明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年10月23日 18:23:48
An international medical journal#39;s retraction of 107 research papers from China, many of them by clinical doctors, has reignited concerns over academic credibility in the country.一家国际医学杂志撤销了107篇中国学术论文,由此引发了人们对中国学术诚信的关注。被撤稿的作者多数是临床医生。Tumor Biology, a journal published by Springer Nature, announced last week that it had retracted the papers after an investigation showed the peer review process had been compromised.由施普林格自然集团出版的杂志《肿瘤生物学》上周宣布,调查显示,这107篇论文的同行评审过程存在问题,因此已被撤稿。;The articles were submitted with reviewer suggestions, which had real researcher names but fabricated email addresses,; Peter Butler, editorial director for cell biology and biochemistry at Springer Nature, told Shanghai-based news website The Paper.施普林格自然集团细胞生物学和生物化学编辑部主任皮特?巴特勒对上海澎湃新闻网站表示:“这些论文提交的评审人建议中,使用了评审人的真实姓名,但假冒了其电子邮件地址。”;The editors thought the articles were being sent out to genuine reviewers in the discipline,; he said. ;Following our investigation and communication with the real reviewers, they confirmed they did not conduct the peer review.;“这让编辑以为文章发送给了该学科真正的评审人。我们与真正的评审人进行调查和沟通后,他们确认并没有对论文做过评审。Peer review is an evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to those who produce the work, which helps validate research.同行评审指由一个或多个与论文作者业务能力相当的人进行评估,这有助于对研究进行验。The online notice about the retraction lists all 107 articles and 524 authors, nearly all of whom are clinical cancer specialists from China. The hospitals named are all top public institutions.网上的撤稿公告共列出了107篇论文及524位作者,他们几乎都是中国临床肿瘤专家。所涉及的医院都是顶级公立机构。A Beijing cancer specialist who didn#39;t want to be named said on Sunday that although there is no excuse for compromising scientific credibility, the incident reveals a widesp dilemma facing Chinese physicians who struggle to strike a balance between overloaded daily work schedules and academic requirements, primarily publishing papers to secure professional development and promotion.一位不具名的北京癌症专家23日称,虽说破坏科学公信力的行为不该有任何借口,但是这起事件揭示了中国医生面临的普遍困境,即在超负荷的日常工作安排与发表论文以争取职业发展和升职的主要学术要求之间很难维持平衡。;How many patients do Chinese doctors see a day? It can be more than 50,; he told China Daily. ;How can we have the time and energy to do research or publish papers?;他告诉《中国日报》:“中国医生每天要看多少病人?可能超过50个。我们怎么可能有时间和精力做研究或发论文呢?”For those outside the scientific community, the response to the retraction has been mixed.科学圈外的人士对论文撤稿的反应不一。;Hard to believe so many doctors lied in the papers. Can patients still trust them to help us treat diseases?; wrote one Sina Weibo user.一位新浪微网友写道:“不敢相信这么多医生都在论文中造假。病人还能相信他们可以帮人治病吗?”However, others argued that doctors#39; hands may be forced by an unfair system. ;As a patient, I#39;m more concerned about whether they can cure my illness rather than how many papers they#39;ve published,; another netizen said.然而,还有人认为医生的所作所为可能是受不公平的体制所迫。另一位网友称:“作为一个病人,我更关心他们能否治好我的病,而不是他们发表了多少论文。”Wang Chunfa, executive secretary of the China Association for Science and Technology, has expressed deep concern over the retraction, which came just days after he met in Beijing with Arnout Jacobs, the head of Springer Nature for Greater China.中国科学技术协会书记处书记王春法对撤稿事件表示深切关注,事件发生几天前,他刚在北京与施普林格自然集团大中华地区总裁安诺杰会面沟通。In that meeting, he told Jacobs that such problems would decrease, as China is reforming its management system in science and technology, according to a statement by the association on Friday.