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Its almost impossible to get around by car.要想驾驶汽车走遍全国 简直不可能Only half of the roads are even pane.只有一半的路是平坦的Eisenhower, the new President has seen it for himself.新任总统艾森豪威尔亲身体验过这点As a young soldier, he drove across the nation.当他还是个年轻士兵时 他曾经驾车走遍全国It took 62 days.花了整整62天America has faced this problem before此前 美国也曾面临过这一问题how to move people and goods across its great expanse.如何让人和商品跨越这国家辽阔的疆域Each generation has come up with its own solution.每一代人都交出了自己的答卷The rivers were Americas first highways.河流就是美国最初的高速公路1811, the paddle steamer is launched,1811年 桨轮蒸汽船踏上历史舞台taking goods upriver as well as down,除了顺流而下以外 它还可以逆流而上opening up the Mississippi to more trade.为密西西比河流域广开商路The Erie Canal is Americas next great conveyor belt of commerce.随后 伊利运河成为美国的贸易大传送带1825, it links the Eastern sea board to the Great lakes.1825年 伊利运河把东部沿海地区和五大湖区连结起来Like the steamboats, it spawn cities along its route.就像蒸汽船促成了其沿线城市的诞生一样The canal transforms New York into a boom town that quadruples in size.伊利运河把纽约变成了一座繁华都市,规模增至之前的4倍Now its time to get Americas roads working like the canals and rivers before them.现在是时候让美国的公路像之前的运河和河流一样发挥作用了To get the country moving again.再一次 让这个国家动起来And President Eisenhower makes it his mission to get the job done.艾森豪威尔总统以此为己任He started looking at the development of this country in the 50s.早在50年代,他就已经开始展望这个国家的发展And you really saw the vision of what the interstate highway system could do.如今可以真切体会到州际高速公路是何等的有远见了And it was amazing. It changed America.令人叹为观止 它改变了美国 /201303/228849For all you star and planet-gazers, this Thursday evening, take a look at the western skies as Jupiter and Venus--the two brightest planets to the unaided eye--stage a close encounter over the Northern Hemisphere. The two planets have been getting closer and closer in the sky for the last month, and now itrsquo;s time to see them side-by-side. Venus is the higher, brighter object, and Jupiter is the lower dimmer one. Of course, Venus and Jupiter arenrsquo;t actually close to each other in the sky. Theyrsquo;re really separated by millions of kilometres. But from our perspective here on Earth, we see the two objects closely lined up. Thatrsquo;s a conjunction. Venus and Jupiter reach 3 degrees distance from one another. The sky show will continue, and on March 25th, 2012, the New Moon will join the pair again to create a triple conjunction - another great photo opportunity.这个星期四夜晚可以观察到;金星合木星;的有趣天象。尽管二者在太空中的距离实际上非常遥远,但看起来好像挨在一起。金星是太阳系八颗行星中最亮的,我国古代称之为;太白;,西方人称它为爱神;维纳斯;,充满着浪漫色;而木星则是太阳系八颗行星中出名的;大个子;,亮度仅次于金星。作为行星中较为明亮的两颗,二者的相合往往会吸引很多眼球。 201203/174538玛雅历法完结只剩下5个月, 来自世界各地的顶级考古学家们于周末齐聚危地马拉城市安提瓜讨论古老的周期结束及世界灭亡的末日理论。