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2018年12月11日 10:31:32|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度云爱问
Do cellphones cause cancer? Most health authorities do not think so, but a new federal study could reignite the controversy over this issue.手机致癌吗?大部分健康专家不这么认为,但是美国联邦政府的一项新研究可能重新引发关于这个问题的争论。The preliminary study, released Friday, found that radiation from cellphones appears to have increased the risks that male rats developed tumors in their brains and hearts. But there are many caveats and some experts are debunking the study.周五公布的这项初步研究发现,手机辐射似乎增加了雄鼠患上脑部和心脏肿瘤的风险。但有很多需要解释的地方,而且有些专家并不认同这项研究。 Who conducted the study? Are they credible?谁进行了这项研究?他们可信吗?The study is from the National Toxicology Program, an interagency group in the Department of Health and Human Services whose job it is to assess the possible risks of chemicals.这项研究是美国国家毒物(National Toxicology Program)做的,它是美国卫生与公众务部(Department of Health and Human Services)的一个跨部门机构,其职责是评估化学物质的潜在风险。 How was the study done?研究是如何进行的?Rats lived in special chambers where they were exposed to different levels of radiation of the type emitted by cellphones for nine hours a day, every day. The exposure started before they were born and continued until they were about 2 years old.大鼠住在特殊的房间里,每天接受九小时不同强度的辐射,辐射类型与手机辐射相同。从出生前一直持续到约2岁大。 What did they find?他们发现了什么?About 2 to 3 percent of the male rats exposed to the radiation developed malignant gliomas, a brain cancer, compared with none in a control group that was not exposed to radiation.约2%至3%受到辐射的雄鼠患上了恶性胶质瘤——它是一种脑部癌症——而没有受到辐射的对照组没有此类病例。About 5 to 7 percent of the male rats exposed to the highest level of radiation developed schwannomas in their hearts, compared with none in the control group. Schwannomas are tumors that occur in cells that line the nerves. The authors concluded the brain and heart tumors were “likely caused’’ by the radiation.受到最高强度辐射的雄鼠有大约5%至7%患上了心脏神经鞘瘤,而对照组中没有此类病例。神经鞘瘤是由周围神经的神经鞘所形成的肿瘤。作者们认为,脑部和心脏肿瘤“可能”是辐射“造成的”。 What about female rats?那雌鼠呢?Oddly enough, the incidence of tumors in females was minimal, barely different from the control group. It is not clear why the results would vary between the sexes, which is one reason some experts are questioning the findings.奇怪的是,雌鼠的肿瘤发病率极低,与对照组几乎没有差别。不同性别出现不同结果的原因不明,这一点也令有些专家对研究结果产生质疑。 What are other caveats?还有什么需要我们知道的?Even for males, the differences between particular groups of rats and the control group were not statistically significant. Another anomaly was that the rats exposed to the radiation lived longer on the whole than animals in the control group. And schwannomas can occur all over the body, not just the heart, but the study did not find increased rates in other organs.即便就雄鼠而言,某些组与对照组之间的差别从统计学角度讲也不是很明显。还有一个反常现象,受到辐射的大鼠的寿命,总体而言长于对照组。而且,神经鞘瘤可能在全身各处发作,不只是心脏,但是这项研究没有发现其他器官的神经鞘瘤发生比例升高。Also it was unusual that the control group had zero tumors. In previous studies at the National Toxicology Program, an average of 2 percent of rats in control groups developed gliomas. Had that happened in this study, there would have been virtually no difference between the exposed rats and the controls.另一个反常情况是,对照组完全没有肿瘤病例。在国家毒物之前的研究中,对照组平均会出现2%的神经胶质瘤。如果同样的情况出现在这项研究中,那受到辐射的大鼠与对照组之间实际上没有差别。“I am unable to accept the authors’ conclusions,” said one reviewer of the study, Dr. Michael S. Lauer, deputy director for extramural research at the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Lauer, whose comments were in an appendix to the report, said it was likely that the findings represented false positives.“我无法接受作者们的结论,”这项研究的一位评议人迈克尔·S·劳尔士(Michael S. Lauer)说。他是国家卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)的院外研究副主任。