出室内厨房园艺不切实际的结论,她也不会责怪他们。“这只是某种偏好。”她说。Before I forget, then, here’s a reminder. In New York City, the outdoor planting date for carrots is only 150 days away.以免我到时候忘了,先在这里提个醒。在纽约市,再过150天,就到了该在户外种植胡萝卜的日子了。 /201412/345438

  Can we ever understand the mind of a mass murderer and dictator?我们能够理解一个杀人如麻的刽子手和独裁者的想法吗?The question was raised by Martin Amis at a recent FT event when talking about his latest novel on the Holocaust, The Zone of Interest. In the case of Hitler, Amis argued, it was near-impossible to grasp what lay behind the Nazi leader’s crimes. The killing of millions of innocents for no reason other than blind hatred hovers at the outer edges of – if not beyond – human comprehension. Amis referred to the writings of Primo Levi, a survivor of Auschwitz, who was told by one camp guard: “Hier ist kein warum” (There is no why here). “[T]here is no rationality in the Nazi hatred; it is a hate that is not in us; it is outside man#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;” Levi wrote.最近在英国《金融时报》举办的一次活动中,马丁#8226;埃米斯(Martin Amis)在谈及他关于纳粹大屠杀的最新小说《利害之畿》(The Zone of Interest)时,提出了这个问题。埃米斯认为,就希特勒而言,几乎不可能理解是什么使这位纳粹头子犯下诸多罪行。只因为盲目的憎恨就屠杀数百万无辜的人,这若非超出人类理解能力之外,也至少达到了人类理解能力的极限。埃米斯提到了奥斯维辛集中营(Auschwitz)幸存者普里莫#8226;莱维(Primo Levi)的著作。集中营的一位看守曾告诉莱维:“这儿没有为什么(Hier ist kein warum)”。莱维写道,“纳粹的憎恨没有理性可言;这种憎恨不属于人类的心灵;它已超出了人性的界限……”That problem, however, becomes a lot more complex when dealing with the other mass-murdering tyrant of Europe’s 20th century: Stalin. Amis suggested that it was possible to understand Stalin’s actions, no matter how monstrous his regime may have been. His hatred was inside man.然而,谈及20世纪另一个手上沾满鲜血的欧洲暴君斯大林(Stalin),问题就变得复杂多了。埃米斯认为,不论斯大林政权如何残暴,理解斯大林的行为还是可能的。他的憎恨并没有脱离人的范畴。Stephen Kotkin’s monumental biography of Stalin could be presented as Exhibit A for the Amis thesis. Arguably, Kotkin knows as much about Stalin as any historian: he has aly written an important work on Stalinism viewed from the ground up and has taught Russian history at Princeton University for many years. It is a measure of Kotkin’s powers of research and explanation that Stalin’s decisions can almost always be understood within the framework of his ideology and the context of his times – at least during the early days of power covered by this first book in a projected three-volume biography. There was more often than not a Why in Stalin’s Russia.斯蒂芬#8226;科特金(Stephen Kotkin)这部规模宏大的传记《斯大林》(Stalin)可以作为埃米斯观点的最佳佐。可以说,科特金对斯大林的了解不输给任何历史学家:他已经写过一本探究斯大林主义来龙去脉的重要著作,并且多年来一直在普林斯顿大学(Princeton University)教授俄罗斯历史。归功于科特金出色的研究和解释能力,斯大林的所有抉择几乎都可以在他的意识形态框架下和他所处的时代背景下得到解释——至少第一卷叙述的斯大林掌权早期是这样(传记计划用三卷完成)。在斯大林主政下的苏联,事情在多数情况下是有原因可循的。That is not to say that Stalin’s story is anything but fantastical: how a Georgian cobbler’s son born in an outpost of the Tsarist empire could help shatter the shackles of a 300-year dynasty, emerge as the supreme leader of one-sixth of the world’s landmass, and reshape the destiny of millions. Nor is it to deny the irrationality of the entire Leninist project: that violence, murder and mass repression are permissible today to build a more peaceful and just tomorrow. As Kotkin puts it, Stalin “intensified the insanity inherent in Leninism” – but his actions were mostly sanctified by that ideology.这并不是说斯大林的人生算不上了不起:他出生于沙皇俄国边缘地带的格鲁吉亚,父亲是个鞋匠,而他居然推动俄罗斯摆脱了帝俄持续300年的桎梏,他自己成为一个占世界六分之一面积的国家的最高领袖,改写了数百万人的命运。本书也不是要否认整个列宁主义事业的不合理之处:现在的暴力、杀戮和大规模镇压是可以容许的,只要是为了构建更和平、更公正的未来。