With only five months until the Mayan calendar runs out, top archaeologists from around the world converged in the Guatemalan city of Antigua over the weekend to discuss the end of the ancient cycle and dismiss doomsday theories of the world’s demise.Presenting their latest findings on the Maya at a two-day conference, experts said the end of the 5,126-year Mayan cycle will usher in a new era for the ancient civilization, the beginning of the 14th Baktun.Rosendo Morales, an archaeologist says, ;We reject 100 percent that this is the end of the world - it’s the end of a cycle and beginning of the 14th Baktun (Mayan cycle). We are nervous as Guatemalans because we will see December 21, the end of an era for many Mayans who have spent many years here and now after 3,114 years.;Debunking talk of an apocalypse, experts say 2012 represents a new cycle of the Mayan calendar. Some even says the once-in-a-lifetime event should be celebrated.Richard Hensen, an archaeologist says, ;What we will see here is a new era. We are privileged to experiment and enjoy the end of an era that started 3,114 years before Christ. It’s rare that we have this opportunity to experience this very important date.;The Maya were among the great ancient civilizations of Mesoamerica, building cities with elaborate ceremonial centres and soaring stone pyramids from modern day Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador.The Classic Period in Maya civilization, which began around A.D. 300, pre-dated by hundreds of years the rise of the Aztecs in Mexico and the Incas in Peru. The civilisation collapsed around 900 A.D.201206/187743TEXT:5 feet of snow falls. Soon the drifts are 60 feet deep. The Donner Party will be stranded for five months. In just three weeks, theyve eaten all their food. Then they kill their pack animals. Next, they eat charred bones, twigs, bark, leaves, dirt... and worse. Even the wind h eld its breath as the suggestion was made that were one to die, the rest might live. Cannibalism. Christmas 1846. They eat their first human. Bodies are cut up, flesh labeled, so people dont eat their own kin. Four rescue parties bring out some survivors. The very last finds Philippineshusband Ludwig, alone. He is surrounded by bones, entrails, and a 2-gallon kettle of human blood. George Donners body is found, skull split open, his brain removed. Tamsen Donners body is never found. The pass is renamed the ;Donner Pass,; testament to the hardship of the pioneers push west. Today its the Lincoln Highway. Thousands drive this road every year. But beneath the bones of the Donner Party, the Sierra Nevada conceals a seam of gold. Largest the world has yet seen.译文:积雪足有5英尺,很快积雪就深达60英尺,唐纳车队将被迫滞留深山5个月。仅仅三周他们就已经弹尽粮绝,接着他们杀了驮行李的牲畜充饥,然后吃掉烤焦的骨头、树枝、树皮、树叶甚至泥土。但更糟的还在后面,当他们决定要牺牲一个人来挽救大家的时候,就连呼啸的寒风似乎都屏住了呼吸,食人。1846年圣诞节,他们分食了第一个人,尸体被分割成块,血肉上标有名字以免误食亲属。四个救援队救出一些幸存者,最后一队伍找到了菲律宾的丈夫。路德维格,孤身一人,他四周堆满森森白骨和人体内脏以及一个装满两加仑人血的壶。乔治·唐纳的尸体被找到时,颅骨开裂,大脑已不知去向。塔姆森·唐纳的尸体已无迹可寻,这条路后来改名为;唐纳之路;以纪念西迁之路的先驱们付出的辛酸血泪。如今这里成为林肯高速公路,每年有成千上万辆车川流不息。然而就在唐纳一行的尸骨下,内华达山脉深藏着一条黄金矿层,储量之大堪称彼时世界之最。《美国简史》系本纪录片历史背景背景知识:惨绝人寰的美国唐纳小道(1)美国人唐纳全家三个成人(唐纳夫妇和)、一个孩子、一个在旅途中出生的新生儿,赶着马车误入山区,被突降的大雪困在山谷里,这一困就是四个月。