劳尔的评审意见出现在这份报告的附录里。他说,这些发现可能是错误判断。The amounts of radiation that rats were exposed to might be higher than what cellphone users typically experience, though toxicology studies often use higher doses to make sure to detect any effect that might exist.这些大鼠受到的辐射强度可能高于手机用户通常受到的辐射,不过毒物学研究一般都是使用更高剂量,以确保检测到任何可能存在的影响。 So we can just dismiss this study and go on using our phones?所以,我们可以不理会这项研究,继续使用手机吗?Not totally. As the authors of the report write: “Given the extremely large number of people who use wireless communication devices, even a very small increase in the incidence of disease resulting from exposure to the RFR generated by those devices would have broad implications for public health.” RFR refers to radio-frequency radiation.并不完全是这样。就像那份报告的作者们写的:“使用无线通讯设备的人数量众多,那些设备产生的射频辐射就算只是轻微提高发病率,也会对公共健康造成广泛影响。”Dr. Otis Brawley, chief medical officer of the American Cancer Society, issued a statement on Friday that called this study “good science,” and called for further research because the animal research used very high signal strengths.周五,美国癌症学会(American Cancer Society)的首席医疗官奥蒂斯·布劳利士(Otis Brawley)发表了一项声明,称这项研究是“优秀科学成果”,倡议进行进一步研究,因为动物研究所用的信号强度很高。But he said, “The NTP report linking radiofrequency radiation (RFR) to two types of cancer marks a paradigm shift in our understanding of radiation and cancer risk.”但是他说,“国家毒物的报告将射频辐射与两种癌症联系起来,标志着我们在理解辐射和癌症风险方面出现思考模式的转变。”Dr. David O. Carpenter, director of the Institute for Health and Environment at the University at Albany, said he thought the study provided backing for the human epidemiological studies that suggested cellphone use was associated with an increased risk of gliomas and acoustic neuromas, a type of schwannoma. “I think this is real,’’ he said, suggesting people used wired earpieces to talk on cellphones.大卫·O·卡彭特士(David O. Carpenter)是纽约州立大学奥尔巴尼分校(Albany)健康和环境学院(Institute for Health and Environment)的院长。他说,他认为这项研究为人类流行病学的研究提供了持,表明使用手机与神经胶质瘤及听神经瘤(神经鞘瘤的一种)的风险增加有关。“我觉得这是真的,”他说。他建议人们在接打电话时使用有线耳机。 What have other studies found?其他研究发现了什么?Dr. Carpenter’s view is not the prevailing one. Many studies have been conducted, including some very large ones like the Million Women Study in Britain, and a Danish study of more than 350,000 cellphone users. There also were studies examining the effects of these radio waves in animals and cells growing in petri dishes. The results are reassuring. There is no convincing evidence of any link between cellphone use and cancer or any other disease.卡彭特的观点不是主流观点。之前有过很多研究,包括一些很大规模的研究,比如英国的百万女性研究(Million Women Study),以及丹麦对逾35万手机用户进行的研究。还有些研究是检验这些无线电波对动物以及在皮氏培养皿中生长的细胞的影响。这些研究的结果令人宽慰。没有令人信的据表明,使用手机与癌症或其他疾病之间存在联系。Also, the incidence of brain cancer in the ed States has remained steady since 1992, despite the stark increase in cellphone use.另外,从1992年至今,美国的脑部癌症发病率始终很稳定,尽管这期间手机使用量急剧上升。The International Agency for Research on Cancer, part of the World Health Organization, rates cellphone radiation a “possible’’ human carcinogen, based on limited evidence in both people and animals. It gives the same rating to coffee and pickled vegetables.世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)的国际癌症研究机构(International Agency for Research on Cancer)基于人和动物身上的有限据,将手机辐射列为“可能”对人类有致癌作用的物质,与咖啡和咸菜属于同一级别。 But don’t we know that radiation causes cancer?但是,难道我们不知道辐射致癌吗?Ionizing radiation, the powerful type from nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants and X-ray machines, is strong enough to knock electrons off atoms and damage DNA. That can cause cancer. But the radiation from cellphones, called radio-frequency radiation, is nonionizing and not known to damage DNA.核武器、核电站和X光机产生的强烈的电离辐射足以把电子从原子中释放出来,损害DNA。那会致癌。但手机辐射是射频辐射,不是电离辐射,不会损害DNA。 