正如科特金所写的,斯大林“强化了列宁主义中固有的荒谬之处”,但这种意识形态却基本上让他的行为神圣化了。Soviet historians used to present their past as the onward march of vast, impersonal forces (albeit with some erroneous detours). But Kotkin, building on the recent western historiography of Russia, emphasises the role of accident in Stalin’s times and the primacy of human actors.苏联历史学家将过去的历史描述成各种巨大的客观力量推动的结果(尽管错误地走了一些弯路)。但科特金以近年来西方眼中的俄罗斯历史为基础,强调斯大林时期一些偶然性事件的作用,认为人是其中最重要的因素。In this account, had Lenin and Trotsky been killed early in 1917 – in the same way that Germany’s Communist leaders Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg were assassinated in 1919 – there would have been no October revolution. “The Bolshevik putsch could have been prevented by a pair of bullets”, Kotkin writes. Had Stalin died of tuberculosis in the early 1920s then the Soviet Union would not have been brutally frogmarched through the collectivisation of agriculture and forced industrialisation.从这个角度出发,如果列宁和托洛茨基(Trotsky)在1917年初,就像德国共产主义领袖卡尔#8226;李卜克内西(Karl Liebknecht)和罗莎#8226;卢森堡(Rosa Luxemburg)在1919年那样遇刺身亡,十月革命(October revolution)就不会发生了。“两颗子弹就可能阻止布尔什维克(Bolshevik)暴动,”科特金写道。如果斯大林在20世纪20年代就死于结核病,那么苏联就不会被野蛮地驱赶着被迫完成了农业集体化和工业化。So much has been written about Stalin that one might doubt there is much new to say about the man. Library shelves groan with heavy tomes on the Russian revolutionary. But history, like science, advances one obituary at a time.关于斯大林的著作如此之多,以至于我们可能会怀疑关于他的书已经写不出多少新意。关于俄罗斯革命的大部头著作汗牛充栋。但是和科学一样,历史也是随着每次讣告的发表而一步步缓慢前进的。Kotkin has burrowed deep into the archives that opened following the collapse of the Soviet Union and has absorbed much of the recent Russian research on Stalin. His book stretches to almost 1,000 pages; his compendious notes and index make up close to 20 per cent of the length. Describing his work as a marriage of biography and history, Kotkin subjects our previous understanding of Stalin to searing scrutiny and finds much of it wanting.科特金深入挖掘了苏联解体后解封的档案,并吸收了近年来俄罗斯有关斯大林的大部分研究成果。他这卷书将近1000页,其中简明的注解和索引几乎占到篇幅的20%。科特金称自己的书是传记和历史著作的结合体,他将人们之前对斯大林的理解置于放大镜下审视,发现大部分理解存在问题。With a ferocious determination worthy of his subject, the author debunks many of the myths to have encrusted themselves around Stalin. First, Kotkin rubbishes the notion that Stalin was some kind of revolutionary superman, as later portrayed by Soviet propagandists. We learn all about Stalin’s human impulses and medical complaints, and his mass of personal contradictions. Stalin was “an uncanny fusion of zealous Marxist convictions and great-power sensibilities, of sociopathic tendencies and exceptional diligence and resolve”.带着和他笔下人物一样的决绝,作者批驳了许多围绕着斯大林的误区。首先,一些人认为斯大林是某种革命超人(正如后来苏联宣传的那样),而科特金称这是胡说八道。在科特金的书中,我们看到了斯大林作为人的冲动、病痛,和大量自我矛盾之处。斯大林身上“诡异地融合了狂热的马克思主义信仰、强烈的权力欲、反社会倾向、以及异乎常人的勤奋和毅力”。Kotkin is equally dismissive of efforts to explain Stalin’s lust for power through cod psychology. Some historians have made much of the beatings that Stalin endured during his childhood, his early banditry and his sexual conquests. But Kotkin argues that Stalin’s childhood was no more traumatic than those of others of his time. When Stalin was born, the average lifespan for a Russian was just 30 years. His worldview was shaped more by the revolutionary mentality encapsulated by Sergei Nechaev: “Everything that allows the triumph of the revolution is moral.”有人试图通过伪心理学解释斯大林的权力欲,科特金对这种解释同样不屑一顾。一些历史学家在斯大林童年时期遭受的毒打、他早期的匪徒生涯以及他的风流韵事上面大做文章。