据中国科协21日发表的声明称,在会谈中,王春法对安诺杰表示,中国正在进行科技管理体制改革,此类问题将有所减少。Wang said the journal and authors had an unavoidable responsibility in the latest scandal, with the statement adding that Tumor Biology had retracted papers over similar concerns about the peer review process in 2015.他说,杂志和作者在这起最近发生的丑闻中都有不可推卸的责任,声明中还说,《肿瘤生物学》在2015年就已经因同行评议过程存在类似问题而撤销一些论文。Verification and evaluation should be enhanced before publication, Wang said.王春法说,在出版前应加强审查和评估。Jacobs vowed at the meeting to improve management and cooperation with the association to enhance the credibility of the science. He stressed the publisher was not targeting China, as it had also retracted papers by experts from other countries, the statement said.声明表示,安诺杰在会谈中承诺将加强管理,增强与中国科协的合作,提升科学公信力。他强调,施普林格自然集团并非针对中国,他们也撤销过其他国家专家的论文。 /201704/505667China will extend its electronic invoice system nationwide in 2016 to better regulate the taxation of online businesses.我国2016年将实现所有发票的网络化运行,对电子商务征税实行更有效的监管。It#39;s expected to help curb tax evasion by users of C2C platforms.此举将有望打击C2C交易中的偷漏税行为。The e-invoices will serve as an equivalent to paper ones that provide proof of transactions and taxation.电子发票与纸质发票具有同等效力,可作为交易及税收明。The e-invoice system has been under trial operation in 22 provincial regions since 2012.自2012年以来,电子发票体系已在全国22个省市试运行。China#39;s two leading e-commerce operators Alibaba and JD.com have all voiced support for the policy.我国的两大电商阿里巴巴和京东都已表态持这一政策。A Taobao shopkeeper says the e-invoice system won#39;t be a burden if it doesn#39;t generate extra fees.一位淘宝卖家称,如果不产生额外费用,采用电子发票不会成为负担。 /201512/416165

China is known for its patience. A century is but a page in the book of its history. We Europeans are much more edgy. First we lamented that our manufacturing jobs were stolen by China. Then we worried about the Chinese shopping spree for raw materials in Africa. And now we are trying to come to terms with the fact that China is buying European businesses in all shapes and forms.中国人以耐心著称。在那本中国历史的书中,一个世纪只占一页篇幅。我们欧洲人就急躁得多。首先,我们哀叹欧洲制造业工作岗位被中国偷走了。接着,我们操心中国人在非洲大肆采购原材料。如今我们正努力接受一个事实:中国正在收购各种各样的欧洲企业。Europe should not complain. This is all part of globalisation and capitalism, the two pillars of our economic success in the past 100 years. Nevertheless, now that China might be seen as the champion of free trade and state-driven capitalism, we should pay close attention to what happens next, or what is aly happening. And react accordingly.欧洲不应抱怨。这都是全球化和资本主义的组成部分,这两者正是撑我们在过去100年取得经济成功的两根柱。然而,既然中国可被视为自由贸易和国家资本主义的捍卫者,我们应当密切关注接下来会发生什么,或者说目前正在发生什么,并且相应地做出反应。For decades, China has been folding Africa into its supply chain for raw materials – mainly oil and minerals. But it is currently mining Europe for its precious metals and gems: talent, intellectual property, market shares, technology, brands, established businesses and value chains.几十年来,中国一直在把非洲纳入自己的供应链,从非洲获取原材料,主要是石油和矿物。如今,中国正在欧洲挖掘这里的“宝藏”:人才、知识产权、市场份额、技术、品牌、成熟企业和价值链。The gear shift is palpable. China is no longer just the world’s low-cost sweatshop. The shopping list in Europe includes high-tech, higher value added industries and services. A great number of investment bankers, lawyers, and due diligence professionals in London, Frankfurt and Paris are suddenly involved in projects with Chinese principals.这种换挡是可以察觉的。中国不再只是世界的低成本血汗工厂。中国在欧洲的收购清单覆盖高科技、高附加值的产业和务业。在伦敦、法兰克福和巴黎,大量的投行家、律师和尽职调查专业人士突然投入到了中国委托人的项目中。