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2018年10月24日 04:32:50

A non-governmental organization (NGO) in China opened an exhibition in Shanghai last week of paintings by Syrian children to raise awareness about the migrant crisis in the war-torn country.中国一家非政府组织上周在上海举行了一场展览,展出的是叙利亚儿童的画作,旨在引起人们对这个饱受战争之苦的国家的难民危机的关注。The Chinese Initiative on International Law, an independent NGO, obtained the paintings when its founder Liu Yiqiang and his team researched Syrian refugees in Greece and Turkey.独立非政府组织“中国国际法促进中心”创始人刘毅强极其团队成员在希腊和德国研究叙利亚难民时得到了这些画。Migration flows are not new, but a wave of more than 1 million migrants last year prompted bitter divisions among European countries over how to share responsibility for them.难民流动已经不是什么新鲜事,但是去年超过100万难民涌入欧洲,使欧洲各国在与难民分享责任问题上的分歧加大。After a request from a refugee center, Liu#39;s team brought 50 paintings by Syrian children back to China and put 30 of them on display in Shanghai.在一处难民中心调研之后,刘毅强的团队将50幅叙利亚儿童的画带回了中国,并将其中30幅画放到了上海的展览上。;I was shocked when I saw these paintings,; Liu said. ;The bright colors used in each one of these paintings and the illustration of every side of the war and of their lives can directly bring you into the world of the children who have suffered the war.;“我看到这些画的时候非常震惊。”刘毅强说,“他们在每一幅画里运用的明亮色,他们对战争和生活每一面的展示可以直接把你带入战争儿童的世界里。”At the ed Nations General Assembly#39;s Summit for Refugees and Migrants, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang announced that China will provide 0 million of additional humanitarian aid to help solve problems brought about by the mass movement of refugees and migrants.在联合国大会难民和移民问题首脑会议上,中国国家总理李克强宣布,中国会提供额外1亿美元的人道主义援助,来帮助解决难民和移民大量涌入带来的问题。But one visitor to the exhibition disagreed.但是前来参观展览的一名访客对此举不太同意。;At this stage ... China itself has many problems in its underdeveloped regions,; said Wang Le. ;I do not think that China is suitable to receive refugees now.;“现在中国自身的不发达地区还有很多问题。”王乐说,“我不认为现在中国适合解决难民问题。”Another visitor Li Yan said she was moved by the art.另一名访客李燕则表示自己被这种艺术感动了。;One of the painters ;said that she would grow up into a happy woman,; she said. ;However, they are living far away and becoming refugees now and don#39;t know that many countries are not willing to accept them.;她说道;“其中一个画画的孩子说她想长成一个快乐的女人。但是,现在他们远离家园,变成了难民,并且还不知道其实有很多国家不愿意接纳他们。”Liu said there will be an charity auction for the paintings in October. Funds raised from the auction will be donated to a special project at the China Children and Teenagers#39; Fund which aims to educate young people in doing charitable work.李燕表示,十月份将会有一次对这些画的慈善义卖。义卖上筹来的钱将会捐给中国少年儿童基金会--这是一个致力于通过慈善事业来教育年轻人的特殊项目。 /201609/469052湖州双眼皮手术长兴县妇幼保健院减肥手术多少钱If a woman has such bad taste in shoes I don#39;t think we#39;re meant to be...如果一个女人对鞋子的品味是如此之差,那我可不认为我们注定要……If Cinderella preferred ergonomic shoes如果灰姑娘偏爱人体工程学鞋子的话 /201703/497498湖州曙光医疗美容门诊部做隆胸手术多少钱

湖州光子脱毛湖州中医院瘦腿针多少钱The delicious burn of a really good curry or salsa or Sichuanese hot pot – that fiery goodness that makes you sweat and flush – is for many people one of life#39;s great pleasures.对很多人来说,人生最大的乐趣,莫过于品尝美味的正宗咖喱、莎莎或者四川火锅,那种燃情的美味会让人汗流浃背,脸涨得通红。The search for the most profound scorch is a hobby of sorts, perhaps even an obsession.寻找最深处的焦灼感是一种爱好,甚至可能是一种痴迷。And hot-hunters are safe in the knowledge that although capsaicin, the spicy molecule in hot peppers, is activating receptors in pain neurons in their mouths, it#39;s not really causing any damage.逐辣者明白,尽管红辣椒中的辣分子-辣椒素-会激活食用者嘴部的痛感神经,但它并不会造成任何伤害。