但科特金认为,斯大林童年时期遭受的痛苦和他的同时代人并无二致。斯大林出生时,俄罗斯人的平均寿命仅为30年。斯大林的世界观更大程度上是由谢尔盖#8226;涅恰耶夫(Sergei Nechaev)概括的革命思维所塑造的:“一切有利于革命取得胜利的事情都是道德的。”Finally, and most substantively, Kotkin dismisses the Trotskyite theory that Stalin betrayed the revolution. In Kotkin’s view, Stalin was Lenin’s faithful pupil. One of the few constants in Stalin’s life was his faith in – and adherence to – Marxist-Leninist theory. A fellow prisoner in a Baku jail in 1908 described Stalin: “Looking at that low and small head, you had the feeling that if you pricked it, the whole of Karl Marx’s Capital would come hissing out of it like gas from a container.”最后,也是最具实质意义的一点是,科特金驳斥了托洛茨基关于斯大林背叛了革命的理论。在科特金看来,斯大林是列宁忠诚的学生。斯大林一生中为数不多的始终坚守的东西就是对马列主义的信仰和忠诚。1908年与斯大林一同被关押在巴库监狱的一名狱友曾这样描述斯大林:“看着那低垂的小小的头颅,你就会有一种感觉,如果用针刺一下,卡尔#8226;马克思(Karl Marx)的整部《资本论》(Capital)都会像瓦斯从瓦斯罐里漏出来一样,嘶嘶地从里面跑出来。”The disciple was true to his teacher. In Kotkin’s view, “Pitiless class warfare formed the core of Lenin’s thought.” Or, as Maxim Gorky wrote, “His [Lenin’s] love looked far ahead, through the mists of hatred.”斯大林这个学生忠于他的老师。在科特金看来,“残酷无情的阶级斗争组成了列宁思想的核心”。或者就像马克西姆#8226;高尔基(Maxim Gorky)所写的那样,“他(列宁)的爱,穿透了仇恨的迷雾,望向遥远的未来”。A similar impulse was evident in Stalin’s decision in 1928 to attack Russia’s richer peasants – or kulaks – and collectivise agriculture. This action, which could only be explained within the “straitjacket of Communist ideology” according to Kotkin, led to the deaths of between 5m and 7m in a horrific famine. Had Stalin’s only concern been to amass personal power – as some have it – he would not have launched such a ruinous campaign. “Right through mass rebellion, mass starvation, cannibalism, the destruction of the country’s livestock, and unprecedented political destabilisation, Stalin did not flinch,” Kotkin writes. That tragic episode in Soviet history is the focus of Volume Two.类似的冲动也明显体现在斯大林在1928年作出的抉择中:打击富农并推行农业集体化。这个造成500万到700万人死于可怕大饥荒的举动,在科特金看来,只能用“共产主义意识形态的思想桎梏”来解释。如果斯大林像一些人那样只顾谋权,他就不会发动这样一场毁灭性的运动。“在大规模叛乱、大规模饥荒、人吃人现象、全国范围的屠宰家畜潮、以及前所未有的政治不稳定面前,斯大林还是没有退缩,”科特金写道。苏联历史上这悲剧的一幕是第二卷的重点。So keen is Kotkin to explain the historical context in which Stalin rose to power that the main protagonist is – at times – strangely absent from the narrative in Volume One. But by the end of the book, Stalin has emerged as the dictator of the Kremlin and will doubtless dominate proceedings throughout the rest of this magnificent biography. This reviewer, at least, is aly impatient to the next two volumes for their author’s mastery of detail and the swagger of his judgments.科特金急于解释斯大林掌权过程中所处的历史背景,以至于在第一卷中,斯大林本人有时会从叙述中消失,这显得有些怪异。但在这卷书的末尾,斯大林已经成为执掌克里姆林宫的独裁者,毫无疑问将是这部宏伟传记接下来叙述的主角。至少,作者驾轻就熟的细节把控和自信的论断,已经让笔者本人迫不及待地想要阅读接下来的两卷。 /201412/348062。

  

  With their intoxicating spices and complex flavours, Indian curries are enjoyed the world over.印度咖喱因其美味的香料以及多样的风味风靡全球。Now, in a study of more than 2,000 recipes, scientists have discovered the secret behind curry#39;s popularity on a molecular level.现在,通过对2000多种食谱的研究,科学家从分子水平上发现了咖喱风靡全球背后的秘密。They claim that unlike Western dishes that tend to pair similar flavours together - such as beer and bee f - Indian dishes use at least seven ingredients that do not contain overlapping flavours.他们解释道,并不像喜欢把味道相近的东西在一起的西方的吃法(例如牛肉加啤酒),印度菜中一股要用至少七种不同风味的食材。Researchers at the Indian Institute for Technology in Delhi looked at how often overlapping flavour comp ounds were used in a dish#39;s ingredients.