China is focused on Europe because the essentially protectionist Committee on Foreign Investment of the ed States puts all Sino-US transactions under scrutiny and in effect places a “wall” in the path of Chinese investment. The change of control in the White House will not make investment in the US any easier.中国注目欧洲,是因为本质上持保护主义立场的美国外国投资委员会(Committee on Foreign Investment)对所有中美交易进行审查,实际上等于在中国企业投资美国之路上竖起了一面“墙”。白宫换人不会使投资美国变得更容易。This makes our continent lucrative for acquisitive Chinese funds. This week we can see it at Slush in Helsinki, one of the biggest start-up events in Europe, which has drawn many Chinese investors over the years. Two years ago I spent a day there with China’s vice-premier. Yet Europe appears to be taken by surprise by all this interest. It lacks US-style controls and tools for deliberation.这让欧洲大陆对中国收购资金变得有吸引力。我们在近日赫尔辛基初创企业研讨会(Slush)上就可看到这一点。作为欧洲规模最大的初创企业盛会之一,Slush这些年来吸引了很多中国投资者到会。两年前,我曾陪同中国副总理出席了一天会议。不过,欧洲似乎对中国投资者的兴趣感到意外。欧洲没有美国那样的控制措施和审议工具。Europe is waking up to the new reality and its implications, as demonstrated by high-profile cases such as the attempted Chinese takeover of German chipmaker Aixtron. The economy ministry withdrew support after alleged reports that the US intelligence service had warned the government that the technology could be used for military purposes.欧洲开始意识到这种新现实及其意义,一些备受瞩目的交易就说明了这一点,比如中资有意收购德国芯片企业爱思强(Aixtron)的交易。德国经济部收回了对该交易的持,有报道称,美国情报部门提醒了德国政府,相关技术可能被用于军事目的。Other takeovers pose fewer problems. For instance, Tencent, the Chinese investment holding company, this year bought a majority stake in Supercell. While the Finnish group’s flagship game, Clash of Clans, is a multiplayer test of strategic skill, the acquisition has little strategic importance in the real world.其他收购案带来的问题要少一些。比如,中国的投资控股公司腾讯(Tencent)今年收购了Supercell的多数股权。尽管这家芬兰集团的旗舰游戏《部落战争》(Clash of Clans)是一款考验战略能力的多人对战游戏,这起收购案在现实世界几乎不具有重要战略意义。The big question is how Europe should react.主要问题是欧洲如何应对。The first thing to do is to be aware that the aqcuisitions are taking place and that they are systematic. This is not necessarily a bad thing; Europe needs an injection of foreign capital. At the same time it is important to understand that many, but by no means all, of the transactions are state led and targeted at intellectual property and IT. These could have a strategic impact and should thus be dealt with carefully.第一点是要明白,这些收购正在确实发生,而且是成批的。这未必是坏事;欧洲需要外来资金的注入。同时,有必要搞清楚,很多交易——但绝不是全部——是政府主导的,意在获取知识产权和IT技术。这些交易可能产生战略性的影响,因此应当谨慎地处理。Second, Europe should not burn bridges by taking knee-jerk protectionist measures. Few predicted that the Chinese would emerge as advocates of free trade while the US turned inward. The best option would be a new deal between Europe and the US based on security, foreign policy and trade – but if the administration of Donald Trump decides to scrap the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership with Europe, we will have to look elsewhere. In terms of size and scale, China is the obvious direction in which to look.第二点,欧洲不应条件反射地采取保护主义措施、烧断桥梁。很少人预料到,中国人会成为自由贸易的倡导者,而美国却把目光转向国内。最佳选项是欧洲和美国在安全、外交政策和贸易方面达成一项新协议,但如果唐纳德.特朗普(Donald Trump)政府决定抛弃《跨大西洋贸易与投资伙伴关系协定》(TTIP),我们将不得不把目光投向别处。从体量和规模上看,欧洲的目光显然应该投向中国。