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赣州隆鼻Science and Technology科技Psychology心理学How dead is dead?怎样死才算死?Sometimes, those who have died seem more alive than those who have not有时,死人似乎比活人更;活;。IN GENERAL, people are pretty good at differentiating between the quick and the dead.通常,人们都比较擅长分辨生者与死者。Modern medicine, however, has created a third option, the persistent vegetative state.然而,现代医学技术创造了第三个选项——永久性植物人状态。People in such a state have serious brain damage as a result of an accident or stroke.处于这种状态的人,其大脑因意外或中风而严重受损。This often means they have no hope of regaining consciousness.这经常意味着他们没有希望再恢复意识。Yet because parts of their brains that run activities such as breathing are intact, their vital functions can be sustained indefinitely.但是,由于他们大脑里负责某些生理活动(如呼吸)的部分仍然完好,所以他们的生命机能可以被永远维持下去。When, if ever, to withdraw medical support from such people, and thus let them die, is always a traumatic decision.何时撤走维持他们生命的医疗手段,任其死去(如果真的要这样做的话)?It depends in part, though, on how the fully alive view the mental capacities of the vegetative-an area that has not been investigated much.这是个痛苦的决定。不过,这在某种程度上取决于真正活着的人如何看待植物人的心智活动能力,这个领域人类还未作过深入研究。To fill that gap Kurt Gray of the University of Maryland, and Annie Knickman and Dan Wegner of Harvard University, conducted an experiment designed to ascertain just how people perceive those in a persistent vegetative state. What they found astonished them.为了填补这个领域的空白,马里兰州大学的库尔特?格雷和哈佛大学的丹?魏格纳进行了一个实验,旨在确定人们如何认知植物人。实验结果令他们大吃一惊。They first asked 201 people stopped in public in New York and New England to answer questions after ing one of three short stories.首先,他们在纽约和新英格兰的公众场所选择201个人,让他们阅读三个小故事的其中一个,然后回答一些问题。In all three, a man called David was involved in a car accident and suffered serious injuries.三个故事当中,都讲到一个名叫大卫的男人遭遇车祸并严重受伤。In one, he recovered fully.在第一个故事里,大卫完全康复了。In another, he died.在第二个里,他死了。In the third, his entire brain was destroyed except for one part that kept him breathing.第三个中,除了维持呼吸的那一部分外,他的大脑完全受损。Although he was technically alive, he would never again wake up.虽然严格来讲,大卫仍然活着,但他再也不会苏醒了。After ing one of these stories, chosen at random, each participant was asked to rate Davids mental capacities, including whether he could influence the outcome of events, know right from wrong, remember incidents from his life, be aware of his environment, possess a personality and have emotions.随机阅读一个小故事后,每位被试都被要求对大卫的心智能力作出评价,评价内容包括:他能否影响外界发生的事物,能否判断是非和记忆过去的事,能否对他所在的环境有所意识,是否拥有个性和情感。Participants used a seven-point scale to make these ratings, where 3 indicated that they strongly agreed that he could do such things, 0 indicated that they neither agreed nor disagreed, and -3 indicated that they strongly disagreed.被试们用七个等级来进行评分,3表示非常同意大卫能够完成这些事,0表示既不同意亦不反对,-3表示强烈反对。The results, reported in Cognition, were that the fully recovered David rated an average of 1.77 and the dead David -0.29.在《认知》杂志上报道的结果显示,完全康复的大卫得到的评价均值为1.77,死去的大卫得到的评价均值为-0.29。That score for the dead David was surprising enough, suggesting as it did a considerable amount of mental acuity in the dead.死去的大卫得到这样的分数已经令人甚感惊奇了,因为这表明死者大卫的心智仍相当敏锐。What was extraordinary, though, was the result for the vegetative David: -1.73.但离奇的是变成植物人的大卫得到的平均分为-1.73。In the view of the average New Yorker or New Englander, the vegetative David was more dead than the version who was dead.在纽约和新英格兰的普通市民眼中,变成植物人的大卫比死去的大卫;死;得更彻底。The researchers first hypothesis to explain this weird observation was that participants were seeing less mind in the vegetative than in the dead because they were focusing on the inert body of the individual hooked up to a life-support system.为了解释这个奇怪的观察结果,研究者们作出的第一个假设是被试认为植物人的心智活动比死人更少,因为被试关注的是大卫那连接着维持生命的系统、呆滞的身体。To investigate that, they ran a follow-up experiment which had two different descriptions of the dead David. One said he had simply passed away.为了研究这个假设,他们又进行了一个后续实验,这次对于大卫的死亡有两个不同版本的描述。The other directed the participants attention to the corpse. It , ;After being embalmed at the morgue, he was buried in the local cemetery.一个只说他去世了。另一个则使被试联想到大卫的尸体,它写到:;大卫的尸体在太平间作过防腐处理后,便被埋葬在当地的公墓中。David now lies in a coffin underground.; No ambiguity there.