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These are strange and unnerving times in global financial markets, and if Thursday’s jaw-dropping move in the Swiss currency didn’t prove it, nothing will.全球金融市场会经历一些让人不知所措的异常时刻,瑞士货币汇率周四令人瞠目结舌的波动就是最好的明。It is not every day that the currency of an advanced, economically important country rises by double-digit percentages against the currencies of other such countries within mere hours. But that is what happened to the Swiss franc on Thursday. It is up 18 percent against the euro as of Thursday morning, and at one point was up 39 percent. Currency strategists were searching for any analogue in modern history for a similarly abrupt move in major Western currency and coming up empty.一个拥有重要经济地位的发达国家的货币,兑换同类国家货币的汇率,在区区几个小时之内以两位数的百分比上涨,这可不是什么每天都能见到的事。然而在周四,这种情况就发生在了瑞士法郎身上。截至周四上午,瑞士法郎兑欧元汇率上扬了18%,而且曾一度暴9%。货币策略师们正在当代历史中寻找主要西方货币陡然大幅升值的相似状况,但一无所获。The Swiss move offers interesting lessons about the oddly precarious state of the global economy, but first it’s worth working through what exactly the Swiss National Bank has done.瑞士市场的波动提供了关于全球经济脆弱状况的有趣明,但首先,我们应该弄清楚瑞士国家银Swiss National Bank)究竟做了些什么。Back during the eurozone debt crisis in 2011, fear was high that banks in countries that use the euro would go belly up. If you were a company or rich person in a country like Greece or Italy or even France or Germany, fearful that the euro could go kablooey and your local banks with it, you were sorely tempted to catch a flight to Zurich or Geneva and deposit your money in a Swiss bank. Amid a general atmosphere of global panic, the same could be said of plenty of savers outside Europe: Russians, Middle Easterners, Chinese, you name it.2011年欧债危机期间,对欧元区各国央行可能破产的担忧四起。在希腊、意大利,乃至法国或德国这样的国家,如果你是一家企业的负责人或者一位富人,担心欧元可能把当地的一同拖下水,你巴不得能跳上去苏黎世或日内瓦的航班,把钱存进一家瑞士。在全球恐慌的大环境下,可以说欧洲之外的储户也是如此:俄罗斯人、中东人、中国人,不一而足。All those people looking to park money in Switzerland, a country of only 8 million people, created incredible upward pressure on the Swiss franc. From the start of 2010 to mid-2011, the value of the franc rose 44 percent against the euro.这些人都想要把钱存到瑞士这个仅有800万人口的国家,从而为瑞士法郎构成了难以想象的升值压力。从2010年初011年中,瑞士法郎对欧元上涨4%。Think about that for a minute. It would be as if dollars in the state of Virginia (with a population similar to Switzerland) suddenly were worth 44 percent more than the dollars used in the rest of the country. Virginians would be wealthier, but it would be a catastrophe for businesses in the state. Suddenly their costs would be 44 percent higher, effectively, than that of competitors in other states. Tourism would dry up; why go to a Virginia beach when it is 44 percent more expensive than a North Carolina beach?让我们思考一下。这就好比弗吉尼亚州(人口与瑞士相当)的美元价值突然比美国其他地方高出4%。弗吉尼亚民众是更富有了,但这对于该州的企业来说却是个灾难。与其他州的竞争者相比,它们的成本突然跃升了44%。旅游业会枯竭;弗吉尼亚海滩的消费要比北卡罗来纳州的海滩高出44%,谁还会去那儿呢?That’s exactly the situation Swiss businesses faced. Swiss watchmakers, pharmaceutical firms and ski resorts were suffering mightily because a scary global economy made people want to park their money into Swiss banks.这正是瑞士企业面临的处境。那里的钟表制造商、制药企业和滑雪度假区遭受了重创,就因为可怕的全球经济让人们想要把钱存进瑞士的。The Swiss National Bank came to the rescue. After its earlier efforts to cut interest rates hadn’t done enough to dampen interest in the franc, it pulled out the big guns, and set a peg, announcing it wouldn’t allow the franc to appreciate such that one franc buys fewer than 1.2 euros. They backed it by going onto foreign exchange markets at will and buying euros as necessary to defend the peg.瑞士央行在这时挺身而出。早先下调利率的举措未能抑制对瑞士法郎的兴趣之后,它拿出了杀手锏,设定了一个汇率上限,宣布不会允许本国货币任意升值,而是要将汇率保持瑞郎士法郎兑.2欧元以下。他们到外汇市场大量买入所需要的欧元,从而守住这个上限。It worked for a long time. But now, the European Central Bank looks to be on the verge of an extensive new effort to try to pump money into the European economy to get it out of its doldrums, which is creating downward pressure on the euro. The pressure is particularly pronounced against the dollar, the benchmark of global commerce, which is rising in part because of a strong ed States economy and plans by the Federal Reserve to raise interest rates.在很长一段时间内,这种做法起了作用。但是现在,欧洲央行(European Central Bank)似乎即将采取大规模行动,设法为欧洲经济注入资金,使之摆脱低迷。欧洲经济的低迷正在促使欧元下行。在兑换美元——国际贸易的基准货币——的汇率方面,这种压力尤其明显。美元正在升值,这在一定程度上是因为美国经济走强,以及美联Federal Reserve)提高利率的计划。Meanwhile, Russia is a basket case, increasing the desire of Russian oligarchs to avoid exposure to a falling ruble.与此同时,俄罗斯深陷危机,从而增加了该国寡头规避因卢布不断贬值而带来的风险的意愿。All that means that the 1.2 euro peg is becoming more and more expensive to defend. And on Thursday, the Swiss National Bank, led by Thomas Jordan, basically waved the white flag.这一切都意味着,坚.2的汇率上限需要付出越来越高的代价。