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泸州高级形象设计彩妆化妆学习安资讯

来源:365常识    发布时间:2018年10月22日 05:33:42    编辑:admin         

MYITKYINA, Myanmar — At 16, the gem trader’s son set out for the jade mines to seek his fortune in the precious stone that China craves. But a month in, the teenager, Sang Aung Bau Hkum, was feeding his own addiction: heroin, the drug of choice among the men who work the bleak terrain of gouged earthen pits, shared needles and dwindling hope here in the jungles of northern Myanmar.缅甸密那——这个宝石商人的儿子16岁时来到矿,想从这种让中国发狂的宝石中寻找自己发财的机会。但一个月后,这位名叫桑昂巴乌(Sang Aung Bau Hkum)的少年需要满足自己的毒瘾:他用上了在这片挖出很多大土坑的荒凉地里工作的男人的首选毒品海洛因,和别人共用针头。希望在缅甸北部的丛林中渐渐消失。Three years later he finally found what he had come for — a jade rock “as green as a summer leaf.” He spent some of the ,000 that a Chinese trader paid him on a motorcycle, a cellphone and gambling.三年后,他终于找到了自己为之而来的东西:一块“和夏天的树叶一样绿的”。他把一个中国商人付给他的6000美元(约合3.4万元人民币)的一部分花在了买一辆托车和一部手机上,还在上花了点钱。“The rest disappeared into my veins,” he said, tapping the crook in his left arm as dozens of other gaunt miners in varying states of withdrawal passed the time at a rudimentary rehabilitation clinic here. “The Chinese bosses know we’re addicted to heroin, but they don’t care. Their minds are filled with jade.”“剩下的钱都消失在我的静脉里,”他用手指轻敲着自己左胳膊的肘弯说,他身边是在这里的一家非常原始的戒毒所里消磨时光的面容憔悴的矿工,他们有不同程度的脱瘾症状。“中国老板知道我们上了海洛因的瘾,但他们不管我们。他们满脑子都是。”Mr. Sang Aung Bau Hkum, now 24, is just one face of a trade — like blood diamonds in Africa — that is turning good fortune into misery.桑昂巴乌现在24岁了,他只是涉足那些把好运变成痛苦的买卖——类似的还有非洲的血钻——的一员。Driven by an insatiable demand from the growing Chinese middle class, Myanmar’s jade industry is booming and should be showering the nation, one of the world’s poorest, with unprecedented prosperity. Instead, much of the wealth it generates remains in control of elite members of the military, the rebel leaders fighting them for greater autonomy and the Chinese financiers with whom both sides collude to smuggle billions of dollars’ worth of the gem into China, according to jade miners, mining companies and international human rights groups.在日益增长的中国中产阶层无法满足的需求驱动下,缅甸的产业正在蓬勃发展,这本该让这个属于世界最贫穷行列的国家得到前所未有的繁荣。然而并非如此,绝大部分所产生的财富被少数人控制着,包括军方精英成员、为了更大的自主权而与军方作战的叛乱头目,以及双方都与之勾结的中国投资者,据矿工、矿产公司以及国际人权组织说,这些人沆瀣一气把价值数十亿美元的宝石走私到中国。Such rampant corruption has not only robbed the government of billions in tax revenue for rebuilding after decades of military rule, it has also helped finance a bloody ethnic conflict and unleashed an epidemic of heroin use and H.I.V. infection among the Kachin minority who work the mines.这种猖獗的腐败,不仅偷走了政府在数十年的军事统治后进行重建所需的数十亿美元的税收收入,而且为血腥的种族冲突提供了资金,并在从事玉石开采的克钦少数民族中造成了海洛因滥用及艾滋病毒感染的流行。The drug and jade trades have become a toxic mix, with heroin — made from opium poppies that long ago turned Myanmar into a top producer of illicit drugs — keeping a pliant work force toiling in harsh conditions as the Burmese authorities and Chinese business people turn a blind eye.毒品交易和交易已成为一种有毒的组合,从罂粟提取的海洛因在很早以前就让缅甸成为非法毒品的主要生产地,现在海洛因让恶劣条件下劳作的矿工听从摆布,而缅甸当局和中国商人对这些视而不见。At a time when Myanmar is experimenting with democratic governance after nearly 50 years of military dictatorship, its handling of the jade industry has become a test of the new civilian leaders and their commitment to supporting human rights and rooting out corruption, as well as an early check on whether they will reject the former junta’s kleptocratic dealings with China.在经过近50年的军事独裁统治后,缅甸目前正在尝试民主治理,缅甸对业的处理已成为对新的文职领导人以及他们持人权、根除腐败承诺的一种考验,也是对他们是否将拒绝像前军政府那样与中国进行暗中交易的早期检查。So far, experts say, they have failed.专家说,到目前为止,缅甸政府的表现不及格。Washington is worried enough about the link between jade and violence — and the effect on democratic change — that it kept in place a ban on the gem from Myanmar, also known as Burma, even after it suspended almost every other sanction against the country since the civilian government came to power in 2011. But critics say the sanctions are useless because China attaches no such conditions.华盛顿方面对和暴力之间的联系、及其对民主变革的影响有足够的担心,虽然美国在缅甸文官政府自2011年上台以来,暂停了几乎所有对该国的制裁,但仍继续保持着从那里进口这种宝石的禁令。但批评人士说,这些禁令没用,因为中国没有类似的限制。“The multibillion-dollar jade business should be driving peaceful development in Kachin and Myanmar as a whole,” said Mike Davis from Global Witness, an anticorruption organization. “Instead it is empowering the same elite that brought the country to its knees and poses the biggest threat to peace and democratic reform.”