当粮食和马很快被吃光以后,大人们从最弱的孩子吃起——— 不是吃死者,而是杀死亲人吃掉。除了不可思议的人伦惨剧外,还有什么?生命的顽强?理性的力量?残酷得让人不敢。四个月后,当搜救队找到唐纳一家时,只有唐纳先生目光呆滞地坐着,旁边是几具白骨,包括一个被掏空吃掉大脑的头颅。唐纳一家是19世纪美国内战结束后,在西部开发路上死去的2万人中最悲惨的一家。后来唐纳家走的这条路被命名“唐纳小道”。在那个年代,像唐纳这样的普通美国家庭如果想西进的话,除了赌上性命,还要赌上全部的家产———通常需要4-5年的经济准备。如果按购买力折算,那时一架马车的费用远远比现在一辆汽车贵得多。哪怕克了路上的艰险,找到合适的地方定居下来,还有无数的困难需要克,比如开荒,要把野地垦成熟地才能播种;要面临原住民印第安人的威胁;恶劣的环境和疾病;甚至蚊子,荒野里的蚊子能把人吃了。那个年代的媒体、出版业和电报,足以把西进所有的艰险呈现于人们的面前,对于准备西进的家庭来说,他们很清楚这是一次,无论在金钱上还是生命上。但当时有数十万的家庭愿意赌上一把。他们或许有各种各样的担心,但他们有一样东西似乎从不担心——— 财产安全。[精下期继续...]全球网友热捧最可爱的婚礼视频 - 最有创意的集体婚礼 可爱的婚礼,婚礼的歌曲是Chris Brown 克里斯布朗 - -永恒 Forever。201003/99641

TEXT:once smallpox arrives at Valley Forge, it sps through the cramped huts like wildfire.Washington survived smallpox as a child. Now he decides to take a gamble...with one of the most daring experiments in US military history.Surgeons have learned about inoculation from African slaves. They harvest pus from a smallpox victim...and smear the live virus into cuts on the skin of a healthy patient. The inoculation sps the infection, but at a slower rate. A week after exposure, the victims white blood cells create antibodies. These attack and kill the virus that causes smallpox before the disease can sp. But its a dangerous race against time. To survive, the patients immune system has to work faster than the virus, or it will run out of control. One in 50 of those inoculated will die. But Washingtons gamble pays off. New cases of smallpox fall from several thousand to just a few dozen. But to win the war against the British, Washington turns to an unlikely hero who will transform his ragtag militia into a formidable fighting machine.1778. George Washingtons Patriot Army survives a hard winter and an outbreak of smallpox at Valley Forge. Now Washington introduces a new recruit who will change the course of the war. Baron von Steuben is an ex-Prussian Army officer, an elite soldier whose career is said to have been ruined by his homosexuality. But Washington makes him one of th e most powerful men in his command. Washington was a genius in taking people in who didnt seem like they could achieve great things, but under him, they rose to the challenge, they rose to the occasion. And thats what great leaders do.Von Steubens task : Reinvent the demoralized Patriot Army so they can take on the British in aclose fight.译文:天花刚一出现在佛吉谷就迅速在拥挤的营帐中传播开来。华盛顿小时候得过天花,这次他决定冒险一搏,做一个美军历史上最大胆的试验。军医从非洲奴隶那里学到了接种的技术,他们从天花病人身上采集脓液,然后把活病毒抹在健康人伤口上接种使得感染扩散,但扩散速度慢一些。感染一周后患者的白细胞会分泌出抗体,它们会在病情蔓延之前攻击并且消灭天花病毒,但这是一场与时间的赛跑,生死攸关。要想生存,病人的免疫系统的反应必须快于病毒的扩散,否则病情会一发不可收拾。受接种的人,五十个中会有一个丧命于此,但华盛顿赌赢了,天花的新病例从几千人降到了几十人。但要击败英国人华盛顿还要完成一个壮举,把手下这群乌合之众训练成强大的战争机器。1778年,华盛顿的爱国大军在佛吉谷相继经受了严冬和天花的考验,接下来华盛顿新招募的一名军官将扭转战局。拜伦·冯·施托伊本是名前普鲁士军官,同时也是名杰出的士兵,但据说其因同性恋者身份而前途尽失。华盛顿不拘一格,将他提拔为手下的一员大将。戴维·鲍尔达奇[犯罪推理小说作家]:“华盛顿深谙用人之道,那些看似平庸的人在他领导下却能成为临危受命的贤才良将,伟大的领袖往往如此。冯·施托伊本的任务是重振低落的士气,使他们能够与英军近距离作战。知识百科:天花病毒的历史(下)(接上期内容)到明代以后,人痘接种法盛行起来。1796年,英国乡村医生爱德华·詹纳发现了一种危险性更小的接种方法。