位于德里(印度城市)的印度研究所的研究人员着重研究了菜肴中具有相同风味的化合物出现的频率。They reviewed of recipes on TarlaDalal.com, studying the subtle molecular-level differences that distinguish the cuisine, according to a report in the Washington Post.根据华盛顿邮报中的一篇报道,研究人员们研究了TarlaDalal网站上的食谱,他们从分子的水平上细微的差别来区别不同的菜肴。#39;We found that average flavour sharing in Indian cuisine was significantly lesser than expected,#39; researchers wrote.研究人员写道;我们发现,印度菜肴中出现相同风味的化合物的概率比预料中要低得多。;The study found that ingredients such as garam masala and bell peppers are usually teamed up with other ingredients that have no chemical similarity.这项研究发现,像是辛香料和青椒这些材料一般都和那些与它们化学成分不同的材料搭配。This is in contrast to Western dishes that share like flavours. Chefs, for instance claim that seemingly incongruous ingredients, such as chocolate and blue cheese, can taste good together because they share similar compounds.这与西方的习惯是不一样的.例如,厨师们会说,看起来搭配不协调的东西吃起来会很好,像是巧克力加蓝奶酪,他们搭配起来味道很好是因为它们的化学成分相似。An example is acetal, which can be found in whiskey, apple juice, orange juice and raw beets. Strawberries, meanwhile, have flavour compounds that match white wine.乙缩醛就是一个例子,威士忌,苹果汁,橘汁和原料甜菜都含有这种物质.并且,草莓跟白酒也很搭。In Indian dishes, the more overlap two ingredients have in flavour, the less likely they are to appear in the same Indian dish, the scientists said.科学家说,在印度,两种食材的风味越是接近,它们就越不可能出现在同一道菜中。Researchers believe this makes the dish more tasty as the ingredients each bring their own unique flavour to the dish, rather than simply blending in.研究者相信这会使食物更加可口,因为菜中每一种材料都散发着自己独特的风味,而不是简单的混合在一块。Out of the 381 cooking ingredients in the world, the research team from that Indian food uses 200 in their cuisine.在世界上的381种烹饪原料中,研究团队发现印度菜肴中出现了其中的两百种。#39;Each of the spices is uniquely placed in its recipe to shape the flavour sharing pattern with rest of the ingredients,#39; the researchers said.;每一种香料都被唯一的使用在了适合它的菜肴中,这样能使它的味道与其他食材相得益彰.;研究人员说到。Previous research has found curry could actually be good for you, easing arthritis and even protecting people from Alzheimer#39;s.之前的研究发现,咖喱能有助于人们的健康.它可以缓解关节炎甚至还能预防老年痴呆。Most curries contain turmeric, cumin, allspice, cardamon, ginger, garlic and capsicum - spices with stro ng anti-bacterial properties.大多数咖喱含有姜,孜然多香果粉(一种香料),豆蔻,生姜,大蒜和辣椒,具有较强的抗菌性能。This is largely why they#39;re found in dishes from hot countries, where meat needs to be preserved.所以在热带国家菜肴中,我们会经常看到他们添加这类东西,因为那里的肉类需要保存。Separate studies have found that garlic, cinnamon and cumin can destroy up to 80 per cent of meat-borne bacteria, while ginger can slow bacterial growth by 25 per cent.一项独立研究发现,大蒜,肉桂,小茴香能够杀死80%的以肉为宿主的细菌,而姜可以使细菌的生长速度减慢25%。COULD CURRY BE USED TO BANISH BAD MEMORIES?咖喱可以用来消除不好的记忆吗?A spice commonly used in curry could help erase bad memories, according to a study.根据一项研究表明咖喱中常用的香料可以帮助消除不好的记忆。Curcumin, a bright-yellow compound found in the root of the Indian spice turmeric, prevented new fear memories being stored in the brain, and also removed pre-existing fear memories, researchers found.姜黄素,一个明亮的黄色化合物,在印度香料姜黄根粉末之中被发现,研究人员发现它可以阻止了新产生的恐惧记忆储存于大脑之中,并且可以删除原有的恐惧记忆。It is hoped that the findings will help develop treatments for people suffering with psychological disorders.希望该发现将有助于帮助心理障碍患者的治疗。Psychologists from The City University of New York trained rats to become scared when they heard a particular sound. Scientists assumed the creatures were frightened when they froze.纽约城市大学的心理学家训练老鼠当他们听到一个特别的声音的时候变得恐惧(条件反射)。科学家认为当动物恐惧时就会呆住。