Third, Europe should seek common solutions. The natural reaction is to go native, to come up with national as opposed to common rules. This would be the wrong approach. Europe would become a patchwork flea market instead of a co-ordinated internal market. The left hand would not know what the right hand was doing. And in any case history has shown that protectionism leads nowhere.第三点,欧洲应当寻求达成共同解决方案。自然的反应是各自为政,各自拟定本国应对策略,而不是制定共同对策。这将是错误的。欧洲将成为一个大杂烩般的跳蚤市场,而不是协调一致的内部市场。左手将不知右手在做什么。况且历史已明,保护主义没有出路。Perhaps it is finally time for Europeans to be patient; to understand that the balance of economic power is shifting. It is not about blue-collar work moving continents. It is about white-collar companies changing owners. That is imbedded in the basic nature of global capitalism.也许,欧洲人终于到了必须拿出耐心的时候了;要理解经济力量格局正在发生变化。重点不是蓝领工作从一个大陆流向另一个大陆,而是白领公司换了主。这种变化根植于全球化资本主义的基本特性之中。The best way to react is to remain cool, calm and collected – to assess the situation, understand what is going on and try to come up with a joint approach. My hope is that this happens sooner rather than later. My fear is that we are aly too late. This is yet further proof that markets are often a step ahead of the regulators.最佳对策是保持沉着、冷静、泰然处之,要评估形势、理解当前正在发生的事情,努力制定共同方针。我希望欧洲尽快这么做。但我担心我们已为时太迟。这进一步明,市场经常比监管机构快一步。 /201612/481894


  Chinese leaders in Beijing are taking big steps to tackle climate change and pollution, and some of China#39;s cities are acting too.在北京的中国领导人正在采取重大措施应对气候的变化和污染,而一些中国城市也在开展行动。Asia#39;s first ;vertical forest;, which helps reduce air pollution and save energy, will be built in Nanjing, Jiangsu, next year.江苏南京明年将建成亚洲首座“垂直森林”,垂直森林有助于减少空气污染、节约能源。The project, the world#39;s third, will consist of two tower blocks in Jiangbei New District whose facades will be covered with 1,100 trees and 2,500 cascading plants and shrubs.这是世界第三个垂直森林项目,选址江北新区,由两座塔式大楼组成,1100棵树和2500株垂坠植物及灌木将覆盖楼体表面。Those plants will produce about 60 kg of oxygen a day and absorb 25 tons of carbon dioxide a year, according to Nanjing Yangzi State-Owned Investment Group, an investor in the project.据项目投资商南京扬子国资投资集团介绍,这些植物每天可释放约60千克的氧气,每年可吸收25吨的二氧化碳。According to the website of Italian architect Stefano Boeri, the designer of the vertical forest, other Chinese cities have also shown interest in the idea. The world#39;s first vertical forest was built in Milan, Italy, in 2014.垂直森林的设计师、意大利建筑师斯蒂法诺·埃里的网站称,其他中国城市也对这一理念感兴趣。世界首座垂直森林在2014年建于意大利米兰。The green residential towers aid in the absorption of CO2 and dust particles and produce oxygen. Other Chinese megacities, like Chongqing and Shanghai, are reportedly planning to build similar green structures.该绿色塔式大楼有助于吸收二氧化碳和尘埃颗粒,并产生氧气。据报道,中国的其他大城市,如重庆和上海,也正计划建造类似的绿色建筑。 /201702/493016。

  Saudi Arabia has drawn up a new strategy to convince US companies to invest in the kingdom, as it struggles to deal with the impact of sharply lower oil prices.由于油价急剧下跌的影响令其难以应对,沙特阿拉伯为说美国企业投资该国制定了新的战略。Officials have been contacting a host of US corporations as Riyadh looks to increase foreign investment in its stuttering economy and boost employment, according to people familiar with the matter.据知情人士透露,政府官员一直在与多家美国企业接触,原因是沙特政府正试图为面临困境的经济增加外国投资并提振就业。“The point is to attract inflows of cash and create jobs, which is why there is a focus on retail and healthcare, which are both labour intensive sectors,” said one Saudi banker briefed on the plans.一位获悉相关计划的沙特家表示:“这么做的目的在于吸引现金流入并创造就业岗位。这也是为什么方向集中于零售业和医疗保健,因为这两者都是劳动密集型产业。”