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时间:2018年12月15日 01:06:04

Ashokas political and moral philosophy-as he expressed it in his imperial inscriptions-initiated a tradition of religious tolerance, non-violent debate and a commitment to the idea of happiness which have animated Indian political philosophy ever since.阿育王镌刻在石柱上的政治与道德哲学开启了宗教自由、非暴力抗争与追寻幸福的传统,影响了此后的印度政治理念。But-and its a big but-his benevolent empire scarcely outlived him.但遗憾的是,他仁慈的帝国在他死后未能持久,And that leaves us with the uncomfortable question of whether such high ideals can survive the realities of political power.人不禁想问,崇高的政治理想是否敌不过现实政治的残酷?Nevertheless, this was a ruler who really did change the way that his subjects and their successors thought.令但他的想法确实深切地影响了他的臣民及其后代。Ghandi was an admirer, as was Nehru, and Ashoka even today finds his way on to the currency-on all the Indian banknotes we see Gandhi facing the four lions of Ashokas pillar.甘地与尼赫鲁都是他的追随者。有关他的信息甚至出现在了现代货币上。印度的每一张钞票上都绘有甘地头像,面对着阿育王石柱上的四只狮子。The architects of Indian independence had him often in their mind. Heres Amartya Sen again:这位印度独立的领导人一直敬仰着阿育王。但阿马蒂亚森指出,So thats one part-the duty of the ruler to do good to the world and to his subjects-thats the point that H. G. Wells picks up in locating Ashoka as a big figure in the history of the world.阿育王的影响力波及更远,整个印度次大陆都将他视为启蒙者与政治典范:But the one that the Indians particularly emphasised at the time of independence is his secularism and democracy in Ashokan thought.在独立运动时期,印度人特别强调阿育王的民主与政教分离观念。But he is a big figure also in China, in Japan, in Korea, in Thailand, in Sri Lanka, and so he is also in that sense a pan-Asian figure.此外,他在中国、日本、韩国、泰国和斯里兰卡都广受尊敬。他是整个亚洲的偶像。 In the next programme we are dealing with another inscription and another ruler closely linked with a religious system, but in this case the religion is now dead and the ruler is no longer of any consequence-indeed he never really was.下一节我将介绍另一种碑文,以及另一位与宗教关系密切的统治者。但那宗教现已消亡,这位统治者对后世也没有什么影响力—事实上, 他一直都只是一个无足轻重的君王。But the inscription is one of the most famous objects in the British Museum-and possibly in the world-because its written on the Rosetta Stone.但这块碑石却是整个大英物馆, 乃至整个世界上最著名的文物之一。201411/340620