“价值数十亿美元的生意本该促进克钦邦、乃至缅甸全国的和平发展,”反腐败组织“全球见”(Global Witness)的迈克·戴维斯(Mike Davis)说。“然而并非如此,业仍在让同样的精英们受益,他们曾把国家搞瘫痪,现在他们成为对和平与民主改革的最大威胁。”Poverty Amid Riches财富中滋长着贫穷The fountainhead of Myanmar’s jade wealth is here in the mountains of Kachin State, which is rich in natural resources and poor in just about everything else. The country’s northernmost territory, Kachin shares a long border with China and is home to the Kachin ethnic group, a largely Christian minority with ambitions to gain more autonomy.缅甸财富的源泉在克钦邦这里的山区,这里有丰富的天然资源,但几乎没有其他任何东西。克钦邦位于缅甸的最北部,与中国有漫长的边界线,是克钦族人的家园,克钦族是主要信封基督教的少数民族,他们追求的目标是更多的自主权。Myitkyina, the down-and-out state capital, is the gateway to the most active mining region, containing what experts say is the world’s biggest and most valuable trove of jade. With its broken sidewalks, stray dogs and cemeteries littered with syringes, Myitkyina is a potent symbol of the region’s ills. The city’s tea shops have a thriving illegal side business in selling heroin, one of the few trades that have grown alongside the jade industry.密那是克钦邦穷困潦倒的首府,是通往最活跃的矿区的必经之路,矿区有专家称之为世界上最大、最值钱的宝藏。密那破烂的人行道、满街的流浪,以及散落着注射器的墓地,是该地区糟糕状态的有力象征。城市的茶叶店经营着出售海洛因的繁荣非法副业,那是为数不多的与行业同时增长的贸易。“In every house, there is an addict,” said Gareng Bang Aung, a local heroin user.“每家都有吸毒者,”当地的海洛因使用者格亮兴昂(Gareng Bang Aung)说。The city is the closest Westerners can get to the mining area, Hpakant. The government says it keeps the area closed because of sporadic fighting with the Kachin rebel army, but activists see a darker purpose: to hide the illegal jade and drug trades flourishing there. The only foreigners allowed past the military checkpoints, they say, are the Chinese who run the mines or go there to buy gems.密那是西方人能到的、距矿区帕敢最近的地方。政府说,禁止外人进入矿区是因为那里仍有与克钦族叛军进行的零星战斗,但活动人士看到了其中的黑暗目的:隐藏那里蓬勃发展的非法和毒品交易。他们说,唯一能通过军方检查站的外国人,是经营矿产、或去那里购买宝石的中国人。The lack of access adds to the mysteries of the jade industry, whose inner workings are deliberately obscured. Even the simplest information is not publicly available — including which companies operate the mines and how many are Chinese-run or financed despite laws banning foreign ownership. But interviews with jade miners and executives in Myitkyina, and with gem traders, diplomats and nongovernmental organizations elsewhere, reveal a dizzyingly corrupt and brutal industry funded almost completely by Chinese trade.不能进入该地区增加了行业的神秘感,其内部运作情况被有意掩盖起来。就连最简单的信息也不公开,比如哪些公司经营矿山,有多少由中国人拥有或出资,虽然缅甸法律禁止外资拥有企业。但是,对密那的矿工和管理人员、以及其他地方的宝石商人、外交官和非政府组织的采访,暴露出一个令人眼花缭乱、几乎完全靠中国贸易资助的腐败和残酷的行业。Their descriptions of the harsh conditions at the mines were corroborated by rare footage filmed there by a local journalist hired by The New York Times.这些人对矿场恶劣条件的描述,得到《纽约时报》聘请的一名当地记者拍摄的罕见录像的佐。The from inside the checkpoints shows lush rolling hills scarred by craters that descend for hundreds of feet into pits. There, hundreds of men worked in the searing heat, picking through rocks with rudimentary shovels, or their hands, in search of the gem.这段在检查站那边拍到的录像显示,连绵起伏的葱郁丘陵布满了环形山口的伤痕,环形山口通往上百米深的坑底。在那里,数百名男子用最基本的工具、或徒手在灼热环境中寻找宝石。In some cases, the miners shoot water from high-powered hoses to break up the rock walls, a dangerous practice that sometimes triggers landslides.在有些情况下,矿工们用高压管把水喷射到石壁上将其击碎,这种做法很危险,有时会引发山体滑坡。Also visible in the footage: an open-air heroin shooting gallery, hard up against a mine.镜头中还可以看到的,是紧靠着一个矿场的一个打海洛因的露天输液所。Corruption Fuels Conflict腐败使冲突加剧Myanmar’s jade industry took off in the 1980s after the introduction of market reforms in China. For the first time since Mao Zedong began banning private enterprise in 1949, entrepreneurs betting that the gemstone would become big business in China started jumping into the trade. Their financing helped build an industry that churns out the Buddha figurines and thick bracelets that have become status symbols for China’s middle class. The burgeoning market transformed the Kachin insurgency, which had started in 1961 as a fight mostly about political independence, into a raging battle that extends to natural resources. A 1994 cease-fire stopped the violence, but gave the Burmese junta and its Chinese backers control over the best tracts in Hpakant.缅甸的行业在20世纪80年代中国市场改革之后开始腾飞。自从毛泽东1949年以后禁止民营企业以来,这种宝石在中国能卖大钱的创业者能首次开始参与这个交易。