Give it a few minutes, and the feeling that you#39;ve torched yourself will fade.过几分钟,那种点燃你的感觉就会慢慢消退。Well, until someone gets hurt.然而,直到有人受伤。Chillies are rated on a spiciness scale known as Scoville – a grading of heat that goes from the lowly bell pepper (0) right up to the fearsomely named Carolina Reaper (2.2 million).辣椒根据辛辣度(也就是众所周知的辣度单位)进行分级,辣度最低的是甜椒(0),最高的是令人生畏的卡罗莱纳死神辣椒(220万)。And while everyday amounts of spicy food are unlikely to do any harm, thrill-seekers have had some disconcerting experiences.尽管每天大量被摄入的辛辣食品不太可能会造成伤害,但是追逐刺激者确实有一些令人不安的经历。In 2014, two journalists from The Argus, a newspaper in the British city of Brighton, went to test out burgers at a local restaurant rated highly on TripAdvisor.2014年,两名来自英国布莱顿当地报纸《阿格斯》的记者,前往《旅行指南》高度评价的一家当地餐厅进行汉堡试吃。They each took a bite of the XXX Hot Chilli Burger, a specialty of the house made with hot sauce touted by the owner to score higher on the Scoville scale than pepper spray.他们每人尝了一口XXX麻辣汉堡(这款汉堡的辣酱是店主配制的特色酱,在辣度单位上的得分高于辣椒喷雾)。The pain was unendurable – one reporter immediately swallowed a great deal of milk to try to stave it off, the newspaper reported.这次尝试带来的痛苦让人难以忍受-据报道,一名记者马上吞下大量牛奶,想要缓解痛苦。The other began to have severe stomach pains, lost the feeling in his hands, and began to shake and hyperventilate.另外一名记者开始出现严重的胃部疼痛,手部麻木,开始颤抖,大口呼吸。His colleague was also seized with pain despite his efforts, and both had to go to the hospital. ;I was in so much pain,; one said, ;I felt like I was dying.;尽管做出了努力,他的同事仍然饱受疼痛,两个人都不得不去医院。其中一个人说道:;我感到如此痛苦。我觉得我正在死去。;Let#39;s come back to the basic biology of capsaicin. This molecule may have evolved as an anti-fungal agent for the plants that bore it.让我们回顾一下辣椒素这一基本生物体。这种分子(辣椒素)可能已经演化为培育它的植物的抗真菌剂。But, to humans#39; joy and fascination and fear, it happens to activate certain neurons responsible for the perception of pain.但是,对于人类的喜悦、着迷和恐惧而言,它恰巧激活了负责接收痛觉的特定神经元。Those particular neurons send a message of heat to the brain, whether the cells are activated by an actual burn or by a hot pepper.无论细胞是否是被真实的燃烧或者辣椒激活的,那些特别的神经元向大脑发出火热的信号。The physical effects of eating peppers can be seen as reactions to what might be — from the body#39;s perspective — real burns, says Bruce Bryant, a biologist at the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia. Sweating is an adaptation for cooling off.费城莫奈尔化学感官中心生物学家布鲁恩说,从身体的角度而言,吃辣椒产生的生理效果和真实燃烧是相同的。出汗是降温的一种自适应反应。Triggered pain neurons release substances that cause blood vessels to widen, resulting in inflammation, the better to supply the damaged area with blood and the body#39;s first responders.被触发的疼痛神经元将释放引起血管扩张的物质,导致炎症,这样可以为受损的区域更好的提供血液。这是身体的第一反应。When that Carolina Reaper hits your stomach lining and you retch, ;that response is because there are pain-sensing nerve endings in the stomach;, says Bryant.布鲁恩说:;当卡罗莱纳死神辣椒接触你的胃黏膜时,你会觉得恶心。之所以有这种反应,是因为你的胃里有痛感神经。;The body says, #39;I don#39;t care if it#39;s a thermal burn or a chemical, but I#39;m going to get rid of it.#39;;你的身体说#39;我不在乎这是热灼伤或是化学灼伤,但是我要摆脱它。#39;;The responses that your body might have if you#39;d swallowed a caustic substance come into play with high levels of capsaicin because that is, after all, what the molecule mimics.你吞下腐蚀性物质后,身体做出的反应可能和吞下高水平辣椒素的反应一样,毕竟这是种分子模拟。Those burn-sensing neurons, in your mouth, stomach, and elsewhere, are going to do their thing whether what you#39;ve swallowed will really kill you or just give you some discomfort on the toilet.那些你嘴里,胃里和身体各处感受烧灼感的神经元,将会开始它们的行动,无论你吞下的东西是否真的会杀死你,或者只是让你产生一些不适。