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来源:好医助手    发布时间:2018年11月16日 09:58:18    编辑:admin         

11. The Ancient Architecture11. 中国古代建筑艺术 Chinese architecture is an independent art featuring wooden structures. It consists of various roof molding, upturned eaves and wings, dougong with paintings, vermilion pillars and golden roofs, ornament gates and gardening. All of these embody the maturity and artistic appeal of Chinese architecture. 7000 years ago, mortise and tenon and tongue-and-groove were used in Hemudu. The buildings of Banpo village had the division of antechamber and back rooms. Great palaces were built in Shangyin period. Bricks and tiles were used and the layout of Siheyuan emerged in the Western Zhou. There are even building drawings in Spring and Autumn and the Warring States periods passed down.中国建筑体系是以木结构为特色阳的建筑艺术。传统建筑叫种屋顶造型、飞檐翼角、斗拱画、朱柱金顶、内外装修门及园林景物等,充分体现出中国建筑艺术的纯熟和感染力。七千年前河姆渡文化中即有桦卵和企口做法。半坡村已有前堂后室之分。商殷时已出现高大宫室。西周时已使用砖瓦并有四合院布局。春秋战国时期更有建筑图传世。京邑台栅宫室内外梁柱、斗拱上均作装饰,墙壁上饰以壁画。 In Qin and Han, wooden building tended to be mature gradually. Complex buildings, like Epang Palace, were constructed. Temples and pagodas developed rapidly in the period of Weijin and Southern and Northern dynasties. Glass tiles used in Sui and Tang made the building more glorious. The city construction in the period of Five dynasties and Song was booming. Luxury restaurants and shops with lofts and railings were very beautiful. Many palaces and private gardens built in Ming and Qing are reserved today, which are more magnificent and stately than that of the Song Dynasty.秦汉时期木构建筑日趋成熟,建筑宏伟壮观,装饰丰富,舒展优美,出现了阿房宫等庞大的建筑组群。魏晋南北朝时期佛寺、佛塔迅速发展。隋唐时期建筑采用琉璃瓦,更是富丽堂皇。五代、两宋都市建筑兴22,商业繁荣,豪华的酒楼、商店各有飞阁栏槛,风格秀丽。明清时代的宫殿苑固和私家园林保存至今者尚多,建筑亦较宋代华丽繁琐、威严自在。 /201505/373249。

A:What happened to your fist?A:你的拳头怎么了?B:This guy tried to get away with a fast one, on our first date!B:这家伙使花招想逃脱,在我们第一次约会的时候。A:He tried to kiss you?A:他想亲你?B:No! He tried to get away!B:不,他想离开~~ /201505/373720。

;The secret for keeping my bright-eyed enthusiasm after 20 years at the same job? LED contact lenses!;想知道我是怎让让我的女儿在一个岗位工作20年之后,眼睛仍然闪亮的秘密吗?那就是隐形眼镜! /201506/379835。

Three holidaymakers from France have been deported and banned from Cambodia after they were caught taking naked pictures of each other at one of thelargest religious sites in the world.三名法国游客在柬埔寨吴哥窟拍裸照被抓,已经被遣返,并且四年内不得踏入柬埔寨。The Frenchmen posed in the buff at a Buddhist temple within the sprawling Angkor complex for a series of cheeky snaps that angered and offended authorities.这三名法国人在吴哥窟的一处佛教庙宇拍裸照,当局感到愤怒。After they were arrested at Banteay Kdeitemple last Thursday the tourists faced a swift trial, and were convicted of producing pornography and #39;exposure of sexual organs#39;, the Cambodia Daily reported.他们于上周四被捕后,马上接受了快速的审判,罪名是生产色情作品以及暴露性器官,《柬埔寨日报》报道。As punishment the cheeky travellers– identified by Cambodian media as Rodolphe Fourgeot, 21, Alexandre Vix, 21, and Vincent Bocquet, 20 – were given six-month suspended sentences and a fine of one million riels (approximately #163;160), andtheir camera equipment was confiscated.柬埔寨媒体称这三名无耻的法国人分别是21岁,21岁,20岁,被判6个月缓刑以及100万里尔(约160英镑)的罚款,他们的相机设备被没收。They have been banned from returning to Cambodia for four years as the Siem Reap provincial court attempted to set aprecedent to discourage similar acts at the Unesco World Heritage Site.