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2018年10月24日 06:43:56 | 作者:88养生 | 来源:新华社
Theres...um well...we havent got a break.But I just wanna say,if you see the documentary, there was one thing我们暂时不进广告 我还想说一下 如果你有机会看这部纪录片 有一个细节and I was really so impressed and you did this when we were in Orlando让我觉得真的很感动 当你在奥兰多演出的时候it started raining and you didnt care - Right.天开始下雨 但你继续表演 -对you were dancing and singing on stage which is dangerous, you could get slip你在舞台上载歌载舞 这其实是很危险的 你可能会滑倒and you could get electrocuted. - Right.All kinds of things.All kinds of things.你还可能会触电 -对 什么事情都有可能发生 对 什么事情都有可能发生And you were just out there and what country were you in when it was pouring down raining Um, in Brazil.但是你还是坚持演出 下着倾盆大雨那次你是在哪个国家 那是在巴西I think its that way. Brazil is that way. - Yeah.那是那个方向吧 巴西在那个方向 -对I dont know why I am pointing that way. - Is it Brazil?我也不知道我为什么要指着那边 -那边是巴西吗Brazil is that way. - Oh yeah.Or is it that way?巴西在这个方向 -对的 还是那个方向Anyway, it was pouring down raining. - Yeah.回到正题 当时雨下得很大 -对It was amazing that you It was a torrential rain.Yeah, and you went out and did it anyway.你真的很棒 当时在下暴雨 对 然后你还是走上舞台表演了When the fans stayed out there, you just feel so bad.粉丝们就在外面站着 你真的会对他们很抱歉They paid their money for their tickets.Its their one time to see you. - Yeah.他们都是花了钱买票 就为了在现场看一下我的表演 -是的I was leaving Brazil the next day.It was like, I had to do the show.我当时第二天就要离开巴西 所以我在想 我一定要完成这次演出And we did. Listen We were slipping all over the place. - I know, it was great.然后我们做到了 你知道吗 我们在舞台上不停打滑 -我知道 真的很棒cutting choreograph and stuff like that.我们把舞蹈动作和很多程序都精简了But it was still,probably still one of the best memories from tour. - Yeah.但我还是觉得 那是整个巡回演唱会过程中最美好的回忆之一 -是的Well, I remember Pacific Brazil Its fantastic and so好的 我记得 巴西演唱会 真的太精了Um anyway, we are talking about the movie when we come back.稍后我们来谈一谈你的新电影 /201512/413129City officials around the country are trying to figure out how to make changes in their communities to adapt to climate change.Researchers from the University of Michigan and the University of North Carolina looked at 44 of these climate adaptation plans, and found they were a mixed bag.Missy Stults is a Ph.D. candidate at U of M in the Urban and Regional Planning Program and the School of Natural Resources and Environment.She says in the Great Lakes region, city officials are mainly concerned about excessive rainfall events.;Heavy precipitation events leading to localized flooding, storm water overflows. Those are really the main issues, at least in the Midwest,; she says.Stults says they examined stand-alone climate adaptation plans.;What that means is these 44 communities created a plan solely focused on understanding how theyre vulnerable to climate change, both existing impacts as well as future impacts, and then they created a plan focused on solutions to those different impacts,; she says.She says there are a lot of other ways communities can plan for climate change, so this group of plans from 44 cities is just a small subset.Strengths and weaknessesStults says there were strengths in some of the plans.;They do a really great job of drawing on different fact bases. What I mean by that is theyre pulling reports from the U.S. federal government or local universities. Theyre also doing a really good job at selecting a wide array of strategies to prepare.;That could mean changing infrastructure in a city to make it better able to withstand heavy wind