他们的资金帮助建立了一个行业,为中国中产阶级大量生产象征地位的玉佛像和粗粗的玉手镯。这个新兴市场把始于1961年的克钦叛乱,从一个主要是有关政治的独立斗争,转变为一场延伸到自然资源的熊熊战火。虽然1994年的停火带来了暴力的终止,但把帕敢最好矿区的控制权交给了缅甸军政府及其中国持者。The cease-fire fell apart in 2011, with jade fueling the conflict by funneling money to both sides. Local news media say about 120,000 people have been displaced by the fighting that included military airstrikes in Kachin; the death toll remains in dispute.交易带来的钱给冲突的双方火上加油,导致停火协议在2011年瓦解。当地新闻媒体说,战火导致约12万人流离失所,政府武装还对克钦军队进行过空袭;死亡人数仍有争议。In an interview, Dau Hka, a senior official with the political wing of the rebel Kachin Independence Army, described a sophisticated revenue collection system in which mining companies that want to operate in areas under the rebels’ control “donate” money to them, providing half their operating budget.反对派克钦独立军(Kachin Independence Army)的政治组织高级官员杜卡(Dau Hka)在接受采访时描述了一个复杂的收费制度,根据这个制度,想要在反对派控制的地区运作的采矿公司会向他们“捐款”,为其提供了一半的运营预算。“The donations aren’t exactly legal,” he acknowledged.“这种捐款严格来说并不合法,”他承认道。The K.I.A. also makes money by working with Chinese companies to smuggle jade through the jungle into China, according to activists and a Chinese jade importer. “They’ll call us beforehand, and we’ll come in a convoy to pick up the goods,” said the trader, who would give only his surname, Chun. The rebels, he added, demand cash on delivery.活动人士和一名中国玉石进口商说,克钦独立军还会与中国企业合作,把玉石通过丛林走私到中国,并从中牟利。“他们会提前给我们打电话,我们随后会派车队去取货,”这名交易商只透露自己姓宗。他接着说,这些叛乱分子一般要求货到付款。Yet the fighters’ spoils pale in comparison to those enjoyed by the powerful Burmese military elite, whose companies receive the choicest tracts of mining land from the government, according to miners and international rights groups. Like the K.I.A., some military officers are also involved in smuggling, extracting bribes to allow the illicit practice, activists say.然而,这些武装分子的战利品与强大的缅甸军方权贵享受到的好处相比只是小巫见大巫。据一些矿工和国际权力组织说,缅甸军方权贵的企业会从政府获得最优质的矿区。活动人士说,就像克钦独立军一样,一些军方官员也参与走私,为不法操作提供便利,从而索取贿赂。“The top dogs are the Burmese military,” said Mr. Davis of Global Witness, which has investigated the Burmese jade trade.“最大的赢家是缅甸军方,”全球见组织的戴维斯说。他曾经调查过缅甸的玉石贸易。Perhaps half or more of the jade that is mined, those who study the industry say, vanishes into the black market. The Ministry of Mines, in an email response to detailed questions, denied that smuggling is a major problem. Although official jade sales generate significant tax revenue, David Dapice of Harvard University’s Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation, which did an extensive study of the jade trade, estimated that the government is losing billions a year to illegal trading. Possibly the greater tragedy, however, is the heroin epidemic ravaging a new generation of Kachin.研究该行业的人说,在从矿山开采出的玉石中,可能有一半或者更多流入了黑市。缅甸矿业部在回复一些详细问题的邮件中否认了走私问题的严重性。哈佛大学艾什民主治理与创新中心(Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation)的戴维·达皮斯(David Dapice)做过玉石贸易的一项大范围研究,他估计,尽管合法的销售带来了大量税收,政府每年因为非法贸易损失数十亿美元。然而,更大的悲剧可能是毁灭了年轻克钦人的海洛因的泛滥。Heroin’s High Toll海洛因泛滥的高昂代价For decades, heroin was rare in Kachin State. The surge in the jade trade changed all that, creating a market for drugs among the thousands of Kachin laborers who flocked to the mines seeking an escape from poverty.曾经在数十年时间里,海洛因在克钦邦都非常罕见。玉石贸易的增长改变了这种状况,为了逃离贫困而涌入矿山的大量克钦劳工中诞生了一个毒品市场。But Ze Hkaung Lazum, 27, said the mines proved to be a trap. Heroin, he said, is sold in bamboo huts “like vegetables in a market” for between and a hit. Miners squat in the open, next to piles of used needles, with syringes hanging from their arms. If the drug fails to take the workers’ meager earnings, the prostitutes waiting nearby are happy to oblige for per 20-minute session. Within months, Mr. Ze Hkaung Lazum was a frequent customer of both.不过,27岁的泽康拉尊(Ze Hkaung Lazum)说,矿山是一个陷阱。他说,一些小竹屋专门出售海洛因,就像“市场里的蔬菜”一样常见,一剂海洛因的价格在4美元到8美元。矿工们蹲坐在露天,身旁是堆积如山的旧针头,胳膊上挂着注射器。如果毒品还不足以花光工人微薄的收入,等在附近的很愿意以20分钟6美元的价格提供务。几个月后,泽康拉尊就成了这两种务的常客。Some miners, like Bum Hkrang, a 24-year-old recovering addict, say they need the drug to steel themselves for the backbreaking and dangerous work their Burmese and Chinese bosses demand; others say they simply fell into addiction because the drug was so available, with some heroin dealers accepting jade as payment.有些矿工说,自己需要毒品的持才能完成缅甸和中国老板要求的繁重而危险的工作,这其中包括正在戒毒的24岁的本康(Bum Hkrang);还有一些人说,他们染上毒瘾只是因为毒品太容易得到了,有些海洛因的经销商接受用玉石来付款。