他们被判四年内不得踏入柬埔寨,法院这么判的目的是为了杀鸡儆猴,以防其他人也在这个联合国世界遗产地做出类似的事情来。The historic Angkor complex covers approximately 150 square miles and is best known for its Angkor Wat temple, the largest religious monument in the world and Cambodia#39;s most famous tourist attraction with more than 1.5 million visitors a year.吴哥综合体面积大概150平方英里,其中以吴哥窟最为闻名,这是世界上最大的宗教历史遗迹,也是柬埔寨最著名的旅游胜地,每年访客150多万。Angkor was the home of the Khmer empire from the 9th to 15th centuries and contains the remains of different capitals.9到15世纪期间,吴哥窟是高棉帝国的所在地,里面还有不同首都的遗迹。 /201502/358402。

It is said that there is a correlation between the number of storks’ nests found on Danish houses and the number of children born in those houses. Could the old story about babies being delivered by storks really be true? No. Correlation is not causation. Storks do not deliver children but larger houses have more room both for children and for storks.丹麦流传着一种说法,一户人家屋檐上的鹳巢数量与这家人所生孩子的数量存在着相关性。婴儿是鹳鸟送来的古老传说是真的吗?当然不是。相关性跟因果关系不是一回事。鹳不会送来孩子,但大房子有更大的空间为孩子和鹳所用。This much-loved statistical anecdote seems less amusing when you consider how it was used in a US Senate committee hearing in 1965. The expert witness giving testimony was arguing that while smoking may be correlated with lung cancer, a causal relationship was unproven and implausible. Pressed on the statistical parallels between storks and cigarettes, he replied that they “seem to me the same”.这是一则人们喜闻乐见的统计趣闻,但如果你知道1965年在美国参议院一场听会上它是如何被用到的,你就不会觉得那么有趣了。那位做听发言的专家人辩称,尽管吸烟或许跟肺癌相关,但两者之间不存在已明的、令人信的因果关系。当被问及为何把鹳和孩子的关系与香烟和肺癌的关系进行类比,他回答说,两者“在我看来是一样的”。The witness’s name was Darrell Huff, a freelance journalist beloved by generations of geeks for his wonderful and hugely successful 1954 book How to Lie with Statistics. His reputation today might be rather different had the proposed sequel made it to print. How to Lie with Smoking Statistics used a variety of stork-style arguments to throw doubt on the connection between smoking and cancer, and it was supported by a grant from the Tobacco Institute. It was never published, for reasons that remain unclear. (The story of Huff’s career as a tobacco consultant was brought to the attention of statisticians in articles by Andrew Gelman in Chance in 2012 and by Alex Reinhart in Significance in 2014.)这位人的名字叫达莱尔#8226;哈夫(Darrell Huff),是一名自由记者,因其1954年出版的那本精、大为畅销的《统计数字会撒谎》(How to Lie with Statistics)而深受数代极客的爱戴。如果该书续集付印的话,他今天的名声或许会完全不同。《吸烟统计数字会撒谎》(How to Lie with Smoking Statistics)使用了各种鹳式论点来对吸烟与癌症的相关性提出质疑。该书得到了美国的烟草研究所(Tobacco Institute)资助,但不知出于什么原因一直没有出版。(2012年安德鲁#8226;格尔曼(Andrew Gelman)在《Chance》杂志上发表的文章,以及2014年亚历克斯#8226;莱因哈特(Alex Reinhart)在《Significance》杂志上发表的文章,使哈夫担任烟草业顾问的经历引起统计学家们的注意。)Indisputably, smoking causes lung cancer and various other deadly conditions. But the problematic relationship between correlation and causation in general remains an active area of debate and confusion. The “spurious correlations” compiled by Harvard law student Tyler Vigen and displayed on his website (tylervigen.com) should be a warning. Did you realise that consumption of margarine is strongly correlated with the divorce rate in Maine?毋庸置疑,吸烟会导致肺癌和其他多种致命疾病。但广泛意义上的相关性与因果之间的尚存疑问的关系,仍是当前一个极易引起争议和混淆的领域。哈佛大学(Harvard)法学院学生泰勒#8226;维根(Tyler Vige)编撰并发布在其网站(tylervigen.com)上的“伪相关”应算是一种警告。