or flood events, or creating green rooftops or permeable pavement that allows storm water to soak in instead of running off into a drain.;So thats great, theyre thinking about lots of different things they can do within their powers to become more resilient; were excited about that,; she says.But theres a flip side.;We dont see a lot of detail about how theyre going to implement these strategies. So theyre putting these great ideas forward, but theyre not substantiating that with detail about whos responsible for implementing, how theyre going to fund these strategies, how theyre going to evaluate whether these strategies are effective,; says Stults. ;So that leaves us really questioning whether these plans are going to translate into actions on the ground that are going to create more resilient communities.;There are barriers to putting these plans in place.She says funding, of course, is a big one.;We just dont have the amount of capital needed to really invest at scale in climate adaptation. And there are a lot of discussions that are happening within philanthropy, at the private scale, at the federal government, to really try to figure this out.;And she says a lot of local governments have had to cut staff in recent years.;The Great Recession hit local governments really hard, so they laid off a lot of staff. And now youve got people that are, really in my eyes, theyre kind of heroes at the local level that are fighting the fight to make sure you have your trash being picked up, that youve got good drinking water thats coming out of your faucet, but then theyre also responsible for planning for climate change, this big issue,; she says.And so theyre basically doing the job of two and a half to three people, so theres just not a lot of capacity to take on more work. So weve got to overcome a lot of hurdles in that space.;But Stults says they also found that local officials acknowledge climate change is real.;Stakeholders believe its happening, and that belief is really strong at the local level, because its where you see the impacts: because you flood ... and you need to prepare for a flood. Or its hot, and you have to prepare for heat,; she says.The study was published in the journal Nature Climate Change.201605/441075French economists法国经济学家Toulouse v Paris图卢兹VS.巴黎A tale of two French economists and their rival schools这是一个关于两个法国经济学家和他们竞争院校的故事IF PHILOSOPHERS in France are national treasures, economists are dreary specimens. But the discipline has some new star dust. One French economist, Jean Tirole, won the Nobel prize for economics. Another, Thomas Piketty, brought in rock-star quality when his book, “Capital”, became a bestseller in English. When the IMF recently listed the worlds 25 best young economists, seven (including Mr Piketty) were French.如果法国的哲学家们是国宝,那么经济学家们就是沉闷的标本。但是经济学这一学科又有一些新动静。一位法国经济学家珍·泰勒尔赢得了诺贝尔经济学奖。另外,托马斯·皮凯提也在其著作《21世纪资本论》大热之际得了大众眼球。当国际货币基金组织最近列出世界最佳年轻经济学家,其中7名(包括皮凯提)是法国人。An economist from Toulouse图卢兹的一位经济学家What explains this resurgence? One answer is the rivalry of two institutions that have tried to defy the fragmented and divided world of French higher education: the Toulouse School of Economics (TSE) and the Paris School of Economics (PSE). Each has rebranded itself with an English name, created a private fund-raising foundation, recruited worldwide, and introduced English as the teaching language. Each has a claim to excellence: PSE (where Mr Piketty is a professor) ranks seventh among economics departments worldwide, and TSE (chaired by Mr Tirole) is 11th, according to the RePEc ranking used by economists.