“Try digging all day with an iron rod and see how you feel,” he said, adding that he had abandoned his university studies for the promise of fast riches. Heroin, he discovered, gave him enough energy to work 24 hours straight.本康说,“你试试整天用铁棍挖矿,看看是什么感觉。”他接着说,就是因为有人向他保干这行能快速致富,他放弃了大学学业。他发现,海洛因让他有了一天工作24小时的精力。Miners say at least four out of five workers are habitual drug users. Users who overdose are buried near the mines, amid groves of bamboo.矿工们说,至少五分之四的工人习惯性吸毒。因吸毒过量而死的人被埋在矿山附近,四周是茂密的竹林。Over time, heroin abuse spilled into the broader population.渐渐地,海洛因的滥用扩大到了更广泛的人群。Like many locals, Tang Goon, who works on an antidrug project, believes the government is distributing heroin to weaken the ethnic insurgency, with the military allowing pushers past their checkpoints. “Heroin is their weapon,” he said.就像许多当地人一样,在禁毒项目工作的当古(Tang Goon)认为,为了遏制民族骚乱,政府正在从事销售海洛因的勾当,军方允许非法毒品销售者通过检查站。“海洛因是他们的武器,”他说。But whether the trade is driven by politics or simple greed, the toll has been devastating.然而,无论这种贸易是受到了政治因素的驱动,还是只是因为贪婪,它引发的代价都令人难以承受。Kachin activists estimate that a sizable majority of Kachin youths are addicts; the World Health Organization has said about 30 percent of injecting drug users in Myitkyina have contracted H.I.V.克钦的活动人士估计,绝大多数的克钦年轻人吸毒成瘾;世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)称,在密那,约30%的注射吸毒者感染了艾滋病毒。With virtually no funding from a central government focused on other priorities, the Kachin rely on church rehabilitation centers that preach a spiritual, if controversial, solution to addiction.由于基本上无法从中央政府获得资金,克钦邦依靠教堂康复中心,通过布道,为吸毒成瘾提供一种具有宗教意义但却可能引发争议的解决方案。At one, the Change in Christ center outside Myitkyina, the founder, Thang Raw, runs a treatment program based on rapturous hymnal sessions and baptismal-like dunks in a concrete water tank that are meant to soothe the agony of withdrawal.在其中的一家教堂康复中心,密那外的基督改变中心(Change in Christ Center),创始人当罗(Thang Raw)负责一个治疗项目,它依靠的是令人着迷的赞美诗阅读会,以及在水泥修筑的水槽里浸礼似的仪式,从而缓解戒毒带来的痛苦。The treatment did little to help Mung Hkwang, 21, who despite the sweltering heat lay shivering recently inside the center’s thatch-roofed dormitory. His ankle, tattooed with a marijuana leaf, was shackled to his bed to keep him from running away to feed his habit.这种治疗没有为21岁的孟宽(Mung Hkwang)带来多少帮助,不久前的一天,在闷热的天气里,他躺在茅草屋顶的中心宿舍里,浑身发抖。他那纹了大麻叶纹身的脚踝被拷在了床上,这是为了防止他跑出去吸毒。“It ruined my life and destroyed my education,” he said.“它毁了我的人生,毁了我的学业,”他说。Just weeks later, Mr. Mung Hkwang ran away and died from a heroin overdose.几周之后,孟宽跑了,后来死于海洛因过量。The Hand of China中国之手There are plenty of culprits in Myanmar’s illicit jade and drug trades. But many human rights activists reserve their harshest criticism for China, which they say is content to profit from the mounting chaos that has engulfed Myanmar’s jade industry.缅甸的非法玉石和毒品贸易中,有很多罪魁祸首。但许多人权活动人士都把最严厉的批评都给了中国。他们说,中国心安理得地从缅甸玉石行业的日益严重的混乱中受益。“China prioritizes naked greed over any concern for the local population or how the jade is extracted,” said David Mathieson, a senior researcher on Myanmar for Human Rights Watch.“中国把裸的贪欲置于当地民众或者玉石开采方式等问题之上,”人权观察组织缅甸问题高级研究员戴维·马西森(David Mathieson)说。Jade has fired the Chinese imagination for thousands of years. According to legend, the birth of Confucius was prophesied by a unicorn who gave his mother a jade tablet heralding his destiny. To this day, many Chinese believe the stone wards off misfortune and heals the body.几千年来,玉石一直激发着中国人的想象。传说中,孔子的出生之前,有麒麟献玉书,上面预言了孔子的命运。直到今天,许多中国人还相信这种石头能够辟邪祛病。“Jade, from ancient to modern times, is a symbol of grace to Chinese people,” said Zhi Feina, 34, a civil servant and repeat customer at the Beijing Colorful Yunnan Company, an opulent three-story jade emporium in Beijing where she was trying on bracelets.“从古至今,玉对中国人来说都一种优雅的象征,”34岁的公务员菲娜说。她是北京七云南商贸有限公司的常客,这是一家气派的玉石商城,共有三层。此刻她正在商城内试戴手镯。The state-affiliated Gems amp; Jewelry Trade Association of China estimates that annual sales of jade are as high as billion, more than half of which comes from Burmese jade.政府旗下的中国珠宝玉石首饰行业协会估计,玉石的年销售额高达50亿美元,其中超过一半来自缅甸。In a rare admission, China’s ambassador to Myanmar, Yang Houlan, confirmed that some Chinese are breaking Burmese laws, but he said Beijing was trying to clamp down.中国驻缅甸大使杨厚兰也罕见地实,有些中国人违反了缅甸法律,但北京正在努力予以打压。