他成功地给一个8岁的男孩注射了牛痘。现在的天花疫苗也不是用人的天花病毒,而是用牛痘病毒做的,牛痘病毒与天花病毒的抗原绝大部分相同,而对人体不会致病。  1979年10月26日联合国世界卫生组织在肯尼亚首都内罗毕宣布,全世界已经消灭了天花病,并且为此举行了庆祝仪式。世界卫生组织的检查人员在最近两年里,对最后一批尚未宣布消灭天花病的东非四国——肯尼亚、埃塞俄比亚、索马里和吉布提进行了调查,发现这四个国家确实已经消灭了这种疾病,于是发布了这个具有历史意义的消息。天花病是世界上严重危害人们的传染性疾病之一。图:天花病毒几千年来,使千百万人死亡或毁容。一百八十年前,英国发明了预防天花病的牛痘疫苗。天花病患者的死亡率仍高达三分之一。后来,发达国家逐步控制了这种疾病,但非洲农村仍有流行。自一九六七年开始进行最后一次大规模消灭天花的活动。现在,天花病的病毒只保留在以下两个实验室中,以供研究之用。美国亚特兰大的疾病控制和预防中心俄罗斯Koltsovo的国家病毒和生物技术中心被史学家甚至称为“人类史上最大的种族屠杀”事件不是靠炮实现的,而是天花。15世纪末,欧洲人踏上美洲大陆时,这里居住着2000-3000万原住民,约100年后,原住民人口剩下不到100万人。研究者指出,欧洲殖民者把天花患者用过的毯子送给了印第安人。随后,瘟疫肆虐,由欧洲传来的腮腺炎、麻疹、霍乱、淋病和黄热病等病也接踵而至。18世纪70年代,英国医生爱德华·琴纳发现了牛痘,人类终于能够抵御天花病毒。“黑死病”于1347年在西西里群岛爆发后,在3年内横扫欧洲,并在20年间导致2500万欧洲人死亡。患者没有任何治愈的可能,皮肤出现许多黑斑,死亡过程极其痛苦,故称为“黑死病”。此病在随后300年间多次在欧洲卷土重来,后世学者估计,共有多达2亿人死于这场瘟疫。

You love her and you want to show her how much. Reflect on the numerous ways you can create indelible memories.你非常爱她,希望展示对她的爱有多深。通过几种方法,制造难忘的回忆。You Will Need你需要Roses玫瑰Clothing装Jewelry珠宝Food食品Gift basket礼物篮Money钱Spa resort温泉度假村Steps步骤Step 1 Give roses1.送玫瑰花Go the traditional route and buy your girlfriend red roses, the romantic gift idea that never misses. Come up with a note written from your heart to melt hers.走传统路线,为你的女友送上一束玫瑰花,这种浪漫的礼物永远不会出错。附上一张便笺,让自己的真心话打动她的心。Step 2 Buy clothing2.买衣Buy clothing but be careful to stick to the labels, stores, and styles she prefers. Select anything but pants, which are far too easy to get wrong.购买装,但是要坚持她喜欢的标签,商店和款式。可以选择任何饰,但是裤子除外,因为太容易出错了。Err on the side of buying something too small, rather than too large.宁肯买的太小了,也不要买的太大了。Step 3 Search for jewelry3.选择珠宝Search for the kind of jewelry she normally wears, whether ornate, or simple. Avoid getting a piece exactly like what she aly has so she knows how observant you are.选择她平常佩戴的风格的珠宝,无论是奢华型,还是简约型的。避免选择和她现在佩戴的特别相似的珠宝,这样她就会知道你有多么善于观察。Step 4 Cook for her4.为她下厨Cook a big dinner. Class it up with steaks and all the fixings, and use linen napkins, fine china, and silver. Finish the meal with hand-dipped strawberries or expensive chocolates.精心炮制一顿大餐。准备牛排和所有装备,使用细腻的餐巾,精细的瓷器和银器。餐后共享手摘的草莓或昂贵的巧克力。Even if the presentation, taste, or quality ends up falling short, you score points for trying to do something nice. Its the thought that counts.即使你的表演,味道或质量有所欠缺,仍然会因为你全心全意想要做好而加分。最重要的就是你的心意。Step 5 Make a basket5.制作礼物篮Stock a basket with nuts, flowers, candy bars, wines, perfume, and her favorite magazines. Let her know you care and notice the little things.向篮子中装满坚果,鲜花,糖果,葡萄酒,香水和她最喜欢的杂志。让她知道你非常在乎她,注意到了最细微的事情。Step 6 Pop for a spa6.享受温泉Spend the cash for a lush spa to spend quality time together. Relax, turn off the cells, turn on the music, and pamper her.花点钱,去奢华的温泉共度高品质的时光。放松,关闭电话,打开音乐,精心照料她。The National Retail Federation projected Americans in 2006 would spend over billion for Valentines Day, up 22 percent over 2001.美国零售联合会预测,2006年,美国人在情人节这一天的花费将超过130亿美元,比2001年增加22%。视频听力栏目译文属。201305/239821

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