为何会有这种复兴呢?一种说法是因为两大机构试图对抗法国散乱的高等教育领域的竞争:图卢兹经济学院(TSE)和巴黎经济学院(PSE)。每一所学院都重新为自己起了英文名,创建一个私人融资基金,在全球范围内招募师资,并且引进英语作为课堂教学语言。每一所学院都声称自己卓越非凡:根据经济学家们推崇的RePEc 排名,PSE(皮凯提在此任职教授)在全球经济部门中位列第七,而TSE(由泰勒尔领导的学院)位列第11。The two have chosen different paths. As part of a university, TSE is more recognisably a campus and teaches undergraduates (it cannot select them until the third year), while most of its postgraduates are foreign. The schools strengths are industrial economics, market regulation and economic theory. By contrast, PSE groups various grandes écoles, the selective elite top crust of French higher education, does not have a single campus (work on a new site is due to finish in 2016), and accepts only graduates. Besides economic theory, its research expertise is in public economics and statistics.这两所学院选择了不同的道路。作为一所大学的一部分,TES更多地被视为一个学院并且教授本科生(它在大三之前不能挑选教授对象),同时它的研究生大多是留学生。学院的优势是产业经济学、市场监管和经济理论。相比之下,PSE团队的多样化的grandes écoles,即有选择性的法国高等教育精英课授教程,并不只施行在一个学院(2016年完成后选择新任地点),并且只接收毕业生。除了经济理论,它的研究专业是公共经济学和统计学。As a university, Toulouse has suffered in France from a sort of academic second-cousin syndrome. But the Nobel has put an end to that. A vast portrait of the modest Mr Tirole was strung across Toulouses town hall. His students printed T-shirts to celebrate his triumph. Rivalry between the two schools is no bad thing. “As an economist, I like competition,” says Christian Gollier, TSEs director. “There is room for more than one prestigious economics department in France.”在法国,图卢兹作为一所大学患上了一种学术上的弗拉恩综合症。但是诺贝尔奖治好了这个病。谦逊的泰勒尔的巨大肖像画贯穿了图卢兹的市政厅。他的学生们印了T恤来庆祝泰勒尔的胜利。两所学校的竞争并不是什么坏事。“作为一名经济学家,我喜欢竞争,”TSE的主任克里斯蒂安·格里耶称:“在法国远不只有一所享有声望的经济学部。”More than anything, TSE and PSE show how to get around rules. French higher education divides universities (non-selective) from grandes écoles(highly competitive); encourages uniformity (university lecturers are civil servants); and forbids university tuition fees. “The French system is crippled by rigidities,” notes Pierre-Yves Geoffard, PSEs director. “But these prompt new ideas, as a way of working around the system .”最重要的是,TSE和PSE展现了如何绕过规则。法国高等教育将普通大学(无选择性和grandes écoles(高竞争性)分开;鼓励一致性(大学讲师是公务员);并且禁止大学学收费。“法国的教育体系因此硬性要求而畸形发展,”PSE的主任皮埃尔·伊夫·吉欧法德。“但是,作为一种围绕此系统工作的方式,这些缺陷同时也激发了新的想法。”译者:邵夏沁 校对:张娣译文属译生译世 /201411/344352

The NHS国民健康保险制度Health reform in a cold climate遇冷的医改The governments reforms to the NHS are viewed as its biggest failure. They are better than that政府医改被指其最大败笔。“盛名”之下其实难副“WITH the Conservatives there will be no more of the tiresome, meddlesome, top-down restructures that have dominated the last decade of the NHS.” So said David Cameron in , and many were convinced. Voters made Mr Cameron prime minister in2010 inpart because the Conservative Party cut into Labours lead on health care, which it had enjoyed almost since it founded the NHS in 1948. The Tories quickly squandered their advantage. But their legacy will be better than they seem to believe.“有了保守党,NHS(National Health Service 英国国民健康保险制度)近十年主要的恼人、好事、专制的医疗结构会一扫而光”,这是英国首相卡梅伦在年说过的话,且广受信。2010年,选民把戴维·卡梅伦选为首相,有部分原因是因为保守党插手了工党主导的医疗保健项目,这个项目几乎自从1948年设立了NHS就赞誉颇多。然而保守党很快就把优势糟蹋一空。但“遗产”比他们大部分人认为的要丰厚。