“There are some businessmen engaged in illegal activities who, attracted by outsize profits, cross the border to mine or smuggle jade,” he said in an email, adding that the two nations have stepped up cooperation on border controls and money-laundering investigations. “But there are some parts of this illicit trade that, like drugs, can’t be stamped out.”“一些商人受到巨大利益的诱惑从事了不法活动,穿越边境去挖矿或走私,”他在邮件中说。两国已经加强了边境管控和洗钱调查方面的合作,他接着说,“但有些非法贸易,就像毒品一样,是无法彻底根除的。”Activists dispute the notion that the governments are serious about cracking down. Without a stronger push for reform from China, they say, they have little hope that conditions will improve.活动人士不认为两国政府真的想要打压这些活动。他们说,如果中国不大力推动改革,他们不相信情况会出现改善。So far, there does not appear to be an appetite for major change. During an interview, Shi Hongyue, vice secretary general of the Gems amp; Jewelry Trade Association of China, refused to even discuss the ills plaguing the Burmese jade trade.迄今为止,政府似乎没有做出重大改变的意愿。在采访中,中国珠宝玉石首饰行业协会副秘书长史洪岳甚至拒绝谈论缅甸玉石贸易的弊端。When pressed about heroin at the mines, Mr. Shi was dismissive. “Honestly,” he said, “the amount of drugs they’re using isn’t really that much.”在被问道矿工使用海洛因的问题时,史洪岳似乎有些不屑。“老实说,”他说,“他们使用的毒品其实没那么多。” /201412/346765。

Bizarrely bulky animals are taking nature-loving tourists by storm。诡异的是,强壮的动物们让爱好大自然的游客们大吃一惊。First a beefy kangaroo stunned Australia, and now an equally muscly giraffe has been spotted in South Africa。先是一只强壮的袋鼠震惊了澳大利亚,而现在一直同样肌肉发达的长颈鹿在南非被发现。The brawny giraffe could have come straight out of Fight Club, as he shows off his muscular neck in a profile shot at sundown at the Pongola Game Reserve。这只雄壮的长颈鹿都能直接算是搏击俱乐部的一员了。于蓬戈拉野生动物保护区日落时分拍的一张它的照片展示了它肌肉发达的脖子。Giraffes use their necks to fight, so after going head-to-head - or neck-to-neck - they can end up looking extremely muscular。长颈鹿用它们的脖子打架,因此在头碰头或脖子撞脖子后,它们最终看上去非常强壮。 /201507/384746。

A:How ‘bout we try my new “snuff ball” pitch?A:试试我新的必杀球怎么样?B: What’s that?B:怎么做的?A: First, I remove “a pinch” from between my cheek and my gums…A:首先,先把球放在我的脸颊和牙齿中间······ ······B: That’s enough, I don’t wanna hear the restB:够了,饿哦不想听后面的了。 /201504/371649。

More than half of Chinese men smoke and many of the country’s cities are periodically blanketed in toxic smog, so millions of people are expected to develop respiratory illnesses in the coming years.中国有一半以上的男性吸烟,还有多座城市时常笼罩在有毒雾霾中,因此未来这些年预计有数百万人会罹患呼吸系统疾病。Linde, the German industrial and medical gases company, therefore sees a huge need for oxygen and other respiratory therapies in the world’s most populous country.因此,德国工业气体和医疗气体公司林德(Linde),看到了这个世界人口最多的国家对医疗氧气和其他呼吸系统疾病治疗方法的巨大需求。Three years ago it paid .6bn to acquire Lincare, a US provider of homecare respiratory services and equipment.三年前,林德以46亿美元收购了美国公司Lincare,该公司提供呼吸系统疾病治疗设备以及家庭护理务。Wolfgang Büchele, Linde chief executive, wants to use Lincare as a platform to enter China but first the company requires a licence to provide healthcare services in Chinese homes.林德首席执行官沃尔夫冈#8226;比歇勒(Wolfgang Büchele)想将Lincare作为进入中国的平台,但该公司首先要取得牌照才能在中国提供家庭护理务。“Clearly the healthcare sector [in China] is a huge opportunity,” he says in his first interview since becoming chief executive in May last year. Linde will enter the market “as soon as the system allows it and it is clear how reimbursement can be achieved#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;We are in intensive discussions with the Chinese government.”去年5月比歇勒成为林德首席执行官,他在上任后第一次接受采访时表示:“很明显,(中国)的医疗保健行业是一个巨大机会。”林德将尽快进入该市场,“只等当地医疗体系批准,和明确如何报销……我们正在与中国政府进行密集讨论”。When Mr Büchele replaced Wolfgang Reitzleas Linde’s top manager, he emphasised that there was no need for a revolution.比歇勒在取代沃尔夫冈#8226;赖茨勒(Wolfgang Reitzle)成为林德的总经理时,强调没必要进行一场革命。Mr Reitzle, now chairman of Holcim, spent a decade at Linde overhauling a once unwieldy conglomerate by selling unwanted businesses and focusing the group on three areas: industrial gases, medical equipment and plant engineering. Between 2003 and 2014 the share price quadrupled.赖茨勒现在是豪瑞(Holcim)的董事长,他曾花费十年时间对一度笨重的林德集团进行彻底改革,出售了不需要的业务,将整个集团的业务集中在三块:工业气体、医疗以及工程。2003年到2014年,林德的股价涨了3倍。 /201506/382048。