你知道缅因州人造奶油的消费量与离婚率之间存在很强的相关性吗?We cannot rely on correlation alone, then. But insisting on absolute proof of causation is too exacting a standard (arguably, an impossible one). Between those two extremes, where does the right balance lie between trusting correlations and looking for evidence of causation?所以,我们不能仅仅依赖相关性。但是,坚持为因果关系提供绝对据就过于苛刻了(甚至是一种不可能达到的标准)。在这两个极端之间,如何在相信相关性与寻找因果据之间达到合理的平衡呢?Scientists, economists and statisticians have tended to demand causal explanations for the patterns they see. It’s not enough to know that college graduates earn more money — we want to know whether the college education boosted their earnings, or if they were smart people who would have done well anyway. Merely looking for correlations was not the stuff of rigorous science.科学家、经济学家和统计学家倾向于要求为他们看到的现象提出因果解释。知道大学毕业生能赚更多钱还不够,我们想知道,大学教育是否提高了他们的收入,或者他们本来就是聪明人、不管接受大学教育与否都能赚更多钱。仅仅寻找相关性并非严格科学的做法。But with the advent of “big data” this argument has started to shift. Large data sets can throw up intriguing correlations that may be good enough for some purposes. (Who cares why price cuts are most effective on a Tuesday? If it’s Tuesday, cut the price.) Andy Haldane, chief economist of the Bank of England, recently argued that economists might want to take mere correlations more seriously. He is not the first big-data enthusiast to say so.但随着“大数据”的到来,这场争论开始发生变化。海量数据集可以产生一些有趣的相关性,在某些用途上它们就足够好用了(谁关心为何周二降价效果最好呢?如果确是这样,那就选这一天降价。)英国央行(BoE)首席经济学家安德鲁#8226;霍尔丹(Andy Haldane)不久前表示,经济学家们或许想更认真地看待纯粹相关性(mere correlation)。他不是第一个这么说的大数据热衷者。This brings us back to smoking and cancer. When the British epidemiologist Richard Doll first began to suspect the link in the late 1940s, his analysis was based on a mere correlation. The causal mechanism was unclear, as most of the carcinogens in tobacco had not been identified; Doll himself suspected that lung cancer was caused by fumes from tarmac roads, or possibly cars themselves.我们回头来讲抽烟与癌症之间的关系。20世纪40年代末,英国流行病学家理查德#8226;多尔(Richard Doll)最早开始怀疑二者之间的联系。当时他的分析基于纯粹相关性,他不清楚因果机制,因为当时还没确定烟草中的大多数致癌物。多尔本人怀疑肺癌的致病原因是柏油公路的烟气,或者可能就是汽车本身。Doll’s early work on smoking and cancer with Austin Bradford Hill, published in 1950, was duly criticised in its day as nothing more than a correlation. The great statistician Ronald Fisher repeatedly weighed into the argument in the 1950s, pointing out that it was quite possible that cancer caused smoking — after all, precancerous growths irritated the lung. People might smoke to soothe that irritation. Fisher also observed that some genetic predisposition might cause both lung cancer and a tendency to smoke. (Another statistician, Joseph Berkson, observed that people who were tough enough to resist adverts and peer pressure were also tough enough to resist lung cancer.)多尔与奥斯汀#8226;布拉德福德#8226;希尔(Austin Bradford Hill)在1950年发表了他们关于吸烟与癌症关系的早期研究结果,由于俩人的研究基于纯粹相关性,在当时果不其然遭到了批评。伟大的统计学家罗纳德#8226;费雪(Ronald Fisher)在20世纪50年代多次加入论战,指出很可能是癌症引起吸烟,毕竟癌前期病变会对肺部造成刺激,人们可能会通过吸烟来缓解这一刺激。费雪还认为有些遗传特征可能既会引发肺癌,还会引起吸烟倾向。(另一位统计学家约瑟夫#8226;伯克森(Joseph Berkson)提出,假如一个人强悍到足以抵制广告的诱惑和同龄人的压力,那么他也强悍到足以抵抗肺癌。)Hill and Doll showed us that correlation should not be dismissed too easily. But they also showed that we shouldn’t give up on the search for causal explanations. The pair painstakingly continued their research, and evidence of a causal association soon mounted.希尔和多尔的例子告诉我们,不要轻易否定相关性,但他们也以行动明,不应放弃寻找因果解释。俩人继续勤恳研究,很快就发现了更多表明因果关系的据。