In spite of his promise, Mr Camerons Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government embarked on reforms that would reshape the NHS from the top down. The immense Health and Social Care Act of 2012 increased competition, gave the service greater autonomy and put more decisions about the purchase of care in the hands of local doctors, known inBritainas general practitioners, or GPs. The changes were so big that they could be seen from space, quipped Sir David Nicholson, the departing head of the NHS.即便是承诺在前,卡梅伦领导的保守党和自由民主党联合政府着意的改革仍将自上而下的改造NHS。2012年,声势浩大的医疗社会保障法案使竞争更加激烈,给医疗务业更大的自主权,以及把决定医疗开销的权利交由本地医生掌握,这类医生在英国被称为全科医生,简称全医。NHS前主管戴维·尼克尔森爵士曾调侃,这么大的变革,在太空都能看到。The government soon came to wish they would disappear. The reforms were never popular with a bemused public. Doctors groups argued they would lead to a more fragmented and privatised system. Others worried that GPs would be incapable of commissioning care. Ed Miliband, Labours leader, dubbed the reforms Mr Camerons “poll tax”, a reference to the policy that helped fell Margaret Thatcher. In this case it was Andrew Lansley, the health secretary, who fell. Less than six months after his reforms were passed, Mr Lansley was replaced by Jeremy Hunt, who talks about them as little as possible.很快,政府就希望这些变革能尽快消失。迷惑的民众并不欢迎这些改革。医生群体称,这个权利会让他们最终导致一个更加零碎化、私有化的医疗系统。还有人担心,全科医生并没有能力被委任护理。工党领袖埃德·米利班德把这些改革戏称为卡梅伦的“人头税”,一个曾经让撒切尔夫人下台的参考政策。而现在,下台的是卫生部长安德鲁·兰斯。兰斯的改革通过不到六个月内,他就被杰里米·亨特代替了,而后者几乎对改革只字不谈。The health reforms were supposed to make the NHS more independent. Yet Mr Hunt now styles himself a patients champion—he is known to ring hospitals to ask about waiting times. This is a concession to reality: politicians will always be held accountable for the performance of the NHS. Still, the frantic smothering of the reforms conceals something useful. A policy that has caused the government so much embarrassment is quietly bearing fruit.医疗改革旨在让NHS更加独立。然而杰里米·亨特现在自比为病人的胜利,因为大家都知道他常常打电话给医院询问等待时间。这是承认现实:政客永远要为NHS的表现负责。但是,改革密不透风的大动干戈掩盖了一些有用的东西。一个让政府非常窘迫的政策正静悄悄地开花结果。Let 211 flowers bloom让211之花盛开The biggest change was the creation of 211 Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs), which placed about 60% of the NHS budget in the hands of local doctors and health workers. They became responsible for procuring hospital care, mental-health services and the like. Navigating a muddled system, the cannier ones have figured out ways to realign the incentives of hospitals, which are often paid per procedure, with those of GPs, who aim to keep people healthy and at home.最大的改变是211临床调试组(CCGs)这一创举,收纳了本地医生和医务人员手中60%的NHS预算。调试组负责采购医院护理、心理健康护理之类的物品。游走在混乱的医疗系统中,头脑灵活的人已经想出办法调整对医院的刺激,这些在每次采购中都会被全科医生偿付,他们旨在使病人保持健康,觉得自在。The commissioning group in Bedfordshire, for example, has bundled some 20 contracts for musculoskeletal care (treatment for things like weak knees and cracked hips) into one five-year contract that was won by Circle, a commercial health group. Far from fragmenting the system, as critics had feared, this has made Circle responsible for integrating the services of local providers. Patients will be told which are doing best. Circle and its partners must achieve an agreed set of outcomes to receive some of their pay. Paolo Pieri, Circles chief financial officer, expects the deal will not only improve care but save Bedfordshire some £30m(m).例如英格兰南部贝德福德郡的调试组,已把20余份关于肌肉骨骼保健(面向脆弱的髌骨和股骨骨折之类的治疗)的合同与一份五年期的合同相捆绑,这份合同被商业医疗集团Circle中标。批评家们曾经担心的医疗系统会分崩离析的问题使Circle必须负责,这能使Circle为本地供应商的集成务负责。病人将会被告知哪个做的最好。Circle及其合伙人必须就后果及分利达成共识。