So what happens now?接下来会怎样?The findings released Friday are preliminary and part of a larger study, so more data will be coming out, probably next year. The existing report will also be reviewed further by more experts.周五公布的发现是初步试验,是一项更大规模研究的一部分,所以会出现更多数据,很可能明年公布。现有的报告也将由更多专家进一步评审。 /201606/446879Baidu, China’s largest search group, has launched an attempt to become the Android of the automotive world by sharing its self-driving technology.中国最大的搜索集团百度(Baidu)发起一项努力,试图通过共享其无人驾驶技术,成为汽车界的安卓(Android)。At the Shanghai Auto Show yesterday, Baidu revealed its Apollo project, which it said was an “open, complete and reliable software platform for its partners in the automotive and autonomous driving industry to develop their own autonomous driving systems”.在昨天的上海车展上,百度透露了“阿波罗计划”。百度称,该计划“将向汽车行业及自动驾驶领域的合作伙伴提供一个开放、完整、安全的软件平台,帮助他们结合车辆和硬件系统,快速搭建一套属于自己的完整的自动驾驶系统。”The move appeared inspired by Google’s efforts to dominate smartphones by launching Android as an open source set of tools that other companies could customise.该举动的灵感似乎来自谷歌(Google)主导智能手机的努力,后者把安卓设计为一套开源工具,让其他公司可以定制。Baidu said it would open its technology in stages. In July it would share intellectual property for “restricted environment” driving, with technology for simple urban road conditions to follow this year. By 2020 software for “fully autonomous driving capabilities on highways and open city roads” would be available.百度称,将分阶段开放其技术。7月,它将分享“受限环境”驾驶的知识产权,随后在今年晚些时候分享简单城市道路环境下的技术。到2020年,百度将提供具备“公路和开放性城市道路全自动驾驶能力”的软件。Open-sourcing of automotive technology is not unprecedented: in 2014 electric carmaker Tesla offered tech secrets to rivals in an attempt to boost interest in low-emission vehicles.对汽车技术进行开源并非史无前例:2014年电动汽车制造商特斯拉(Tesla)向竞争对手提供了技术秘密,试图提升行业对低排放汽车的兴趣。Baidu had sought to develop autonomous driving technology through partnerships with Chinese carmakers such as BAIC and Chery, with which it has road-tested Lincoln cars in California.百度试图通过与北汽控股(BAIC)和奇瑞(Chery)等中国汽车制造商建立合作关系,来研发自动驾驶技术。百度已在加州用林肯汽车进行了道路测试。In artificial intelligence Baidu is widely considered to have an edge over domestic competitors and is regularly rated on a par with IBM and Google.在人工智能方面,百度被普遍认为拥有超出国内竞争者的优势,经常被认为是与IBM和谷歌水平相仿的领先者。“AI has great potential to drive social development, and one of AI’s biggest opportunities is intelligent vehicles,” said Qi Lu, Baidu’s chief operating officer, yesterday.“人工智能拥有推动社会发展的巨大潜力,而人工智能最大的机遇之一是智能汽车,”百度首席运营官陆奇昨日表示。However, a setback came last month when some of the group’s most senior talent quit.然而,上月百度遭遇了一个挫折,其集团内一些最资深的人才出走。Mark Natkin of Marbridge Consulting in Beijing said the open-source move was ambiguous. “One could look at this as an ambitious effort to jump out into the forefront of autonomous driving technology,” he said.北京迈瑞咨询(Marbridge Consulting)的马克?纳特金(Mark Natkins)称,百度的开源举动让人看不懂。“人们可以把这视为跳到自动驾驶技术前沿的雄心之举,”他称。But it could also be “a step back from a wholly self-contained effort”.但它也可能是“从完全自成一体的努力倒退一步”。How Baidu intends to generate revenue from the open-source model is unclear. Shu Chang, a consultant at Roland Berger in Shanghai, said the data generated by the project would be immensely valuable.尚不清楚百度打算如何从开源模式中获得营收。罗兰贝格(Roland Berger)驻上海顾问舒畅表示,该项目生成的数据将极具价值。“The biggest driver for Baidu in this project is that through an open platform like this it is able to collect user information through the whole autonomous driving and car networking system,” he said.他称,“百度在该项目上最大的动力是,通过像这样的开放平台,它可以通过整个自动驾驶和汽车网络系统收集用户信息。”For car companies open-sourcing will lower the costs of developing their own technology, according to the IDC consultancy. “For the driverless car industry, this will lower the tech threshold for the overall automobile industry and help to form an industry standard,” its analysts wrote.据咨询公司IDC表示,对于汽车企业而言,开源将降低研发自己技术的成本。IDC的分析师们写道,“对无人驾驶汽车行业来说,这将为整个汽车行业降低技术门槛,并且帮助形成行业标准。”Baidu conducted successful road tests of fully autonomous cars in Beijing in December 2015.2015年12月,百度在北京成功完成了全自动驾驶汽车的道路测试。 /201704/505430