Hours later, when the same sound was played to the rats, those who had been given ordinary food froze.几个小时后,当相同的声音响起时老鼠(普通饲料饲养的老鼠)全部呆住了。Yet the rats fed the curcumin-rich diet didn#39;t freeze, suggesting their fearful memories had been erased.然而,使用丰富姜黄素饮食的老鼠并没有呆住,这表明他们的恐惧记忆已经被抹去了。 /201503/366105Although thousands, even millions, of photographs were taken during World War II, only a handful ever became popular. But sometimes it#39;s the little-known photographs that reveal to us the cruelty and uncertainty the war brought upon humanity.虽然二战期间拍摄了成千甚至上百万张照片,但是只有屈指可数的照片曾经流行过。然而,往往是那些鲜为人知的照片向我们揭示了战争带来的残酷和无法预知的痛苦。10.The Nazi Muslim Soldiers10.加入纳粹党卫军的穆斯林士兵The image above is that of German Nazi-era Muslim soldiers in prayer. They are from the German 13th Waffen-Gebirgs-Division der SS Handschar, a full Muslim division of the German army. The unit, which mostly consisted of Bosnian Muslims, was formed in March 1943 after Germany conquered Croatia, which included Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Bosnian Muslims were accepted into the Nazi ranks because of Heinrich Himmler#39;s belief that the people of Croatia were of Aryan descent, not Slavic. The Nazis also believed that the new division would help them win the support of most Muslims around the world. In time, the division also included Croatian Roman Catholics, who formed 10 percent of its ranks.上面的图片是德国纳粹时期的穆斯林士兵在祈祷。他们来自德国党卫军第十三“弯刀”武装山地师(the German 13th Waffen-Gebirgs-Division der SS Handschar),是德军一个完整的穆斯林分。1943年,德国侵占包括波黑(Bosnia-Herzegovina)在内的克罗地亚(Croatia)之后,组建了这由波斯尼亚穆斯林组成的军队。因为海因里希·希姆莱(Heinrich Himmler)坚信克罗地亚人是雅利安(Aryan)血统而不是斯拉夫(Slavic)血统,所以波斯尼亚穆斯林被收编进纳粹队伍。同时纳粹也相信这新的队伍会帮他们赢得全世界大多数穆斯林的心。经过一段时间以后,克罗地亚罗马天主教徒占这队伍的10%。The unit was Grand Mufti Hajj Amin al Husseni#39;s initiative. Hajj Amin al Husseni had led a failed coup in Iraq and had been exiled to Italy and then Berlin, Germany, where he encouraged Bosnian Muslims to join the ranks of the German army. Husseni encouraged the killings of Jews in North Africa and Palestine. He also wanted the Luftwaffe to bomb Tel Aviv. After the war, Husseni fled to France, where he was arrested. He later escaped and fled to Egypt, where the Allies were discouraged from re-arresting him because of his status in the Arab world.伊斯兰宗教领袖大穆夫提(Grand Mufti)穆罕默德·阿明·侯赛尼(Hajj Amin al Husseni)最早提出要组建这部队。侯赛尼在伊拉克发动政变,失败后流亡意大利和德国柏林。在柏林,他鼓动波斯尼亚穆斯林加入德军,不仅提议灭绝北非和巴勒斯坦的犹太人,还怂恿纳粹德国空军空炸特拉维夫(Tel Aviv)。二战之后,侯赛尼逃往法国但被捕,后又逃往埃及。由于这位伊斯兰宗教领袖在阿拉伯国家享有很高的地位,所以他在埃及再次被捕使得穆斯林盟军士气大跌。9.Shaving The Hair Of French Women9.法国女子被削发After France was liberated toward the end of World War II, French citizens who had supported the invading German troops in any form were tracked down and had their heads forcefully shaved as a badge of dishonor. The photograph shown above is that of a woman whose head was being shaved in Montelimer, France, on August 29, 1944. As many as 20,000 French citizens had their heads shaved in public, the majority of which were women. The punishment was often carried out by locals or members of the French Resistance and was done everywhere from the homes of the victims to public squares in the presence of a cheering crowd.二战后期,法国得以解放。此后,不管曾经以何种形式持过德国侵略军的国民都被追踪调查,并被强制削发,以此作为其蒙羞的徽章。上图的拍摄时间为1944年8月29日,地点为法国蒙特利马(Montelimar),一个女子正被削发。多达20万的法国国民在公共场所被削发,且大多数是女性。惩罚多由当地居民和抵抗运动的成员执行,不分地点、不分场合,从受害者家里到群情激奋的广场。