Circle的CFO(首席财政官)保罗·皮耶里希望,这笔交易不仅仅能够改善卫生保健,还能为贝德福德郡留下约3000万英镑(约合5000万美元)的结余。Not all commissioning groups are as bold. But perhaps a quarter are considering contracts like the one in Bedfordshire, reckons Mr Pieri. Diane Bell, a doctor there, says more than 40 CCGs have contacted her group. “Every CCG I look at is doing brave and innovative work,” says Shane Gordon, who heads one inEssex.并非所有调试组都能这般大胆无畏。皮耶里推测,约有四分之一的调试组正考虑像贝德福德郡那个一样签订合同。贝德福德郡的一位医生戴安娜·贝尔说,有超过40家临床调试组与她的团队签订了合同。肖恩·戈登在埃塞克斯郡领导一个调试组,他说“每个临床调试组在我看来都在从事勇敢无谓、富于创新的工作”。The Labour Party—which launched a series of NHS reforms during its 13 years in power—says this sort of innovation was on the way anyway, and may have been delayed. Thanks to the giant restructuring of the NHS “we lost two or three years”, says Andy Burnham, the shadow health secretary. He also criticises a regulatory regime that leaves many providers confused. Fair enough. But the reforms replaced bureaucrats with clinicians, which seems to have encouraged creative thinking. Dr Bell was warned by an old hand that outcomes-based contracting would stir up a fight in her group. When she suggested it, though, the other GPs quickly bought in.工党在其执政的13年间,曾颁布了一系列NHS改革,它称这类改革创新不管怎么说都已经在半路上了,还有可能推迟。影子卫生部长安迪·翰讽刺,幸亏这次NHS巨大的改革让我们“浪费两三年”。他还批评监管制度让许多供应商迷惑不解。虽有道理,但是改革用临床医生代替了官僚分子,似乎还鼓励了创造性思维。贝尔医生曾被这行老手告诫这个以结果为基础的契约签订可能引起团队内讧。尽管当她提到了这个,全科医生还是被迅速引入了。If Labour wins the next election, Mr Miliband might ground CCGs just as they are taking flight. Although he has no plans to restructure the NHS yet again, his laudable aim of integrating health and social care, which currently falls outside the NHSs remit, would probably shift responsibility to a different local body. Mr Burnham would also clip the wings of reformers by giving NHS providers a built-in advantage in the competition for contracts.下届大选如果工党获胜,米利班德可能搁置临床调试组,正如现在他们才刚刚起航。即使他没有再次重组NHS的计划,他值得赞赏的集成医疗社会保障计划目前还处于NHS的推迟项目,很可能把责任转移到一个不同的地方机构。翰也会通过给予NHS供应商先天优势的方式,限制改革者在签订合同方面的竞争。But the biggest threat to CCGs and what some of them are doing to improve services is not politics but whether they can move fast enough to keep in front of a funding squeeze, says Thomas Cawston of Reform, a think-tank. Though the NHS has been protected from the worst of austerity, it could fall short by £30 billion by 2020—the result of rising demand from a growing elderly population. Sir David warns that without more cash, the service could tip into the red next year.智囊团Thomas Cawston of Reform称,对于临床实验组最大的威胁,以及其中部分改善务所作的努力不是来自政治方面,而是他们是否可以发展的足够快是实验组一直保持在资金压力前面。尽管NHS被最糟糕的财政紧缩保护,但其资金到2020年还不到300亿英镑,这是不断增长的老龄人口日益增长的需求带来的结果。戴维·尼克尔森爵士警告道,没有更多的钱,这项务明年就会陷入危机。As money runs short, the real test will arrive. It could be an opportunity for health reformers. Or bureaucrats could panic and revert to old ways. Whatever happens, the next government will not be able to duck the issue.随着资金短缺,真正的考验即将来临。这对医改人士而言是一次机遇。那些官僚却可能会陷入恐慌,且想要回归老路。无论发生什么,下届政府都无法回避这一问题。译者 周雨晴 校对 邵夏沁译文属译生译世 /201509/401375