But, hours or a day or so of very serious discomfort aside, there don#39;t seem to be long-term dangers, per se, in eating very hot peppers.但是,就吃辣椒而言,除了几个小时、一天或者几天很严重的不适外,本质上并没有长期的危险。Biologists have observed, however, that administering capsaicin over long periods of time in young mammals does result in the death of the pain neurons, Bryant says.然而,布鲁恩说,生物学家已经观察到,在年轻的哺乳动物中长时间施用辣椒素,确实会导致疼痛神经元死亡。 /201611/476464德清县共振吸脂价格BLACKPOOL, England — The woman on the other end of the phone spoke lightheartedly of spring and her 81st birthday the previous week. “Who did you celebrate with, Beryl?” asked Alison, whose job was to offer a kind ear.英格兰布莱克浦——一位女士在电话里快活地聊着春暖花开,还有她上周刚度过的81岁生日。“是谁和你一起庆生的,贝柔?”艾利森问道;她的工作就是当个耐心的听众。“No one, I …” And with that, Beryl’s cheer turned to despair.“没有人。我......”因为艾利森这句话,贝柔的情绪从快活转为低落。Her voice began to quaver as she acknowledged that she had been alone at home not just on her birthday, but for days and days. The telephone conversation was the first time she had spoken in more than a week.当贝柔承认自己不只生日那天独自在家,还有好一段时间都是如此,说话的声音开始颤抖。这通电话是她一个多星期以来首度与人交谈。About 10,000 similar calls come in weekly to an unassuming office building in this seaside town at the northwest reaches of England, which houses The Silver Line Helpline, a 24-hour call center for older adults seeking to fill a basic need: contact with other people.在英格兰西北区的这个海滨小镇,每周都有大约1万通类似的电话打进此地一栋不起眼的办公大楼。它是Silver Line求助热线的所在地。这是一个为老人务的24小时热线中心。这些老人家打电话来,是为了满足生活的某种基本需求:与他人保持联系。Loneliness, which Emily Dickinson described as “the Horror not to be surveyed,” is a quiet devastation. But in Britain, it is increasingly being viewed as something more: a serious public health issue deserving of public funds and national attention.诗人艾米莉#8226;狄金森(Emily Dickinson)把孤独感描述为“不可丈量的恐怖”,那是一种悄无声息的伤害。不过在英国,人们逐渐认为,它的危害甚至更严重:它是应该被严肃对待的公共卫生课题,值得公共资金的投入和举国关注。Working with local governments and the National Health Service, programs aimed at mitigating loneliness have sprung up in dozens of cities and towns. Even fire brigades have been trained to inspect homes not just for fire safety but for signs of social isolation.与地方政府和国家医疗务体系(National Health Service)合作、致力于减缓孤独现象的计划正在数十个城镇兴起。就连消防队也受了相关训练,除了查看民宅的防火安全,他们也要注意屋主是否有与世隔绝的迹象。“There’s been an explosion of public awareness here, from local authorities to the Department of Health to the media,” said Paul Cann, chief executive of Age UK Oxfordshire and a founder of The Campaign to End Loneliness, a five-year-old group based in London. “Loneliness has to be everybody’s business.”“从地方当局、卫生署到媒体,各界对这件事的关注在迅速提高,”保罗#8231;坎恩(Paul Cann)表示。他是老龄英国(Age UK)牛津郡分部的行政主管,也是有五年历史的伦敦“终结孤独”倡议行动(The Campaign ot End Loneliness)的发起人。“每个人都该关心孤独这件事。”Researchers have found mounting evidence linking loneliness to physical illness and to functional and cognitive decline. As a predictor of early death, loneliness eclipses obesity. “The profound effects of loneliness on health and independence are a critical public health problem,” said Dr. Carla M. Perissinotto, a geriatrician at the University of California, San Francisco. “It is no longer medically or ethically acceptable to ignore older adults who feel lonely and marginalized.”学者已经发现,越来越多的据显示,孤独与生理疾病还有行为与认知能力下降都有关联。孤独也比肥胖更可能预示人的早逝。“孤独对个人健康与自主生活能力的深刻影响,是很重要的公共卫生问题,”加州大学旧金山分校的老龄医学专家卡拉#8231;M#8231;佩里西诺托(Dr. Carla M. Perissinotto)说。“不论从医学或道德的眼光来看,我们都不能再忽略那些觉得自己孤单或不受重视的长者了。”In Britain and the ed States, roughly one in three people older than 65 live alone, and in the ed States, half of those older than 85 live alone. Studies in both countries show the prevalence of loneliness among people older than 60 ranging from 10 percent to 46 percent.