During the same period, Germany also decreed that women who had sexual relations with non-Aryans or prisoners of war should have their heads shaved. Shaving the hair of women seen as fugitives didn#39;t get its start during World War II—it#39;s also recorded to have been done in Europe during the Middle Ages, when it was used as punishment for adulterous women.在同一时期,德国也判定凡与非雅利安人或战俘发生过性关系的女人都应该被削发。强制给叛逃的女子削发并不是二战期间发明的新刑罚,早在欧洲中世纪时期就有类似记载,彼时他们用削发来惩罚通奸的女人。8.Raising A Flag Over The Reichstag8.国旗飘扬在柏林国会大厦之上Raising a flag over the Reichstag would have been the Russian equivalent of Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima except that it was staged, a fact which its photographer, Yevgeny Khaldei, confirmed. The photograph shows a young Russian soldier raising the Soviet flag over Berlin after the defeat of the German army.这幅名为《国旗飘扬在柏林国会大厦之上》的照片是苏联版的《美国国旗插上硫磺岛》,意义非凡。不过,该作品的摄像师叶甫盖尼·哈尔岱(Yevgeny Khaldei)承认,那张照片是摆拍的。照片呈现的是德军战败之后,一个年轻的苏联战士在柏林国会大厦楼顶挥舞着苏联国旗。Yevgeny Khaldei was in Moscow when the Soviet army overran Berlin, but he quickly left for Berlin on the orders of top Soviet officials, possibly Joseph Stalin himself. His orders were to produce images that depicted the Soviet victory in Germany. Yevgeny got to Berlin and inspected several locations, including Tempelhof Airport and the Brandenburg Gate, before settling for the Reichstag building. Yevgeny took 36 different shots of the scene, which was to be used for Soviet propaganda. Interestingly, a Soviet army unit had initially hoisted its flag on the building not long after the town was captured, but that scenario had gone unrecorded.苏联军队攻克柏林时,叶甫盖尼·哈尔岱还在莫斯科(Moscow),不过,他很快接到高层,可能就是约瑟夫·斯大林(Joseph Stalin)本人下达的命令,要求他马上前往柏林拍下苏联大胜的景象。在拍摄柏林国会大厦之前,叶甫盖尼考查了柏林多处战场,包括滕珀尔霍夫机场(Tempelhof Airport)和勃兰登堡门(Brandenburg Gate)。他总共拍摄了36张不同的场景的照片,准备为苏联宣传机构所用。有意思的是,一苏联队伍在攻克柏林不久后就在国会大厦升起了苏联国旗,可惜这场景没被记录下来。审稿:Freya然 校对:CMX /201507/384946

  With a combined weight of 54st, they say they are ‘too fat to work’.一对情侣体重加起来有300多公斤,他们说他们“太胖而无法工作”。But that did not stop Stephen Beer, 45, and wife Michelle, 43, being able to splash out #163;3,000 on their wedding – as the bill was footed by the taxpayer.但是这并没有阻止45岁的史蒂芬·比尔和妻子43的米歇尔花上3000英镑来举办他们的婚礼,因为这些钱全部由政府来承担。Mr Beer, who was marrying for the sixth time, weighs 31st and had to have a suit specially made for the occasion.新浪比尔是第6次结婚,他体重197公斤,婚礼上需要穿专门定制的礼。By contrast his 23st wife became a bride for the first time and wore a white gown for the registry office ceremony and church blessing that followed.而他的妻子米歇尔体重为148公斤,这是她第一次结婚,在婚姻登记处的典礼以及随后的教堂仪式上,她身穿白色婚纱。The couple’s story was featured on the Channel 5 documentary Benefits: Too Fat To Work last night and viewers were shown how paramedics were called to the reception in Plymouth, Devon, before Mr Beer was taken to hospital feeling unwell.这对情侣的事迹被一档电视节目制作成纪录片--《胖到无法工作》,节目中介绍,在德文郡的普利茅斯进行的比尔、米歇尔两人的登记典礼上,虽然有护理人员在场,但比尔仍感到不舒,随后被送到了医院。The groom, who suffers from type 2 diabetes, hypertension and other problems linked to his weight, had a blood clot on the lung and instead of a honeymoon he spent nine days in hospital.比尔由于肥胖患有二型糖尿病、高血压等疾病,另外还有肺部血栓。其他情侣新婚后要去度蜜月,而比尔却在医院里呆了9天。He can only stand for a limited period before becoming breathless and his wife said the wedding day trip to hospital was no surprise.比尔只能站立一小会儿,否则就会喘不上气。他的妻子米歇尔称登记典礼那天比尔被送到医院是意料之中的事。Mr Beer used to run a cleaning business and had to give up work six years ago following a stroke.比尔曾经经营过一家清洁公司,但在6年前因遭受中风,之后便停止了工作。