Fish oil is now the third most widely used dietary supplement in the ed States, after vitamins and minerals, according to a recent report from the National Institutes of Health. At least 10 percent of Americans take fish oil regularly, most believing that the omega-3 fatty acids in the supplements will protect their cardiovascular health.最近,一份来自美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)的报告称,在美国应用最广泛的若干膳食补充剂中,鱼油位列第三,仅次于维生素和矿质元素。至少10%的美国人定期用鱼油,其中大多数人都相信鱼油中的ω-3脂肪酸会促进心血管健康。But there is one big problem: The vast majority of clinical trials involving fish oil have found no evidence that it lowers the risk of heart attack and stroke.不过一个明显的问题是:绝大多数有关鱼油的临床试验都未发现任何据足以明鱼油的确可以降低心肌梗死和中风的风险。From 2005 to 2012, at least two dozen rigorous studies of fish oil were published in leading medical journals, most of which looked at whether fish oil could prevent cardiovascular events in high-risk populations. These were people who had a history of heart disease or strong risk factors for it, like high cholesterol, hypertension or Type 2 diabetes.2005年至2012年,顶尖医学期刊上至少登载了二十多篇有关鱼油的严谨研究,其中大部分研究都探讨了鱼油能否预防高危人群患心血管疾病的问题。这里的高危人群是指:具有心脏病史或者具有强风险因素,如高胆固醇、高血压或患2型糖尿病的病人。All but two of these studies found that compared with a placebo, fish oil showed no benefit.这些研究中,除了两项外研究,其他所有研究都发现与安慰剂相比,鱼油未显示任何效果。And yet during this time, sales of fish oil more than doubled, not just in the ed States but worldwide, said Andrew Grey, an associate professor of medicine at the University of Auckland in New Zealand and the author of a 2014 study on fish oil in JAMA Internal Medicine.然而,在此期间,不只美国,全球的鱼油销售量都翻了一倍以上,2014年在《美国医学会期刊:内科学》杂志上(JAMA Internal Medicine)发表了一项研究的作者,新西兰的奥克兰大学(University of Auckland)的医学副教授安德鲁·格雷(Andrew Grey)说道。“There’s a major disconnect,” Dr. Grey said. “The sales are going up despite the progressive accumulation of trials that show no effect.”“脱节相当严重,”格雷士说。“尽管越来越多的试验都明(鱼油)无效,但其销售量在节节攀升。”In theory at least, there are good reasons that fish oil should improve cardiovascular health. Most fish oil supplements are rich in two omega-3 fatty acids — eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) — that can have a blood-thinning effect, much like aspirin, that may reduce the likelihood of clots. Omega-3s can also reduce inflammation, which plays a role in atherosclerosis. And the Food and Drug Administration has approved at least three prescription types of fish oil — Vascepa, Lovaza and a generic form — for the treatment of very high triglycerides, a risk factor for heart disease.至少在理论上,有很多理由使人觉得鱼油应该可以改善心血管健康。大多数鱼油补充剂都富含两种ω-3脂肪酸——二十碳五烯酸(EPA)和二十二碳六烯酸(DHA),这两种物质都像阿司匹林那样对血液有稀释效果,从而降低发生血栓的可能性。ω-3脂肪酸还可以减少炎症,而炎症在动脉粥样硬化中有一定的作用。美国食品和药品监督(Food and Drug Administration)现已批准了至少三种鱼油产品——Vascepa、Lovaza(ω-3脂肪酸乙酯胶囊)和一种仿制药——作为治疗甘油三酯过高(心脏病的一个风险因素)的处方药。But these properties of omega-3 fatty acids have not translated into notable benefits in most large clinical trials.但在大多数大型临床试验中,脂肪酸的这些特性未能转化为显著的效益。Some of the earliest enthusiasm for fish oil goes back to research carried out in the 1970s by the Danish scientists Dr. Hans Olaf Bang and Dr. Jorn Dyerberg, who determined that Inuits living in northern Greenland had remarkably low rates of cardiovascular disease, which they attributed to an omega-3-rich diet consisting mainly of fish, seal and whale blubber. Dr. George Fodor, a cardiologist at the University of Ottawa, outlined flaws in much of this early research, and he concluded that the rate of heart disease among the Inuit was vastly underestimated. But the halo effect around fish oils persists.对鱼油最早的追捧可以追溯到丹麦科学家汉斯·奥拉夫·邦(Hans Olaf Bang)士和约恩·戴尔伯格(Jorn Dyerberg)士在20世纪70年代进行的一项研究。他们认为生活在格陵兰北部的因纽特人患心血管疾病比率非常低的原因是,因纽特人的膳食以鱼类、海豹和鲸脂为主,这些食品富含ω-3脂肪酸。渥太华大学(University of Ottawa)的心脏病专家乔治·福多尔(George Fodor)士列举了这一研究中的诸多破绽,并断定因纽特人中的心脏病率被大大低估了。不过,萦绕在鱼油之上的光环仍然闪耀不息。The case for fish oil was bolstered by several studies from the 1990s, including an Italian study that found that heart attack survivors who were treated with a gram of fish oil daily had a drop in mortality, compared with patients taking vitamin E. These findings prompted groups like the American Heart Association to endorse fish oil about a decade ago as a way for heart patients to get more omega-3s in their diets.该项关于鱼油的研究得到了从20世纪90年代起的若干项研究的持,其中一项来自意大利的研究发现,每日用一克鱼油的心肌梗死幸存者的死亡率较用维生素E的患者有所降低。这些研究结果促使美国心脏协会(American Heart Association)等组织在大约十年前大力推崇心脏病患者用鱼油来补充膳食ω-3脂肪酸。“But since then, there has been a spate of studies showing no benefit,” said Dr. James Stein, the director of preventive cardiology at University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics. Among them was a clinical trial of 12,000 people, published in The New England Journal of Medicine in 2013, that found that a gram of fish oil daily did not reduce the rate of death from heart attacks and strokes in people with evidence of atherosclerosis.