Hill and Doll took a pragmatic approach in the search for causation. For example, is there a dose-response relationship? Yes: heavy smokers are more likely to suffer from lung cancer. Does the timing make sense? Again, yes: smokers develop cancer long after they begin to smoke. This contradicts Fisher’s alternative hypothesis that people self-medicate with cigarettes in the early stages of lung cancer. Do multiple sources of evidence add up to a coherent picture? Yes: when doctors heard about what Hill and Doll were finding, many of them quit smoking, and it became possible to see that the quitters were at lower risk of lung cancer. We should respect correlation but it is a clue to a deeper truth, not the end of our investigations.希尔和多尔在寻找因果关系时采取了一种务实的方法。比如,是否存在一种剂量效应?是的,烟瘾大的人更可能患肺癌。烟龄长短有关系吗?有关系,吸烟者开始吸烟很久后,癌细胞开始形成。这与费舍尔设想的人们在肺癌早期阶段用烟草进行自我医疗的假设相矛盾。多个据来源凑到一起能否得到一个逻辑连贯的描述?是:能够得到。当医生们听闻希尔和多尔的发现时,许多医生开始戒烟,现实情况也表明戒烟者患肺癌的风险要更低。我们应该尊重相关性,但相关性只是通向更深层真理的一个线索,而不是研究的终点。It’s not clear why Huff and Fisher were so fixated on the idea that the growing evidence on smoking was a mere correlation. Both of them were paid as consultants by the tobacco industry and some will believe that the consulting fees caused their scepticism. It seems just as likely that their scepticism caused the consulting fees. We may never know.目前尚不清楚为什么面对越来越多的吸烟致癌的据,赫夫和费雪却执着地认为这仅是相关性。他们二人都是烟草行业的顾问,因而有些人会认为他们的怀疑动机来源于顾问费。但也很可能正是他们的怀疑带来了顾问费。到底哪个为因,哪个为果,后人可能永远不得而知。 /201504/372173。

7.Theodora – Byzantium7.狄奥多拉——拜占庭Born in 500 AD, Theodora was the daughter of a bear trainer and grew up in the hippodrome, where her actress mother started to teach her the tricks of the trade. By 15 she had become a child star in the arts of comedy, mime, and, well, prostitution. Her exploits were legendary, rough housing, flashing, and performing acts with geese we#39;d rather not imagine. Supposedly, she#39;d frequently take on 10 men at a time, and when they tired, she#39;d take on all of their servants. She had a lot of stamina, is what we#39;re trying to say.狄奥多拉生于公元500年,她是一位训熊师的女儿,在马戏团中长大。她的母亲是位演员,也是在这里开始传授她演技的诀窍。15岁时她已经是一个童星了,从事着喜剧、哑剧以及,卖淫工作。她的事迹是个传奇,在简陋的房屋中,她闪耀着光芒,与鹅共舞的场面,我们最好还是不要去想象。据说,她常常同时接十个客人,当嫖客累了,她又去接待他们的仆役。我们想说的是,她的精力十分旺盛。After finding religion at 18, the emperor Justinian I was struck with her beauty, so much so that he changed the law just so that he could marry her. She began taking on several of the emperor#39;s duties, including passing laws and consulting with foreign rulers. She also tried to end the sex slave trade and issued anti-rape legislation, becoming one of the earliest champions of women#39;s rights.狄奥多拉18岁找到信仰之后,东罗马帝国的皇帝查士丁尼一世(Justinian I )被她的美貌迷住了,为了能够娶她为妻,查士丁尼一世甚至修改了法律。此后,狄奥多拉开始着手处理一些皇帝的事务,包括通过法律、会见外国首领等等。她还尝试终止性奴隶贸易,颁布了反强奸法案,成为女权运动最早的拥护者之一。6.Maximinus Thrax – Rome6.马克西米努斯·色雷克斯——罗马Maximinus Thorax was was a shepherd and reportedly a giant, said to have been more than eight feet tall. Being thought a giant with superhuman strength, it was no surprise when he began working his way up through the Roman military. In 235 AD, when in command of a force of recruits in Germany, the soldiers decided they would prefer Maximinus to be their ruler, killing Alexander and putting the giant into a position of ultimate power.据说,马克西米努斯·色雷克斯是个高大的牧羊人,身高超过八英尺(约2.44米)。人们认为他身材魁梧,力能扛鼎,因此他自然能在罗马军队中平步青云。公元235年,马克西米努斯在德国负责统帅新兵团。士兵们极力拥护他称帝,并杀了当时的罗马帝国皇帝亚历山大·塞维鲁(Alexander),从而把这位巨人推向权力的巅峰。