Mohammed bin Salman Al Saud, Saudi’s deputy crown prince, met a number of American chief executives when he and his father, King Salman, visited the US in September. Saudi officials have also been in contact with leading private equity firms to ask whether Riyadh can do business with their portfolio companies, one financier said.在去年9月份与父亲沙特国王萨勒曼(King Salman)访问美国期间,沙特副王储穆罕默德#8226;本#8226;萨勒曼#8226;阿勒沙特(Mohammed bin Salman Al Saud)会见了多名美国首席执行官。一位金融家表示,沙特官员也一直在和顶尖的私人股本公司接触,询问沙特政府是否能与它们名下的企业合作。The investment push is part of Saudi Arabia’s drive to lessen reliance on oil prices, which have fallen from about 5 a barrel in the summer of 2014 to .这一鼓励投资的行为,是沙特降低对油价依赖性的行动的一部分。目前,油价已从2014年夏季的大约每桶115美元,跌至每桶36美元。 /201603/429177

  When you#39;ve got to go, but you#39;re out there in space, zipped up in a spacesuit, with no toilet in sight and a crew of other astronauts around, what do you do?如果你在太空裹着宇航时,迫切需要方便一下,但是周围看不到厕所又有一群宇航员在,你要怎么办呢?NASA has launched a contest for inventors to solve this uncomfortable issue, and promises to award ,000 to the best ;space poop; solutions.为了解决“太空排便”这个让人难受的问题,美国宇航局发起了一场发明征集赛,最佳方案可以获得3万美金奖励。Inventors have until December 20 to submit designs for a personalized waste-wicking system that will handle everything, hands-free, for a period of up to six days.参与者需在12月20日前递交个性化的排泄物处理系统,该方案要能够解决所有问题、不用手且持续周期最多为6天。;The old standby solution consisted of diapers,; said the description of contest details at www.herox.com/SpacePoop.www.herox.com/SpacePoop网站在比赛细则中描述道,“老办法是用尿布。”;However, the diaper is only a very temporary solution, and doesn’t provide a healthy/protective option longer than one day.;“然而,这只是一个临时解决方案,尿布使用超过一天就没办法保健康和防护性。”The Soyuz is equipped with a portable toilet, which looks like an air-powered pee jug.“联盟号”配备了便携式厕所,它看起来像是一个空气动力小便壶。On future missions to deep space destinations like an asteroid or Mars, NASA suspects it could take up to 144 hours, or six days, to get to a proper toilet.未来太空任务的目的地是小行星或是火星之类更远的地方,美国宇航局猜测,宇航员们可能要坚持6天才能找到一个合适的厕所。In emergency situations, astronauts may need to zip themselves into a fully pressurized, bulky orange spacesuit, complete with helmet and gloves.在紧急情况下,宇航员可能需要将自己包裹在完全加压的、配有头盔和手套的笨重橙色宇航中。;While sealed, it is impossible for an astronaut to access their own body, even to scratch their nose,; NASA said.“因为宇航是密封的,所以宇航员不可能触碰到自己的身体,他们连自己的鼻子都摸不到。”That#39;s where the inventors come in. Astronauts need some way to clear away urine, fecal matter and menstrual blood efficiently, or they risk infection.这正是需要发明家的地方。宇航员需要有效清除尿液、粪便以及经血的方法,否则就有感染的风险。The problem is that in weightlessness, fluids can blob up and stick to surfaces, while solids float in the air.问题是,在失重状态下液体变成水珠浮于表面,而固体会漂浮在空中。;You don#39;t want any of these solids and fluids stuck to your body for six days,; NASA said, recalling how easy babies can get diaper rash.美国宇航局表示,“你不会想要任何这类固体和液体在身上停留6天时间。”这让人联想到婴儿很容易得尿布疹。Currently, while at the International Space Station, astronauts use a toilet contraption that includes a vacuum and a tube to help evacuate fecal matter.目前,宇航员在国际空间站使用的厕所装置包含帮助输导粪便的真空泵和管道。To urinate, they use a funnel attached to a hose that can be adapted for a sitting or standing position, and uses air to move urine away.他们小便时使用一个漏斗,这个漏斗连接的软管,使得坐姿或站姿都可使用,并通过空气将尿液清除。NASA vowed to award up to three ,000 prizes for the most promising in-suit waste management systems.美国宇航局承诺,对最出色的宇航内部排污管理系统奖励3万美元,最多奖励三人。The goal is to test them within a year and fully implement them within three years.