Britain Student loans Fees fi fo fum英国 学生贷款 学费?妈妈咪呀~The new student loans system is proving more expensive than expected新的学生贷款系统耗资比预期更多POLITICAL apologies are rarely so awkward.政治道歉很少有这么奇怪的。In 2012 Nick Clegg,the Liberal Democrat leader,explained in a short film why he had broken a promise to vote against raising university tuition fees.2012年,自民党领导人尼克·克莱格在一部短片中解释为什么他违背投票反对增加大学学费的承诺。I shouldnt have committed to a policy that was so expensive when theres no money around, he said.他说我不该在没钱的时候还执着于一项花费极大的政策。Mr Clegg has now lost even that excuse.现在,克莱格连这个借口都没有了。It appears that the new student loans scheme could in fact cost the government more than the old one.貌似新的学生贷款计划要比原来的花费政府更多的钱。Yet that does not mean that Mr Cleggs U-turn was a mistake.但这并不表示克莱格的态度大转弯是一个错误。When the coalition government raised fees paid by students in England (Scotland and Wales have their own policies) from around 3,300 to 9,000 a year,联合政府提出由英格兰学生(苏格兰和威尔士有自己的政策)付的费用由每年约3300上调到9000,the idea was to boost universities incomes while cutting the amount of taxpayer cash spent on undergraduate teaching.目的就是提高大学的收入,同时缩减纳税人花在本科教学上的钱。State-backed student loans,repayable only when graduates begin earning,were extended to cover the cost of the higher fees.国家提供的学生贷款在学生开始有收入时再进行偿还,而这些贷款足以囊括学生的所有花费。This,it was thought,would stoke competition in higher education while also helping to reduce the deficit.有人认为,这将引发高等教育竞争,同时也有助于减少赤字。The system can save the government money only if students do indeed repay their loans.只有学生确实偿还贷款,该系统才能节省政府的钱。Under the rules,graduates repay 9% of any income they earn over 21,000.根据规定,毕业生必须偿还收入超过21000那部分的9%给国家。Meanwhile,debt accumulates interest at the rate of inflation plus up to 3%.与此同时,这笔债务的贷款利息将以通胀率再加上最高3%的利率计算。If they are not fully repaid,loans are written off after 30 years.如果这些款项没有全额偿还,30年后则会一笔勾销。(Student debts incurred before 2012 are forgiven after 25 years—but fees,interest rates and the repayment threshold are all lower,too.)(2012年之前的学生债务25年之后则一笔勾销—但费用,利率和偿还起点也都较低)。One consequence of increasing tuition fees is that a far smaller proportion of students will repay their debt in full under the new system than under the old one.增加学费的结果之一是全额偿还贷款的学生人数要远远少于旧系统运行时全额偿还的学生人数。And recently,as the salaries of new graduates have stagnated,the forecasts have become even less optimistic.最近,由于应届毕业生的工资停滞不前,预测变得更不乐观。According to analysis by the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS),a think-tank,73% of graduates will not repay their loans in full.根据财政研究学会(IFS)的智囊团分析,73%的毕业生不能全额偿还贷款。The government now expects to recover just 55% of its costs,against an estimate of 72% in 2010.政府预计只能弥补所有花费的55%,而非2010年时预期的72%。Yet in other ways the loan system is working impressively.然而在其他方面,贷款系统的成效还是不错的。With the worrying exception of part-timers,few students have been deterred from applying to university.因为有非全日制学生未被列入贷款对象的担忧,所以大多数学生都受到鼓励,申请了学校。Last year the proportion of 18- and 19-year-olds entering was the highest ever.去年18 - 19岁的学生进入大学的比例达到历史新高。Between 2011 and 2013 the number of students who had been entitled to free school meals entering the most academically demanding universities jumped by 39%.在2011年和2013年之间,有权免费在学校吃饭且进入学术性最强大学的学生人数上升了39%。The IFS analysis also shows that the new system is remarkably progressive—those students who go on to earn the largest salaries pay back the most.IFS分析还表明,新系统非常先进——工资最高的学生偿还的贷款也最多。Better,universities do appear to be getting more competitive as a result.更加可喜的是大学似乎变得更有竞争力。Sir Steve Smith,vice-chancellor of Exeter University,says that since fees were increased,students have become savvier埃克塞特大学的副校长史蒂夫史密斯爵士说,由于费用增加,学生变得更加精明了insisting that academics actually mark their essays within a few weeks,for instance.比如说专家们在几周内就可以批改完所有文章。Applications to the best-ranked universities have leapt and many—including Exeter—are expanding to increase their fee income.申请排名最高大学的人数大幅增加—包括艾克赛特—学费收入也相应上升。