CAIRO — When it comes to home delivery and services, Cairo has most other places beat.开罗――在快递到家和务上门方面,没有多少城市能胜过开罗。Suffering from a hangover and perhaps some regrets? Costa Coffee will send around a single shot of espresso (.70), and the neighborhood pharmacy will dispatch one morning-after pill ().为宿醉苦恼?或许为昨晚的事后悔?Costa咖啡可以送来一杯意式浓缩咖啡(2.70美元),附近的药店也能送来一片事后避药(2美元)。Want a Brazilian bikini wax? It can be done in the privacy of your home for . 想来个巴西式比基尼脱毛?可以在家中私密环境下完成,价格6美元。Need a birth or death certificate? Just put in a call to the government, which will dispatch it within 72 hours.需要出生或死亡明?只需给政府打电话,72小时内就会得到解决。For city dwellers in Egypt, almost anything can be delivered, and for nearly nothing.对于埃及的城市居民来说,几乎一切都可以快递,而且近乎免费。Home deliveries started with fast food, but have come to include an array of other goods and services. 快递到家务始于快餐业,但是渐渐发展到一系列其他货品与务。Upscale restaurants will deliver a salad or a single slice of cake; stationers will send pens to the office; liquor stores will supply alcohol if a party runs dry; bakeries will send fresh b and pastries straight from the oven — most of it carried on the backs of battered old motorcycles.高级餐厅可以只送一份沙拉或一小块蛋糕;文具店可以把钢笔送到办公室;如果派对上的酒喝完了,可以要酒类商店送来;蛋糕房可以送来刚出炉的新鲜面包和甜点——多数商品都是用破旧托车送来的Driving the trend is a middle class willing to spend money to avoid hassles, plus large numbers of poorer people willing to zoom around on motorcycles for less than a day. 推动这种趋势的是中产阶级愿意花钱避免麻烦的愿望,此外还有众多比较穷的人愿意骑着托车到处穿梭,换来每天不到10美元的报酬。Given Cairo’s bad traffic and long, hot summers, the capital’s dwellers need little encouragement to pick up the phone. (Deliveries spike especially in July and August, when daytime temperatures rarely drop below 90 degrees.)鉴于开罗糟糕的交通状况,以及夏日的漫长酷热,首都的居民不用太多想就会打电话叫快递(快递在7月和8月会达到高峰,那段时间白日的温度很少低于90华氏度)。The customers pay very little for the convenience — delivery charges are typically less than a dollar.客户不用付多少钱就可以得到这种便利——快递费一般不到1美元。It is too hot for anyone to walk, and no one wants to drive through a traffic jam and then have to look for a parking spot, said Shady Ahmed, who delivers for Costa Coffee in Zamalek, an affluent Cairo neighborhood. 天气太热了,大家都不愿意走路,也没人愿意开车遇到拥堵,然后还要找停车位,在扎马利克为Costa咖啡送货的沙迪#8226;艾哈迈德(Shady Ahmed)说,扎马利克是开罗一个繁华的地带。Why would anyone waste money on a cab coming and going when we can deliver to them for less?既然我们可以廉价送货上门,为什么还要浪费钱打车呢?Even the government’s creaky bureaucracy has seized on the trend. 就连破败的政府官僚体制也赶上了这股潮流。In January, the civil registry created a call center for people to renew their national IDs and then get birth, death and marriage certificates delivered to their homes, a service they can also find online.1月,民政注册处开放了一个电话中心,提供上门务,帮人们更新身份号,之后又提供了快递出生、死亡和结婚的务,这些务也可以上网办理。We did this to make life easier, said Ehab el-Attar, the registry’s head. 我们这样做都是为了提供方便,注册处的长官埃哈卜#8226;艾尔-阿塔尔(Ehab el-Attar)说。Not everyone can use the internet, and this way they don’t waste time coming here and make traffic worse. 不是所有人都能用互联网,这样他们就不用浪费时间跑到这里,让交通进一步恶化。I don’t think this particular service is a proof of laziness. 我不觉得这项务明人们懒惰。But, he added with a laugh, there is definitely plenty of laziness around.不过他笑着补充说,现在确实有不少懒人。The home delivery culture is sping into the service sector as well. 上门文化也发展到了务行业。Now an ailing runner can have her knees X-rayed in bed for about , and while she is at it, get a haircut and a pedicure.现在,如果跑步受伤,可以在家里,躺在床上给膝盖做X光检查,只需55美元,与此同时,还可以理发和美甲。