他们的目标是在一年内测试系统,并在三年内全面应用。NASA says the first human missions to Mars could take place by the 2030s.美国宇航局表示,可能于本世纪30年代实现首次人类火星登陆任务。 /201611/480837Didi Chuxing, China#39;s leading car hailing app, has been quietly increasing its prices in several cities since last month, in a sign that the country#39;s cash-burning ride app wars may be decelerating.国内领先叫车应用滴滴出行自上月起在多个城市悄悄调高了价格,这个迹象表明中国大把烧钱的叫车应用大战也许在降温。The company, which claims to have an 80 per cent market share of the local ride hailing market, has been locked in a costly price war with US competitor Uber since last year.这家号称占有80%国内叫车市场的公司,自去年以来与其美国竞争对手优步陷入了一场昂贵的价格战。Generous subsidies, sometimes amounting to three times the price of the fare, meant that until recently both car hailing services were less expensive than a regular taxi.慷慨的补贴(有时高达车费的三倍)意味着,直到不久以前,这两个叫车务都比普通出租车便宜。However, in a sign that Didi may be conserving its ammunition, prices for its rides throughout June appear to have risen by one-third in a number of cities, and drivers confirmed that subsidies had been cut by an equivalent amount.然而,滴滴可能在节省弹药的一个迹象是,6月期间,滴滴出行在多个城市的载务价格似乎上涨了1/3,司机也实补贴已被削减相同幅度。Didi has not made a formal announcement on pricing, but it issued a statement that referred to the dropping of subsidies.滴滴尚未就价格正式做出通告,但滴滴日前发表的声明提到了下调补贴。;We are rid of subsidies in many cities and price our products to market levels,; said Didi, adding that prices vary from city to city.滴滴称:;我们在多个城市取消了补贴,按照市场水平给产品定价。;该公司补充说,各个城市的价格有所不同。Uber declined to comment on its pricing. Drivers said that Uber had also raised prices and lowered subsidies, but not by nearly the same magnitude as Didi.优步拒绝对自己的定价置评。其旗下的司机表示,优步也提高了价格,降低了补贴,但幅度远小于滴滴。Both Uber and Didi were haemorrhaging cash as a result of the subsidy war. Travis Kalanick, Uber#39;s chief executive, has admitted to losing more than bn last year in China, while Cheng Wen, Didi#39;s chief executive, said March that the company had set aside bn in 2015 for what he called ;market fostering;.优步和滴滴大把烧钱,引发了一场补贴大战。优步首席执行官特拉维斯·卡兰尼克承认,该公司去年在中国亏损逾10亿美元。而滴滴首席执行官程维3月份表示,该公司在2015年共投入40亿美元用于“市场培育”。Analysts said the price increases could mean that Didi#39;s financial backers are pressuring it to spend less on subsidies. But the company may also believe that it no longer needs to compete on price.分析人士表示,价格上涨可能意味着滴滴的投资人对其施压,要求减少补贴出。但该公司也可能认为它不再需要在价格上竞争。 /201607/455423A restaurant in eastern China has been caught charging customers an ;air cleaning fee; on top of their food bills.中国东部的一家餐厅被物价局警示,原因竟然是在他们的结账单上有一项是收取顾客的“空气净化费”。Diners at the eatery in Zhangjiagang city, Jiangsu Province, were charged one yuan (.15; 10p) each to cover the cost of purifying the air inside, the official Xinhua news agency reports. Cities in the region have been enveloped in thick smog in recent weeks, with visibility of less than 100m in the worst-hit areas.据新华社报道,江苏省张家港市一餐厅加收每位食客1元(0.15美元;10P)费用,以弥补空气净化器的设备成本。最近几周,该区域的城市被浓密的雾霾笼罩,最严重的地方能见度小于100m。The restaurant#39;s owners recently purchased an air filtration system to improve the dining experience, and covered the cost by passing it on to customers without prior warning, the report says. But after complaints from angry patrons, the local government intervened to stop the practice, telling the owners that it constituted an illegal charge. A city official tells Xinhua that it wasn#39;t the diners#39; choice to breathe filtered air, so it could not be sold as a commodity.