The couple receive around #163;1,700 a month in benefits. The rent on their one-bedroom flat is paid for by the taxpayer, and a carer comes twice daily to clean and help Mr Beer dress, but the taxpayer pays the #163;8,000-a-year cost.比尔和米歇尔每个月可以领到约1700英镑的补助。他们租住的公寓及各种费用等每年8000英镑的花费同样不用他们付钱,每天两次有护工过来打扫并帮助比尔穿衣。Mr Beer also uses a specially strengthened mobility scooter, provided at public expense.比尔走动也必须依靠一辆专门设计的小轮车。He insists he wants a job but says no one will give him work because of his weight. And yesterday, he blamed the Government for being too generous to those on benefits.比尔说他想要工作,但因为他太胖没人愿意提供工作给他。他抱怨这是因为政府的补助政策太好了。Speaking on ITV’s This Morning programme, Mr Beer said: ‘The Government is making it easy for people like us. The Government is making it easy for people on benefits.’ He said he didn’t think he deserved anything, adding: ‘I’m the one who put myself in this situation, no one else.’ However, he insisted he was now suffering from ‘prejudice’. He said he recently applied for an office job but claims he was turned down because he was too overweight.他说:“政府对我们这样的人提供了太大的便利。足够的补助让我们生活并不困难。”他觉得他并不该拥有这些补助,“是我把自己弄成这个样子的,与其他人无关。”但是他也说他现在遭受到了“歧视”。他说他最近申请了一份办公室的工作,但因为太胖而遭到拒绝。Mr Beer said he became so overweight because of an addiction to food, but is now trying to sort himself out and plans to go to a boot camp later this month.比尔说他是因为贪吃才这么胖的,现在他已经在尝试规范饮食,并计划参加减肥训练营。The couple both attended weight loss groups and courses at public expense in the run up to the wedding.这对情侣目前都在为婚礼而努力瘦身中。 /201501/355725Lawyer#39;s Son律师的儿子The lawyer#39;s son wanted to follow in his father#39;s footsteps,律师的儿子想要继承他老爸的衣钵,so he went to law school.因此他就去读法学院。He graduated with honors,and then went home to join his father#39;s firm.他以优异成绩毕业,然后返家加入他老爸的公司,At the end of his first day at work he rushed into his father#39;s office,and said,就在他上班的第一天要结柬之际,他急忙地冲进他老爸的办公室说:;Father,father,in one day I broke the car accident case that you have been working on for ten years!;“老爸,老爸,我一天就破了你办了十年的车祸案件!”His father responded:;You idiot,our company lived on the funding of that case for ten years!;他的老爸响应说:“你这个小白痴,我们公司就是依靠那个案件的资金才生存了十年呀!” /201504/368405

  

  The legend of the Dragon Boat Festival端午节的传说故事1.Qu Yuan jumped off river屈原投江In order to commemorate patriotic poet Qu Yuan who jumped into the Miluo river, and avoid his body to be eaten by fish and shrimp, so people cast many of bamboo rice (rice dumplings) in the river, and compete to row (acetate ship) hoping to find the body of Qu yuan.为了纪念爱国诗人屈原,居民为了不让跳下汨罗江的屈原尸体被鱼虾吃掉,所以在江里投下许多用竹叶包裹的米食(粽子),并且竞相划船(赛龙船)希望找到屈原的尸体。2.Cao E looked for her father’s corpse曹娥寻父尸Cao E, dutiful girl of the eastern Han dynasty, whose father drowned in the river when she was 14-year old. She cried along the river, still didn’t see his father’s corpse after 17 days, and she jumped into the river on May 1st as well, after five days the two corpses folded together and float. That was a moving story, so people in the township worship her.东汉孝女曹娥,因曹父溺江而亡,年仅十四岁的她沿江豪哭,经十七日仍不见曹父尸首,乃在五月一日投江,五日后两尸合抱而浮起的感人事迹, 乡人群而祭之。3.Madam White Snake白蛇传The legend of white snake Bai Suzhen, in order to repay Xu Xian , fell in love with him and finally got married. On the day of the Dragon Boat Festival white snake drink realgar wine, almost reveal herself snakelike, and among the white snake, Fa Hai and water logging Jinshan temple , are popular folk opera repertoire.传说白蛇白素贞,为了报答许仙的恩惠,与许仙结为夫妻的凄美的爱情故事。端午节当天白蛇喝了雄黄酒,差点现出蛇形,加上法海白蛇及水淹金山寺的情节,都是脍炙人口的民间戏曲的曲目。