“但此后的大量研究却显示鱼油没什么功效,”威斯康星大学医院和诊所(University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics)的预防心脏病学主任詹姆斯·斯坦(James Stein)士说。其中2013年发表在《新英格兰医学杂志》(The New England Journal of Medicine)上的一项涉及12000人的临床试验发现,在存在动脉粥样硬化据的人群中,每日用一克鱼油并未降低因心肌梗死和中风死亡率。“I think that the era of fish oil as medication could be considered over now,” said the study’s lead author, Dr. Gianni Tognoni of the Institute for Pharmacological Research in Milan.该研究的作者之一,米兰药理研究所(Institute for Pharmacological Research in Milan)的詹尼·托尼奥尼(Gianni Tognoni)士说:“我认为,现在是该考虑结束将鱼油当做药物的时代了。”Dr. Stein said the early fish oil studies took place in an era when cardiovascular disease was treated very differently than it is today, with far less use of statins, beta blockers, blood thinners and other intensive therapies. So the effect of fish oil, even if it were minor, he said, would have been more noticeable.斯坦士说,有关鱼油的早期研究出现在心血管疾病的治疗还十分困难的时代,那时,他汀类药物、β受体阻滞剂、血液稀释剂和其他强化治疗的使用都比现在少得多。因此,鱼油的作用——哪怕十分轻微——也会较为显而易见。“The standard of care is so good today that adding something as small as a fish oil capsule doesn’t move the needle of difference,” he said. “It’s hard to improve it with an intervention that’s not very strong.”“如今的医护水平已经非常高,多吃一颗小小的鱼油胶囊不会带来多大改观,”他说。“要改善本来就已经十分强效的干预措施是非常困难的。”Dr. Stein also cautions that fish oil can be hazardous when combined with aspirin or other blood thinners. “Very frequently we find people taking aspirin or a ‘super aspirin’ and they’re taking fish oil, too, and they’re bruising very easily and having nosebleeds,” he said. “And then when we stop the fish oil, it gets better.”斯坦士还提醒说,当与阿司匹林或其他血液稀释剂合起用时,鱼油可能会带来危险。“我们经常发现人们在用阿司匹林或‘超级阿司匹林’的同时用鱼油,这些人身上很容易出现青紫的瘀伤,也容易流鼻血,”他说。“当他们停止用鱼油后,情况就好转了。”Like many cardiologists, Dr. Stein encourages his patients to avoid fish oil supplements and focus instead on eating fatty fish at least twice a week, in line with federal guidelines on safe fish intake, because fish contains a variety of healthful nutrients other than just EPA and DHA. “We don’t recommend fish oil unless someone gets absolutely no fish in their diets,” Dr. Stein said.像许多心脏病专家一样,斯坦士也鼓励他的患者尽量不要用鱼油补充剂,而是注意每周至少食用两次富含脂肪的鱼类(遵循联邦指南中鱼肉的安全摄入量),因为除了EPA和DHA,鱼肉中还含有多种其他有益健康的营养成分。斯坦士说:“除非饮食中完全没有鱼类,否则我们不建议用鱼油。”But some experts say the case for fish oil remains open. Dr. JoAnn Manson, the chief of preventive medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, said the large clinical trials of fish oil focused only on people who aly had heart disease or were at very high risk. Fish oil has also been promoted for the prevention of a variety of other conditions, including cancer, Alzheimer’s and depression.但一些专家称,有关鱼油的这段公案仍未了结。位于波士顿的布莱根妇女医院(Brigham and Women’s Hospital)的预防医学主任乔安·曼森(JoAnn Manson)士表示,针对鱼油的大型临床试验只侧重于那些已患有心脏病或风险非常高的人。鱼油还被一些人称作可预防多种其他疾病,如癌症、阿尔茨海默氏症和抑郁症。Dr. Manson is leading a five-year clinical trial, called the Vital study, of 26,000 people who are more representative of the general population. Set to be completed next year, it will determine whether fish oil and vitamin D, separately or combined, have any effect on the long-term prevention of heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, and other diseases in people who do not have many strong risk factors.目前,曼森士正领导开展着一项名为“Vital”的临床试验,该实验选取2.6万个更能代表普通人情况的人作为研究对象,为期五年,计划明年完成。它将确定在无强风险因素的人群中,鱼油和维生素D(无论是单独使用还是联用)对于心脏病、2型糖尿病和其他疾病是否具有长期效果。Dr. Manson says that although she recommends eating fatty fish first, she usually does not stop people from taking fish oil, in part because it does not seem to have major side effects in generally healthy people.曼森士说,她虽然建议优先食用富含脂肪的鱼类,但一般不会阻止人们用鱼油,一部分原因是鱼油对于健康的普通人似乎没有什么严重的副作用。“But I do think people should realize that the jury is still out,” she said, “and that they may be spending a lot of money on these supplements without getting any benefit.”“不过我认为人们应该意识到事情没有最后定论,”她说,“他们很可能花了很多冤枉钱买这些补充剂,却没能获得任何帮助。” /201505/376495。