据报道,该餐厅的老板最近购买了一套空气净化系统,以优化用餐环境,同时为弥补设备及运营费用,便自作主张在餐费之外加收食客的“空气净化费”。顾客感到愤怒并抱怨后,当地政府出面阻止了这一做法,告诉老板这属于违法收费。一位城管工作人员告诉新华社记者,消费者未提出需要购买“净化空气”的要求,就不得将“净化空气”作为商品出售。While those on the receiving end of the charge were unhappy, the idea has been welcomed by many Chinese social media users. ;I#39;d agree to the fee!; declares one person on the Sina Weibo microblogging site, while another says they would happily pay more for clean air. One user suggests that the government should follow suit to deal with the country#39;s severe smog problems. But some criticise the way the owners collected the cash. ;Paying is not the problem,; writes one person. ;The problem is being informed in advance and obtaining consent.;在那些食客对这个收费感到不舒的同时,这个主意却受到了中国很多网友的欢迎。“我同意出这个钱。”一位新浪微网友说,而另一个新浪网友说他们很乐意为清洁的空气付出更多的钱。一个用户建议政府应该效仿国家处理严重的烟雾问题的做法。但也有一些批评老板收费的方式,有人这样留言:“付钱不是问题,问题是事先通知,并获得许可。” /201512/416163


  China’s construction equipment makers are ramping up the competition against global leaders such as Caterpillar, Komatsu and Deere and appear set to discount products to build market share, a new study has found.一份新的研究报告显示,中国建筑设备制造商正在加大与卡特彼勒(Caterpillar)、小松(Komatsu)和迪尔(Deere)等全球领军者的竞争,而且似乎打算通过低价来抢占市场份额。The Chinese companies — which include Sany, Zoomlion and XCMG — are likely to boost their market share outside China to around 15 per cent by 2025, up from an estimated 7 per cent currently (see chart), according to research by UBS Evidence Lab, which surveyed about 15,000 construction equipment dealerships around the world.UBS Evidence Lab的研究显示,到2025年,包括三一重工(Sany Heavy)、中联重科(Zoomlion)和徐工机械(XCMG)在内的中国公司在海外占有的市场份额可能将提高至15%左右,超过当前估计的7%(见图表)。UBS Evidence Lab对世界各地的约1.5万家建筑设备经销商进行了调查。“We think the Chinese are making moves to expand further into the west and we think they have a very good chance to take market share, if they are fully committed to doing so,” said Steven Fisher, UBS analyst.瑞银(UBS)分析师史蒂文#8226;费希尔(Steven Fisher)表示:“我们认为中国人正在采取行动,向西方市场进一步扩张,我们认为如果它们全力以赴的话,它们很可能可以抢占市场份额。”He said that the biggest competitive advantage of the Chinese companies was a relatively low cost base that allowed them to offer discounts in the region of 15 to 40 per cent to equivalent premium brand equipment.他说,中国公司最大的竞争优势在于相对较低的成本,这让它们能够在西方市场上提供比高端品牌相同配置产品低15%至40%的价格。This will allow them to take market share in Europe and the US, where the presence of Chinese brands in dealerships remains fairly scarce. The biggest operational challenge for the Chinese, Mr Fisher said, lies in providing aftersales support to dealerships, especially by ensuring that spare parts are supplied quickly and in sufficient quantity.这将让它们能够在欧洲和美国抢占市场份额——目前在欧美,中国品牌在经销商处仍然比较少见。费舍尔表示,中国人面临的最大的运营挑战在于为经销商提供售后持,尤其是确保能够迅速地供应足够多配件。“We don’t generally assume that Chinese products are going head to head with Caterpillar and Deere,” Mr Fisher added. “But our point is that a discount on a base level product can end up applying pressure further up the chain.”费舍尔补充称:“总体而言,我们不认为中国产品会与卡特彼勒和迪尔正面竞争,但我们认为,基础级产品的较低价格可能最终对更高端产品构成压力。”The UBS Evidence Lab found in its survey of the 15,000 dealerships that Chinese manufacturers “have increased interest in expanding more aggressively” and — if they maintain this — may be able to scoop up about 1 per cent in market share outside China per year over the next decade.UBS Evidence Lab在对1.5万家经销商调查后发现,中国制造商“对实施更激进的扩张产生了更浓厚的兴趣”,如果它们保持这种兴趣的话,今后十年就可能每年在海外抢占大约1%的市场份额。