在英国与美国,65岁以上的民众大约每三人里就有一人独居,而美国年龄在85岁以上的人,有一半是独居。两国的研究都显示,60岁以上者老境孤独的比例在10%到46%之间。While the public, private and volunteer sectors in Britain are mobilizing to address loneliness, researchers are deepening their understanding of its biological underpinnings. In a paper published earlier this year in the journal Cell, neuroscientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology identified a region of the brain they believe generates feelings of loneliness. The region, known as the dorsal raphe nucleus, or DRN, is best known for its link to depression.就在英国的公共部门、私人机构、义工团体都动员起来对付孤独的时候,研究人员也在更深入了解它的生物学基础。在今年稍早发表于《细胞》(Cell)期刊的一篇报告里,麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Techonology)的神经科学家认为他们找到了人脑产生孤独感的区域。这个叫做中缝背核(dorsal raphe nucleus, DRN)的部位最为人所知的是它和忧郁症的关联。Kay M. Tye and her colleagues found that when mice were housed together, dopamine neurons in the DRN were relatively inactive. But after the mice were isolated for a short period, the activity in those neurons surged when those mice were reunited with other mice.戴琦(Kay M. Tye)与她的同事发现,实验用小鼠住在一起的时候,鼠脑中缝背核里的多巴胺神经元比较不活跃。不过老鼠被隔离一小段时间再放回鼠群里的时候,这些神经元的活动会大幅增加。“This is the first time we’ve found a cellular substrate for this experience,” said Tye, an assistant professor at the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory at MIT and a senior author of the paper. “And we saw the change after 24 hours of isolation.”“这是我们第一次发现孤独感的细胞学根源,”戴士说。她是麻省理工学院皮考尔学习和记忆研究所(Picower Institute for Learning and Memory)助理教授,也是该篇报告的主要作者。“在小鼠隔离了24小时之后,我们开始看到这种变化。”John T. Cacioppo, a professor of psychology at the University of Chicago and director of the university’s Center for Cognitive and Social Neuroscience, has been studying loneliness since the 1990s. He said loneliness is an aversive signal much like thirst, hunger or pain.约翰#8226;T#8226;卡奇奥波(John T. Cacioppo)是芝加哥大学(University of Chicago)心理学教授,也是该校认知与社会神经科学中心(Center for Cognitive and Social Neuroscience)主任。他自20世纪90年代以来就一直在研究孤独感。他说,孤独感与口渴、饥饿、疼痛很相似,是一种反向讯号。“Denying you feel lonely makes no more sense than denying you feel hunger,” he said. Yet the very word “lonely” carries a negative connotation, Cacioppo said, signaling social weakness, or an inability to stand on one’s own.卡奇奥波表示:“拒绝承认自己的孤独感,就像拒绝承认自己饿了一样,没有意义。”不过他也说,“孤独”这个字本身有负面涵义,意味着一个人不善社交或无法自立更生。The unspoken stigma of loneliness is amply evident during calls to The Silver Line. Most people call asking for advice on, say, roasting a turkey. Many call more than once a day. One woman rings every hour to ask the time. Only rarely will someone speak frankly about loneliness.这种没有被言说的污名,从打给Silver Line的电话里很能看得出来。大部分去电寻求建议的人,问的都是,比方说,“怎么烤火鸡”这种问题;有些人一天会打上好几通。有位女性每小时都会打这条专线问时间。只有极少数人会坦诚地讨论自己的孤单感受。Yet the impulse to call in to services like The Silver Line is a healthy one, Cacioppo said.不过卡奇奥波说,想给这类务热线打电话的冲动是健康的。Sophie Andrews, chief executive of The Silver Line, said she was surprised by the explosion of calls shortly after the service began operating nearly three years ago. The Blackpool call center now receives some 1,500 calls a day.Silver Line的执行主管苏菲#8231;安德鲁斯(Sophie Andrews)表示,这条专线在近三年前开通后,很快就涌入大量电话,她很惊讶。如今他们在布莱克浦的中心每天接听大约1500通电话。Andrews said she was most concerned not about those who called The Silver Line, but those who were too depressed by their isolation to pick up the phone. “We need to raise awareness with the people who are the hardest to reach,” she said.