With war being all he knew, he extorted and confiscated lands from the property owning class, finally heading to Italy to suppress his challengers to the throne. He never made it to Rome though, as his troops killed him in 238 AD after apparently realizing size isn#39;t everything, and he was a pretty terrible leader. He carries the distinction of being a Roman emperor who never actually visited Rome. Well, except for his severed head, which his mutinous soldiers brought to the city after removing it from his neck.只会打仗的马克西米努斯不断侵占或没收所有者阶级的领土,还率军向意大利挺进,意图减少意大利对他皇位的威胁。但公元238年,在尚未抵达罗马之前,马克西米努斯就被部下们杀害了,因为他们意识到光有魁梧的身材是远远不够的,而且他是一位非常糟糕的领袖。马克西米努斯成为了一位独特的罗马皇帝,因为他从来没有去过罗马。当然了,他那被部下砍下的头颅,还是被带进过罗马城的。5.Liu Bang – China5.刘邦——中国Born in 256 to a peasant family, Liu was a troublemaker and a truant as a child. It was only when he saw the emperor riding in a magnificent carriage that he thought he wanted the high life for himself and began to work toward achieving his goals of wealth and power. After spending time working his way up the administration ladder, he saw an easier path to become emperor and became a rebel leader.刘邦于公元前256年出生在一个农民家庭。儿时的刘邦调皮捣蛋,十分懒散。直到某日,他看到乘坐气派马车的秦始皇,从而燃起了对荣华富贵的渴望,并开始了求富逐权之路。在他努力攀爬权利阶梯之时,却发现想要成为君主有一条捷径可走,于是率兵揭竿起义。It took Liu just two years to beat his arch rival Xiang Yu in capturing the capital, but was forced to spend the next four years keeping his rival at bay. Once he had finally beaten his enemy#39;s larger rebel army, he became known as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and began the Han dynasty that lasted for 400 years. He never did lose his childish ways, though, once urinating into a scholar#39;s hat to show his disdain for education.刘邦领兵征战两年,最后先于劲敌项羽占领秦都咸阳城,但他在接下来的四年里却一直受到项羽的牵制。最终,汉军大败楚军,刘邦登基,成为了众所周知的汉高祖,存世400年的汉朝也由此登上历史舞台。虽然刘邦已成为一国之君,但他依旧保持儿时的顽皮——他曾为了表示对教育的不屑,朝夫子的帽子里撒尿呢!4.Toyotomi Hideyoshi – Japan4.丰臣秀吉——日本A peasant born in 16th century Japan, Toyotomi was fatherless at the age of seven, a peasant, and pretty famously ugly. So in other words, he got a pretty crappy start in life. With nothing else going for him, he went looking for adventure and joined the Oda clan, where he proved himself brilliant in battle and rose through the ranks. He earned the trust of a man named Oda Nobunaga (commonly referred to as the Demon King), who gave Toyotomi control of his own troops to lay siege to castles, capture cities, and force generals into committing suicide. As luck would have it, those were some of Toyotomi#39;s favorite hobbies.丰臣秀吉出生在16世纪的日本,他七岁丧父,生来就是农民,又长得极其丑陋,所以换句话说,他早年过的很差劲。一无所有的他决定出去闯荡还投靠了织田家。在战场上他的才智得以发挥,并通过战绩得到提拔。丰臣深得织田信长(人们所熟知的第六天魔王)的信任,并被派去带领其军队攻城略池,以及逼迫将领自尽。而碰巧这些都是丰臣秀吉喜欢做的事情。When Oda Nobunaga was killed, Hideyoshi brought his killer#39;s head to his grave as vengeance, because flowers just won#39;t do. He continued taking over Japan, eventually ending the warring states period that had lasted 150 years. As the new regent of Japan he launched two invasions of Korea, put an end to social mobility since he didn#39;t think a peasant should be a ruler. Presumably because there wasn#39;t a Japanese word for ;irony.;织田信长被杀之后,丰臣秀吉取了杀手的首级,并放到他的墓前祭奠他,这件祭品的复仇意义是鲜花所不能替代的。此后,丰臣秀吉逐步控制日本,最终结束已经持续了150年的战国时代。作为日本新的统治者,丰臣秀吉两次征讨朝鲜,并设法禁止社会阶层的流动性,因为他认为农民无法成为统治者。大概日语中并没有;讽刺;这个词。审稿:张茜 Freya然 校对:CMX /201507/386028。

;Cinderella,I#39;m going to rescue you by turning that pumpkin into a coach--a success coach!;灰姑娘,我将用把这个南瓜变成一个教练的办法来解救你。 /201507/385900。