The effect of this would be a reduction in the available profit pool for western giants such as Caterpillar, Metso, Komatsu, Sandvik, Volvo, Deere, Terex and others, the UBS research report said.瑞银的研究报告显示,随之而来的影响将是卡特彼勒、美卓公司(Metso)、小松、山特维克(Sandvik)、沃尔沃(Volvo)、迪尔、特雷克斯(Terex)等西方巨头的利润被分走一杯羹。However, the challenges before the Chinese companies in terms of market dynamics appear considerable. In the US, for instance, Chinese brands had only a 3.7 per cent presence in the dealerships surveyed (see map), defining a struggle for brand recognition. “Presence” in the survey was measured by the proportion of points of sale for Chinese brands versus other brands sold in dealerships.然而,就市场情况来看,中国公司面临的挑战似乎非常大。例如,在美国,中国品牌在受访经销商中只有3.7%的“存在感”,表明品牌认知度非常低。调查中的“存在感”是通过中国品牌销售点所占比例来衡量的,与其形成对照的是经销商处销售的其他品牌销售点所占比例。In emerging markets, though, the Chinese firms have made greater inroads, buoyed by infrastructure projects financed through Chinese financial institutions. In Kazakhstan, Chinese construction equipment brands had a presence in 42 per cent of dealerships, an 11 per cent footprint in Brazil, a 24 per cent presence in Russia, and in Iran — where business by European and US corporations has been limited by sanctions — Chinese equipment was on sale in 92 per cent of dealerships.然而,在新兴市场,得益于中国金融机构提供融资的基础设施项目,中国公司取得了更大的进展。在哈萨克斯坦,中国建筑设备品牌在42%的经销商中有售,这个数字在巴西是11%,在俄罗斯是24%,在欧美企业因制裁而业务受限的伊朗,这个数字达到92%。The lending firepower of China’s two policy banks — the China Development Bank and the Export-Import Bank of China — is likely to enhance the prospect of contracts for Chinese construction equipment makers in coming years. The two banks aly lend almost as much as the six western-backed multilateral development institutions put together.中国两家政策——国家开发(China Development Bank)和中国进出口(Export-Import Bank of China)充足的放贷能力,可能改善了中国建筑设备制造商今后数年签署合同的前景。这两家发放的贷款已经几乎相当于6家西方持的多边发展机构发放的贷款总和。However, the Chinese companies tend to be more heavily mired in debt. Zoomlion is the most egregious, with a total debt to ebitda (earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation) multiple of 21, while XCMG and Sany have multiples of 15.3 and 8.1 respectively. Caterpillar and Komatsu are considerably lower, while Deere has a multiple of 10.9.然而,中国公司背负的债务往往更重。中联重科是最突出的,其债务总额为息税折旧及摊销前利润(EBITDA)的21倍,徐工和三一的这个数字则分别为15.3倍和8.1倍。卡特彼勒和小松的这个数字要低得多,迪尔的这个数字则为10.9倍。But in spite of the heavy debt loads carried by Chinese companies, their appetite for overseas acquisitions appears to have remained undiminished. Zoomlion made a cash bid for Terex, the US company, earlier this year, though the result of that overture is still uncertain.尽管中国公司背负巨额债务,但它们对海外收购的兴趣依然不减。中联重科今年年初对美国公司特雷克斯(Terex)发出现金收购要约,尽管现在结果仍不确定。LiuGong, a Chinese machinery maker with a debt multiple of 16, has made no secret of its intent to boost overseas revenues to 50 per cent by 2020, up from 35 per cent of total revenues now, UBS said. Sany, for its part, announced this year that it had acquired another US-based dealer for earth movers, calling it part of an “aggressive” expansion of the company’s earth moving dealer network.瑞银表示,中国机械制造商柳工(LiuGong)毫不掩饰其这一打算,即在2020年年底前,将海外收入占公司总收入的比例从目前的35%提高至50%(该公司的债务为EBITDA的16倍)。三一今年则宣布,它收购了另一家总部位于美国的推土机经销商。该公司称,此举为“大胆”扩张其推土机经销商网络的一部分。 /201605/446399





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