安德鲁斯还说,她最担心的不是那些打电话来的人,而是那些因为孤独而过度抑郁,以至于连电话也不想打的人。“对于最难接触到的人群,我们需要引起更多的重视,”她说。Cacioppo lauds efforts like The Silver Line, yet he warns that the problem of loneliness is nuanced and the solutions not as obvious as they might seem. That is, a call-in line can help reduce feelings of loneliness temporarily, but is not likely to reduce levels of chronic loneliness.卡奇奥波对Silver Line这类努力表示赞许,但他也警告,孤独的问题还有很多细分,解决之道也不如表面看来那么显而易见。也就是说,电话专线能帮人暂时缓解孤独的感觉,却不太可能降低长期的孤独感。In his research, Cacioppo has shown that loneliness affects several key bodily functions, at least in part through overstimulation of the body’s stress response. Chronic loneliness, his work has shown, is associated with increased levels of cortisol, a major stress hormone, as well as higher vascular resistance, which can raise blood pressure and decrease blood flow to vital organs.卡奇奥波的研究显示,孤独感会影响许多身体重要功能,至少部分是因为人体应激反应被过度激发造成的。他的研究工作显示,长期感觉孤独与皮质醇浓度上升有关(这是一种主要的应激荷尔蒙),也与较高的血管阻力有关;血管阻力能使血压上升、减少流入主要器官的血液量。Cacioppo’s research has also shown that the danger signals activated in the brain by loneliness affect the production of white blood cells; this can impair the immune system’s ability to fight infections.卡奇奥波的研究还显示,脑部受孤独感刺激所释放出的警示讯号会影响白细胞的生成,而这有可能损及免疫系统对抗感染的能力。It is only in the past several years that loneliness been examined through a medical, rather than psychological or sociological, lens. Perissinotto, the University of California, San Francisco geriatrician, decided to study loneliness when she began to sense there were factors affecting her patients’ health that she was missing.人们透过医学而非心理学或社会学的角度研究孤独感,不过是近几年的事。前面提到的老龄医学医师佩里西诺托决定要投入孤独感的研究,是因为她开始觉得有些因素在影响她的病人的健康状况,但她却不知是什么。Although plenty of research into loneliness takes place in the ed States, Britain remains well ahead in addressing the problem.虽然有很多孤独感的研究是在美国做的,不过在应对这个问题方面,英国还是领先许多。“In the U.S., there isn’t much recognition in terms of public health initiatives or the average person recognizing that loneliness has to do with health,” said Julianne Holt-Lunstad, a professor of psychology at Brigham Young University, whose studies also link loneliness to deteriorating health.“美国的公共卫生行动还不怎么认可这个问题,一般人也不太了解孤独感会影响健康,”杨百翰大学(Brigham Young University)的心理学教授茱莉安#8231;浩特─朗斯泰德(Julianne Holt- Lunstad)说。她的研究也显示出孤独感与健康损害有关。Age UK, an organization similar to AARP in the ed States, oversees an array of programs aimed at decreasing loneliness and coordinates efforts with fire brigades to look for signs of loneliness and isolation in the homes they enter.老龄英国是一个与美国退休人员协会(AARP)相似的组织,他们监督一系列旨在减轻老人孤独处境的项目。该组织也与消防队合作,让消防人员在上门检查时,也注意屋主是否有孤独或与世隔绝的迹象。Another charity, Open Age, runs some 400 activities each week in Central London — sewing circles, current events discussions, book clubs and exercise and computer classes, held at church halls, sport centers, housing projects — and its employees also visit people in their homes to try to get them out and about.另一个慈善组织Open Age每周在伦敦市中心组织400多种活动:缝纫团体、时事讨论会、阅读俱乐部、体能锻炼、电脑班。活动举办地点则在教堂大厅、运动中心或社会住宅。该组织员工也会上门探视,想办法让老人出门走走。“We try to work out what it is that’s preventing them from leaving the house,” said Helen Leech, the organization’s director.“我们会去了解是什么原因使他们不愿出门,”Open Age的主任海伦#8231;利奇(Helen Leech)说。Men and women differ greatly in how they grapple with loneliness. Seventy percent of the calls to The Silver Line are from women.男女应付孤独感的方式大不相同。打给Silver Line的有70%是女性。 /201609/465984长兴县人民医院激光去痘手术多少钱

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