While businesses have jumped at the opportunities, some of their workers grumble about the customers’ attitudes. 商家抓住机会的同时,有些员工也在抱怨客户的态度。They’ll just sit there with coffee mugs and barely look at you. 他们就是端着咖啡坐在那儿,几乎不看你一眼。You just want to tell them, ‘You are not rich, this is just cheap,’ said Nagat Hosny, a body waxer who does home visits.你忍不住想告诉他们,‘不是你太有钱,是务太便宜’,提供上门务的身体脱毛师纳加#8226;胡斯尼(Nagat Hosny)说。Mostafa Mahmoud travels the city taking blood from people at home — he is a phlebotomist, not a vampire — and delivers it to Al Borg, one of the capital’s leading medical labs.穆斯塔法#8226;马哈茂德(Mostafa Mahmoud)在整个城市四处上门采集血液——他是抽血者,不是吸血者——然后把这些血液提供给开罗最大的医疗实验室之一Al Borg。It is often exasperating when you go and find that the person is absolutely fine and just chilling at home, he said. 有时候你上门去,发现那人完全没问题,悠闲自得地待在家里,这经常让人恼怒,他说。Some even have the audacity to scold you if you are 10 minutes late.有些人因为你晚了10分钟,就敢教训你。With an increasing number of goods and services finding their way to the doorsteps of customers, it was inevitable that some high-tech solutions would also come along.愈来愈多的货物和务被直接送上门,一些高科技的解决办法也就不可避免地随之而来。Waleed Rashed is the founder of a company that plans to introduce a delivery app called Voo in October. 瓦利德#8226;拉希德(Waleed Rashed)是一家公司的创始人,该公司计划在10月推出一款名叫Voo的快递手机应用。Voo (the name is meant to suggest the sound of speed) aims to do almost any chore for anyone.Voo(这个名字让人联想起飞速移动的声音)旨在为所有人提供几乎所有的跑腿务。There is no incentive to go outside, Mr. Rashed said. 人们不愿出门,拉希德说。Just one hour outside is enough to ruin anyone’s day.出门一小时就能毁掉一整天。Voo might, for example, pick up keys you left at a friend’s house and return them to you within an hour for an average of , he said.比如说,Voo可以在一个小时内帮你拿回留在朋友家里的钥匙,再交还给你,平均只需5美元,他说。Ingez, an Egyptian company whose name translates as hurry up, has also latched onto the delivery craze. 埃及公司因格兹(Ingez——意思是赶快)也跟上了这股快递热潮。It offers services such as driving sundry goods — a single cellphone cover, say — from one end of Cairo to another for as little as .50, or taking flowers to someone in the hospital on behalf of a busy relative.它可以把各种货物(比如说,一个手机壳)从开罗的一头送到另一头,只需要2.5美元,或者帮一个忙碌的亲戚给医院里的病人送花。Sometimes we find it funny, said Ahmed Farouk, the company’s manager of operations. 有时候,我们觉得这很有趣,公司的运营经理艾哈迈德#8226;法鲁克(Ahmed Farouk)说。I personally wouldn’t request a delivery for a small order myself, but people generally are never shy about it.我自己从来不会为了小额商品叫快递,但是大多数人毫无顾忌。Ammar Ali Hassan, a prominent Egyptian novelist and political sociologist, attributes such attitudes to the return of many relatively affluent Egyptians who were guest workers in Saudi Arabia and other countries on the Persian Gulf.埃及著名的小说家和政治社会学家阿马尔#8226;阿里#8226;哈桑(Ammar Ali Hassan)觉得,这种态度是因为许多相对富裕的埃及人正在回国。他们曾在沙特阿拉伯和波斯湾其他国家打工。Many were influenced by the Gulf, Mr. Hassan said. 很多人受到海湾地区的影响,哈桑说。They think, ‘Oh I am a big deal and can act like a member of the upper class now. 他们想,‘现在我是大人物,可以像上层阶级一样了。I am too big for queues.’ ’我太了不起,不能排队。Home delivery has become so habitual here that Egyptians abroad tend to feel deprived.接受上门务成了一种习惯,一些海外的埃及人甚至觉得失去了什么。Salma Adel, a young Egyptian physician who moved to Ireland more than a year ago, said delivery was one of the things she missed most.一年多前移居爱尔兰的年轻埃及医生萨尔玛#8226;阿德尔(Salma Adel)说,快递是她最怀念的一件事。It has to be up there with family, she said. 最好是和家人在一起,她说。It’s not like it’s just fast food. It’s all food.不仅仅是快餐,而是所有的餐饮都能送达。There’s something beautiful about being able to conjure up a beautiful meal out of thin air when you’re sat at home and can’t be bothered to cook, she added.坐在家里,不用费力做饭,凭空就有好饭好菜变出来,真是太美了,她说。 /201609/463845

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