到了本周四,由托马斯·约尔丹(Thomas Jordan)所领导的瑞士央行基本举了白旗。In a news release, the bank said that it believed the franc was less overvalued now than it had been when the policy started, so no more peg. “Recently, divergences between the monetary policies of the major currency areas have increased significantly a trend that is likely to become even more pronounced,the announcement said.央行在一则新闻稿中表示,它认为目前瑞士法郎估值过高的程度,比开始实施这项政策时要低,所以无需再坚守汇率上限。“最近,各大货币区在货币政策上的差异已显著增加——这一趋势很可能会更加明显,”文中称。In other words, this situation is only going to get worse, which means we would be throwing Swiss francs down a money pit if we tried to continue defending the 1.2 currency peg.换而言之,情况只会越来越糟,这意味着,如果我们试图继续坚.2的汇率上限,就相当于把瑞士法郎往无底洞里扔。The central bank simultaneously cut interest rates, hoping to offset some of the damage in foreign exchange markets. It didn’t work. The Swiss franc-to-euro exchange rate moved back to where it was before the peg was introduced. Shares of major Swiss companies like Nestle plummeted. Exporters in Switzerland (and people thinking of traveling there, such as the global elite soon heading to Davos for the World Economic Forum) are in for serious sticker shock.瑞士央行在同一时间降息,希望能冲抵对外汇市场的一些损害。但是没用。瑞士法郎兑欧元的汇率回到了设定这一上限之前的水平。雀Nestle)等瑞士大公司的股价暴跌。瑞士的出口商(以及考虑前往该国的人们,比如很快将奔赴达沃斯出席世界经济论坛[World Economic Forum]的全球精英)会面临严重的“价签休克”。One can sympathize with the Swiss National Bank as it defended its peg in the face of mounting potential losses. But the bigger lesson here is this: The six years and counting of aggressive monetary activism out of major central banks like the Fed and E.C.B. may have rescued the global economy over and over. But it has also created a range of spillovers far beyond ed States and European borders that people all around the world will be grappling with for a long time to come.在面对日益严重的潜在损失时,瑞士央行坚守了它的汇率上限,这一点值得同情。不过,这里有个更大的教训:美联储和欧洲央行等各大央行为期六年而且仍在继续的积极货币政策,或许是多次拯救了全球经济,但是,它所产生的一系列后果,远远超出了美国和欧洲的范畴,而世界各地的人们将需要花很长时间来消化。来 /201501/355028

Its been a tough year for Russia. Thesliding ruble, plunging oil prices and economic sanctions have all cut a swathe through the economy. China, Russias biggest economic partner is now offering to help. Think of it as an olive branch filled with yuan leaves.今年对俄罗斯来说是苦难的一年。卢布贬值,油价下滑,再加上经济制裁,都对俄罗斯经济造成了巨大的打击。而作为俄罗斯最大的经济伙伴,中国愿意提供帮助。可以把它想象成一枝结满人民币的橄榄枝。Henry Blodget says this is an example ofthe changing global economy: ;The world is realigning. This is the big picture.China is getting stronger and stronger. Russia is in trouble.; Dont tell thatto Russian President Vladimir Putin. Putin doesnt consider his countrys current economic state as a crisis and he remains defiant that the Ruble will bounce back.Henry Blodget说这就是全球经济正在转变的例子。“世界正在重组。这才是重点。中国越来越强。而俄罗斯正陷入麻烦。”不要把这个事实告诉俄罗斯总统普京。普京并不觉得自己的国家正陷入经济危机,并认为卢布最终将会反弹。China and Russia are both trying to decrease dependence on the U.S. dollar in international trading. In October,the countries agreed on a billion currency swap to strengthen the ruble and make trading easier between the two partners.中国和俄罗斯都在努力减少自己在国际贸易中对美元的依赖0月份,两个国家同意进40亿美元的货币互换以强化卢布,并让两国之间的贸易变得更容易。Perhaps, not looking to offend Putin,Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi says they would only help Russia, if they needed it and that he believes Russia has the wherewithal to get out from underits problems. Blodget disagrees and sees some bumpy roads ahead: ;Youre goingto get destabilization. China and Russia are cozying up. China is playing it both ways. Saying not too much help here and keeping their options open.;或许是为了不触犯到普京,中国外长王毅说如果俄罗斯有需要的话中国会提供帮助,并且他相信俄罗斯有办法解决自己的问题。Blodget并不认同这种看法,并认为前面的道路并不平坦:“你们将变得不稳定,中国和俄罗斯在互相安慰。中国在玩两面手法。嘴上说说并不能提供什么帮助,并且让自己的选择保持开放。”China and Russia both need each other.Earlier this year China signed a 30-year 0 billion deal to buy Russian gasand shore up their energy supplies. Western economic sanctions placed on Russia after its meddling in the Ukraine have also forced the country to import more from China. Chinas exports to Russia are up over 10% from last year.中国和俄罗斯互相需要对方。今年早些时候,中国和俄罗斯签订了一个价000亿美元的30年期的天然气购买协议以满足自己的需求。而西方的制裁也导致俄罗斯更多的从中国进口。与去年相比,中国对俄罗斯出口的涨幅超过00%。Russias struggles are also a prime opportunity for China to showcase its economic prowess. Chinas buying powerand global emergence is altering the global landscape. ;This idea that the U.S.and Europe control the whole world is starting to change,; says Blodget. Lookfor China to continue to find ways to assert its economic power in the coming year.俄罗斯的挣扎也正是中国展示自己经济实力的时机。中国的购买力和全球出镜率正在改变全球的图景。“美欧控制世界的印象开始改变,”Blodget说。未来几年中国将继续寻找方式来伸张自己的经济影响力。来 /201412/350301


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