5 different bacteria have been studied and现在正在研究五种细菌和它们的功能have known functions in the mouth, they include;它们包括:streptococcus mutans, pophyromonas gingivalis,变异链球菌,牙龈卟啉单胞菌capnocytophaga gingivalis, prevotella melaninogenica,牙龈二氧化碳嗜纤维菌,产黑普氏菌streptococcus mitis. These bacterial species have been缓症链球菌found in higher concentrations with certain diseases.在某种疾病的高浓聚物里已经发现了细菌Also candida albicans, a type of yeast, has been found白色念珠菌,是一种酵母,已经在口腔里in the oral cavity and could have a role in oral发现了,在口腔癌里也起到了作用cancer.The first is streptococcus mutans which has首先发现的是变异链球菌,可能引起蛀牙been found to cause tooth decay. These bacteria digest这些细菌消化食物中的糖和淀粉the sugars and starches in foods and produce acids产生溶解牙釉质的酸which dissolve tooth enamel. When sucrose is present当蔗糖出现时plaque formation is increased by this bacteria thus这种细菌就会增加空斑的形成,因此a diet lower in table sugar is better for less plaque在饮食中降低蔗糖,对减少菌斑形成很有益formation.The second bacteria has been found to be第二种细菌和牙周病associated with periodontal or gum disease.牙龈病有关High levels found in adult periodontistis legions成人牙周病很严重很普遍,以及很高的as well as a high pathogenic potential make this潜在致病性使得这种细菌bacteria the main pathogen in periodontal diseases.成为牙周病主要的病原体There are many different strains of this bacteria that这种细菌有许多种不同的菌株正在被研究are being studied. This is one reason why keeping the这也是为什么保持口腔干净健康成为阻止oral cavity clean and healthy is important to keep这些细菌繁殖和形成新株种的these bacteria from reproducing and forming new strands.重要原因之一3 other bacteria have also been studied, during a还有三种其他的细菌也正在被研究study done to determine the relationship between在一个决定唾液腺细菌和口腔癌症关系的salivary microbes and oral cancer these 3 bacteria were研究过程中,发现这三种细菌found in much higher levels in oral cancer patients存在于口腔癌症患者中than those without oral cancer. The study looked at远多于那些没有患口腔癌症的患者40 different bacteria but these 3 showed signs of a这项研究观察了40多种不同的细菌relationship. The increased numbers of these 3但是这三种细菌显示了它们之间的关系bacteria predicted 80% of oral cancer cases among这三种增加的细菌预示了在那些测试者中those tested. As a result there could be a link between有80%的口腔癌病例,因此the bacteria in the mouth and cancer occurrence.口腔细菌和患癌之间是有联系的This technique of measuring the bacteria in the mouth这项衡量口腔细菌的技术could become a diagnostic indicator of oral cancer.将会成为口腔癌的诊断指标Lastly candida albicans is a type of yeast that has最后,白色念珠菌成为在口腔被发现的been found in the oral cavity. Many of these strains酵母菌的一种,许多这种菌株are resistant to anti fungal agents. It has been found都抵抗抗真菌药,比起在健康的口腔to be more prevalent in cancer cases rather than癌症案例中这种菌株更为普遍healthy mouths. This yeast may invade the oral这种酵母菌可能会入侵口腔上皮细胞epithelium and may be involved in oral luekoplakia.也可能涉及口腔黏膜白斑病Candidal leukoplakias have been found to develop in 9现在已经发现念珠菌白斑在口腔癌病例中to 40% of oral cancer cases however the exact从9%增值到40%,然而mechanisms by which they work are not fully它们具体是依靠什么机理如何起作用的understood. So what exactly is oral cancer and who is所以,具体什么是口腔癌,谁有风险患癌at risk? What are common signs and symptoms? How is it主要的迹象和症状是什么,它是如何诊断diagnosed and treated and finally what are some ways治疗的,最后,如何预防它,我们还没有to prevent it? To begin, roughly 30000 Americans are完全明白,开始,每年大约有3000名diagnosed with oral cancer every year. This year alone美国人被诊断出口腔癌,仅今年一年就有there have been 39400 new cases and 7900 deaths. There39400例新案例和7900例死亡病例are between 350000 and 400000 new cases diagnosed全世界每年大约有35万到40万例新案例worldwide each year as well. 5 year survival rates for口腔癌五年以上的存活率很低oral cancer are very low, around 54% because of the大约只有54% ,因为在癌症转移difficulty to detect before the cancer has metastasized或者扩散之前就检测出来太困难了or sp. Oral cancer kills one person every hour口腔癌每小时就能杀死一个人which is greater than the cancers of the cervix, brain,这比子宫癌、脑癌、子房癌、睾丸癌、肝癌ovary, testes, liver, kidney, malignant melanoma or肾癌 、恶性黑色素瘤以及淋巴癌都要高Hodgkins Lymphoma. More importantly incidents更重要的是,在美国和世界范围内in young adults is increasing in both the US and青年人患癌也在增加,因此worldwide so this is a very serious disease.这是一种非常严重的疾病201501/353339

I finally got fed up and just went outside and found David Kelly design,把我搞烦了,我找到David Kelly设计公司 I asked him to design me a mouse in 90 days and we had a mouse that we can build for 15 bucks and that was phenomenally reliable. 对方90天后设计出了质量稳定的鼠标,成本只要15美元So I found that, in a way... Apple did not have the caliber of people that was necessary to seize this idea in many ways. 我这才发现苹果没有足够人才来实现这个创意That was core team did, but there was a larger team that mostly had come from HP that didn’t have a clue.核心团队有这个能力,但是许多从惠普跳槽来的成员不行It comes to this issue of professionalism, there’s dark side and light side? Isn’t it?这涉及到职业分工的问题,每个人特长不同,不是吗?No, you know what it is... No, it’s not dark and light. People get confused, companies get confused, 不,这不是擅长与否的问题,而是他们犯糊涂,公司也在犯糊涂when they started getting bigger, they want to replicate their initial success, 公司规模扩大之后,就会变得因循守旧and a lot of them think well somehow there are some magic in the process, of how success is created... 他们觉得只要遵守流程,就能奇迹般地继续成功so they started to try to institutionalize process across the company. 于是开始推行严格的流程制度And before very long, people get very confused that the process is the content…很快员工就把遵守流程和纪律当作工作本身that’s ultimately the downfall of IBM.IBM就是这样走下坡路的IBM has the best process people in the world, they just forgot about the content. IBM的员工是世界上最守纪律的,他们恰恰忽略了产品And that’s so what happened a little bit at apple too, 苹果也有这个问题we had a lot of people who are great at management process, they just didn’t have a clue at the content, 我们有很多擅长管理流程的人才,但是他们忽略了产品本身and in my career, I found that the best people you know are the ones who really understand the content, 经验告诉我,优秀的人才是那些一心想着产品的人and they are pain in the butt to manage, 虽然这些人很难管理you know but you put up with it because they are so great at the content, and that’s what makes a great product, it’s not process, it’s content.但是我宁愿和他们一起工作,光靠流程和制度做不出好产品 /201306/245896


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