Less prestigious institutions,too,are fighting harder to keep their students.不那么有名的学校也正在竭尽全力留住学生。Low repayment rates threaten to undo this.低还款率迫使情况发生改变。The next government will have either to find more money for higher education or to cut spending,says Peter Scott,of the Institute of Education,a research university.一所研究型大学教育学院的彼得·斯科特说,下届政府将为高等教育争取跟多资金或削减教育开。In December George Osborne,the chancellor of the exchequer,announced plans to remove a government cap that limits total student numbers.去年12月,英国财政大臣乔治?奥斯本宣布废除政府限制总学生人数的规定。That may now be difficult.现在这项规定可能非常难以实行。Posh universities fear the government will instead cut grants for science or research.富裕的大学担心政府将削减科学或研究资助;Less posh ones worry about being squeezed by loosely regulated private providers offering cheap courses.不那么富裕的大学担心被管理松散的私人培训机构挤兑,因为他们可以提供价格低廉的课程。One solution would be to force universities to take on some of the risk that loans will not be repaid.一个解决办法是迫使大学承担一些贷款无法收回的风险。Universities confident of their graduates career prospects could then charge more or expand numbers without worrying.大学相信他们毕业生的职业前景可观,因此他们可以毫无顾虑的收取更高的费用或扩大招生人数。Others would have to compete by holding fees down or reducing dropout rates.另外那些对自己学生前途没什么信心的学校则必须通过压价或者降低辍学率的方式与他们竞争。It would not be an easy policy to sell.推行新的高校助学贷款政策并非易事,But as Mr Clegg discovered,the right course often is not.但是,或许正如克莱格了解到得那样,正确地道路往往荆棘满途。译者:张丹 校对:邵灵玲 译文属译生译世 /201509/397161

The battle between Michigans public universities and state lawmakers over funding has ramped up in recent weeks.Both Eastern Michigan University and Oakland University have busted state-imposed tuition caps, deciding that the states ;reward; for not raising tuition just wasnt worth it.The universities raised their tuition for the upcoming school year by 7.8% and 8.48% respectively.David Jesse of the Detroit Free Press explains that since 2012, the state has placed a cap on how much universities can increase their tuition in a given year. That cap fluctuates year to year, but this year was 3.2%.Staying under the cap means the schools will receive some extra ;performance funding; from the state in addition to the normal base funding.;You stay under it, you get all your performance funding. You dont stay under it, wave goodbye,; he says.The reason Eastern and Oakland decided to turn down that offer this year comes down to basic arithmetic, according to Jesse.He says by breaking the tuition cap, these universities will see approximately ten times the amount of extra funding than if they had accepted the states performance incentive.This decision has made some politicians unhappy, but Jesse says its not one the schools have made lightly. The way they see it, they need more money in order to implement the plans and programs they need to remain competitive. Jesse says the universities are acting perfectly within their rights.;Our constitution says that the universities are autonomous and they can do what they want,; he says. ;TheLegislature cant tell them what to do. But they can tie all sorts of things to finding. They can reward or punish with funding.;Jesse says although the tuition increase will give universities more flexibility, it also puts more pressure on students and their parents to meet tuition costs.David Jesse tells us more about the tuition decision and what impact it could have in our conversation above.201507/385942

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