Every luxury company fears the “Danniella Westbrook effect”. The phenomenon named after the former EastEnders actress recalls the deleterious impact she had on the Burberry clothes brand after she and her toddler daughter were photographed clad head-to-toe in beige check. The snobbish world of fashion judged the photo a travesty and Burberry’s sales in the UK were hit.所有奢侈品公司都惧怕“丹妮拉#8226;韦斯特布鲁克(Danniella Westbrook)效应”。这个根据前伦敦东区女演员命名的现象让人们想起她对柏利(Burberry)饰品牌造成的伤害,此前,她和自己蹒跚学步的女儿被拍到从头到脚一身都是柏利经典的米色格纹。势利的时尚界把这看做是一场拙劣的模仿,柏利在英国的销量因而受到了冲击。Louis Vuitton is facing a similar issue in China. While the brand’s owner, the French luxury retailer LVMH, has not fallen foul of any Burberry-style moment, it is nevertheless experiencing brand fade as consumers in higher-tier cities increasingly shun its products, according to data from China Confidential, an FT research service. LV’s problem in one sense is much like Burberry’s: it has become too ubiquitous for its own good.法国奢侈品零售商路威酩轩集团(LVMH)旗下品牌路易威登(Louis Vuitton)在中国也面临着类似的问题。虽然LVMH没有遭遇任何的“柏利时刻”,但英国《金融时报》旗下调研机构《中国投资参考》(China Confidential)的数据表明,随着中国一线城市消费者越来越避免选择其产品,该集团同样在经历品牌衰退。在某种意义上,路易威登的问题与柏利很相似的:物极必反。Just 18.8 per cent of survey respondents in China’s first-tier cities — Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen — said LV was the luxury brand they most aspired to own, compared with 38.3 per cent among consumers surveyed in third-tier cities, China Confidential’s data show (see chart). Indeed, although LV remains the most popular luxury brand in China, Prada is eclipsing it in first tier cities, the data show.《中国投资参考》数据显示(见图表),在中国一线城市——北京、上海、广州和深圳,只有18.8%的受访者称路易威登是他们最渴望拥有的奢侈品牌,而在三线城市,这一比例为38.3%。数据显示,虽然路易威登在中国的确仍是最受欢迎的奢侈品牌,但在一线城市,普拉达(Prada)正盖过其风头。This is at least partly because of the zeitgeist among China’s wealthier and more cosmopolitan consumers for individuality and exclusivity. Such people recoil from the idea that they will be seen sporting the same brand as, say, the mistress of a “bao fa hu” — overnight millionaires or billionaires — coal mine owner from a lower-tier city in the gritty inland province of Shanxi.至少部分原因在于中国较富裕阶层的时代精神,以及越来越见多识广的消费者对个性和独特性的追求。这类人不愿看到自己身穿与“暴发户”的情妇同样的品牌——暴发户是指一夜暴富、身价百万或亿万的煤老板,通常来自内陆山西省的尘土飞扬的中小城市。This aversion comes through in surveys. A large proportion of first tier city respondents said they specifically avoided purchasing brands that too many other people owned. When asked to rate the reasons for their luxury purchases on a scale of one to five (with higher scores indicating greater agreement), survey respondents gave a 3.92 rating to “expressing my personal tastes”.这种厌恶在调查中显露无疑。一线城市的很大一部分受访者称,他们特意避免购买那些被很多其他人拥有的品牌。当被要求对购买奢侈品的理由进行从1至5(分数越高表明越认同)的打分时,受访者对“展示个人品味”给出了3.92分。The dwindling popularity of LV also shows up among Chinese travellers making purchases overseas. China Confidential’s recent annual survey of 1,277 Chinese outbound travellers showed that just 10.7 per cent of travellers who purchased designer goods on their most recent trip overseas purchased an LV-brand item, down from 15.5 per cent in a 2014 survey.路易威登下滑的人气也反映在到海外购物的中国游客身上。《中国投资参考》最近对1277名中国出境游客的年度调查显示,最近一次海外旅行中购买过名牌商品的游客中,只有10.7%的人购买了路易威登的产品,相比2014年的15.5%有所降低。The decline was particularly pronounced among high-income travellers, with just 12.9 per cent of those with annual household incomes in excess of Rmb350,000 (,500) buying LV on their most recent trip, compared with 24.3 per cent a year earlier.这种降低在高收入游客中表现尤为明显,家庭年收入超过35万元人民币(合5.65万美元)的游客中,只有12.9%的人在最近一次旅行中购买过路易威登的产品,而去年同期的比例为24.3%。LVMH is aly moving to reposition its brand in response to these shifts, including an expansion of LV product ranges with subtler logos, as well as a greater emphasis on its faster-growing sub-brands such as Céline and Fendi. The French luxury retailer is also working to control its pace of store expansion in China.LVMH已经开始对其品牌进行重新定位以应对这些变化,包括扩大带有不易察觉标识的路易威登产品的范围,并给予诸如赛琳(Céline)和芬迪(Fendi)等增长更快的子品牌更多的重视。LVMH也在努力控制中国专卖店的扩张步伐。But its latest financial results suggest that there is plenty of work to do. LVMH’s Asia ex-Japan revenue, to which China is the main contributor, fell 6 per cent year on year in the first quarter of this year, steeper than the 1 per cent year-on-year decline in regional revenue in 2014. With China’s anti-corruption campaign showing no sign of relenting and with consumers increasingly favouring subtler, lesser-known brands, the company faces a struggle to reclaim the cachet of exclusivity from the atrophying impact of ubiquity.而其最新财报表明,还有大量工作要做。LVMH在亚洲地区(日本除外)的收入——中国是主要的贡献者——今年第一季度同比下降6%,大大超过2014年1%的同比跌幅。中国的反腐行动没有任何放松的迹象,加上消费者越来越偏爱一些标识不显眼、不为大众熟知的品牌,这让LVMH面临着一个难题:在其无处不在的影响力的式微中,如何重新树立起独一无二的品牌威望。 /201504/372531。