4.Wu Zixu#39;s death anniversary伍子胥的忌日It’s a legend that after He Lu ,the king of Wu died , the prince Fuchai ascended the throne, send armed forces to suppress Yue and won. Goujian ,the king of Yue please reconciliation , Fuchai didn’t listen but agreed treacherous official and judged Wu Zixu commit suicide. And jumped his body into river on May 5, since then people commemorated him on Dragon Boat Festival.传说伍子胥助吴伐楚后,吴王阖闾逝世,皇子夫差继位,伐越大胜,越王勾践请和,伍子胥主张和,夫差不听,却听信奸臣言,赐伍子胥自杀,并于于五月五日将尸体投入江中,此后人们于端午节祭祀伍子胥。 /201506/381331。

  Here’s the thing: I would prefer to be in no-pants land all day and night. Unfortunately, people exist, and inevitably, so does judgement, but with these 10 pajamas you can wear in real life (and in any kind of wardrobe), you’ll have no problem putting on clothes and hitting the door. Because who doesn’t want to spend all day in soft PJs?很多人喜欢整天整夜地处于无裤日的状态。不幸的是,人的存在是不可避免的。不过,有10款你可以穿出去的睡衣,谁不想无拘无束的呢。1. This Long Sleeved Dress长袖连衣裙2. The Overall Jammies连体睡衣3. The Preppy Nightie校园风睡衣4. The Summer Florals夏日碎花睡衣5. The Boho Frock波西米亚风睡衣6、 The Classic Black Robe经典黑色长袍7、This Silky Set丝绸套装Vocabulary:1、floral英 [#39;fl爂()l; #39;fl-] 美 [#39;fl爂夀氂崀昀氀漀爀愀氀 [#39;fl:r氂崀adj。花的;由花制成的;像花的;描绘花的[F-]关于佛罗拉的,花神的植物区系的;植物群的2、boho[#39;boho]adj. 波希米亚式的;放荡不羁的;颓废派文化人的n. 无用的人;废物3、robe英 [r訂戂崀 美 [rob]n. 长袍,礼;制vi. 穿长袍vt. 使穿长袍n. (Robe)人名;(德、罗、塞)罗贝;(英、法)罗布 /201507/386183

  

  Even when he has lunch by himself, he never dines alone.即使他是一个人在吃午餐,但他也并不孤独。A loving husband headed to a California In-N-Out Burger last week for a date with his wife, who died five years ago. He propped up a framed photo of his love and enjoyed a burger with his late sweetheart.上周,一位有爱的丈夫在加州一家汉堡店与他的已去世5年的妻子“约会”。他将两人曾经的合影放在桌子上,凝视着爱人、和爱人一起享用汉堡。Twitter user Madina Bashizadah snapped a photo of the date.推特网友麦迪娜拍下了这感人的一幕。;Oh my god I just died!!! He has a picture of his wife with him as he eats! I love him I love love,; she wrote.“天哪我感动得要死!他看着已故妻子的照片在吃汉堡,太有爱了。”Bashizadah then got up to ask him about the photo, she told the Huffington Post.麦迪娜说她起身向老人询问那张照片的故事。;We found out that she was his sweetheart, his wife who passed away five years ago,; she said.“我们得知照片里的女子就是他的妻子,是他已经去世5年的爱人。”The two met when they were 17 years old — just before he went to war. They lost contact, but he never stopped thinking about her.老人与他的妻子在17岁的时候相遇,那时候他正要上战场。之后他们断了联系,但他一直忘不了她。Ten years later he told his story of lost love to a barber in California. The barber through the story sounded familiar, so he called his daughter — who immediately recognized the man as the war-bound solider she met a decade ago.10年后他把自己这段经历告诉给加州的一个理发师。这位理发师觉得这段经历很熟悉,于是叫来了自己的女儿---她立刻就认出了眼前这名在战争中受伤的士兵就是十年前的那个他。The two were quickly married and stayed together until her death 55 years later, Bashizadah said.两人很快结了婚,并一直在一起直到她55岁离开人世。;He takes her photo everywhere,; she said. ;Goes to show you true love does exist.;“他去任何地方都带着她的照片。” 麦迪娜说,“这明真爱确实存在。”The man left the user with a few lessons on love and life.这位老人留给这个网友很多关于爱和生命的感悟。;People are like candles. At any moment a breeze can blow it out, so enjoy the light while you have it,; he told the diner.“人的生命就像燃烧的蜡烛,不知道什么时候就会被一阵风熄灭,所以我们一定得珍惜现在。”He continued: ;Tell your wife that you love her every day. And be sure to ask her, #39;Have I told you that I love you lately?#39;;这名网友还写道:“每天都告诉你的妻子你爱她吧,然后还要跟她确认‘我最近跟你说过我爱你了么’。” /201411/343037

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