如今他正躺在地下的一个棺材中。;描述非常清晰,毫不含糊。In this follow-up study participants were also asked to rate how religious they were.在后续实验里,被试也被要求对自己的宗教虔诚度作出评价。Once again, the vegetative David was seen to have less mind than the David who had ;passed away;.这次,植物人大卫的心智活动仍然被认为少于;去世;的大卫。This was equally true, regardless of how religious a participant said he was.不论被试对自己的宗教虔诚度评价有多高,结果仍是如此。However, ratings of the dead Davids mind in the story in which his corpse was embalmed and buried varied with the participants religiosity.但是,被试读过描述大卫被作防腐处理并埋葬的故事后,对其心智活动作出的评价会随被试的宗教虔诚度而改变。Irreligious participants gave the buried corpse about the same mental ratings as the vegetative patient (-1.51 and -1.64 respectively).无宗教信仰的被试对被被埋葬的大卫的尸体和植物人大卫的评价大致相同(分别为-1.51和-1.64)。Religious participants, however, continued to ascribe less mind to the irretrievably unconscious David than they did to his buried corpse (-1.57 and 0.59).但是,有宗教信仰的被试仍然认为意识已经一去不返的植物人大卫其心智活动比死去的大卫少(分别为-1.57和0.59)。That those who believe in an afterlife ascribe mental acuity to the dead is hardly surprising.相信来世的人认为死人仍有精神活动,这一点都不奇怪。That those who do not are inclined to do so unless heavily prompted not to is curious indeed.但那些不相信来世的人也倾向于这样认为(除非被强烈提示避免如此),实在是相当奇怪。 /201211/207319赣州歪鼻整形的价格 He was the embryo of the very thing we were trying to do consciously. 他是我们试图按照意识去效仿每件事情的原型。He had started with bossa nova, and he had added rhythmnblues and rocknroll to his thing. 他曾从波萨诺瓦开始,并将布鲁斯的节奏及摇滚乐补充进自己的东西当中。And he had a new synthesis that prefigured everything the Tropicalistas wanted to, to do. 而他有一种每一个人都会趋之若鹜的新的合成尝试方法。The Tropicalia movement also had its own rock band, Os Mutantes, who later developed cult status in the west. 热带舞蹈运动也有自己的摇滚乐队,Os Mutantes,后来在西方发展到被顶礼膜拜的境地。注:听力文本来源于普特201303/231576赣县botox除皱多少钱一支

龙华中心卫生院做韩式隆鼻手术多少钱In just a fraction of a second after the Big Bang, the building blocks of our Universe begin to take shape. But this first matter is like nothing we see today.大爆炸后短短的一瞬间,宇宙的组成元素开始出现。但第一种物质却并非今日所见。The stuff of matter has been very different over the ages of the Universe. What we now think is normal matter was not at all normal in the earliest moments of the Big Bang.宇宙形成百亿年以来,形成物质的元素不断变化。在现今宇宙里人们认为很常见的物质,在大爆炸最初时期并不存在。Thats because conditions were so extreme. There were no atoms yet. But there were tiny subatomic particles.那是因为当时环境非常极端。那时还没有原子,只有微小的次原子粒子。In the earliest moments of the Big Bang, the Universe was so hot and dense. There were great amounts of energy. And so particles will be created all the time and energy and matter will transform back and forth in this hot dense soup.大爆炸最初那一刻,宇宙温度极高,密度极大,蕴含了巨大的能量。因此才一直有粒子生成,能量和物质在这高温高密的大熔炉里反反复复互相转化。That earliest matter was too unstable to start forming the Universe as we know it. Think of it like this. Imagine rush hour at Grand Central in New York City as that superheated early Universe. The commuters racing through the main concourse are subatomic particles.最早的物质太不稳定,从而不能形成我们所了解的宇宙。把纽约中心地带高峰期想像成炽热的早期宇宙,把在中央大厅飞速往返穿行的上班族想象成次原子粒子。If you look at a crowd of people, a large crowd of people, they may appear randomly. That random, cocky motion is very similar to what was happening to the particles in the Universe in the earliest moments of the Big Bang.如果你观察一群人,一大群人,他们可能是随机出现的。这种随机的运动与大爆炸最初宇宙内粒子的高速碰撞运动十分相似。The extreme temperature of the early Universe energizes the subatomic particles. They appear. They disappear. They race around at incredible speeds. Its pure chaos.早期宇宙内的高温提供给次原子粒子能量。它们不断创生,湮灭,以惊人的速率运动,宇宙内一片混乱。Its like people. If they are excited and running around fast to catch trains at a train station, they have to move around quickly. But eventually they calm down and get slower. Thats whats been happening to our Universe in a sense. The particles are moving around very fast and as Universe cools down, the particles move more slowly and in some sense, less randomly.就像人类。如果人们在火车站为赶火车而到处奔跑,心烦意乱时,他们必须得快速移动。但是最终他们会平静下来,越跑越慢。从某种意义上宇宙也是这样,起初粒子四处飞移,当宇宙冷却,粒子运动越来越慢,从某种意义上不再那么随机了。As the Universe cools, the particles stop changing back into energy.当宇宙冷却,粒子不再转化回能量的形式。201205/183076 If you find yourself away from a city, spend an hour looking up on any clear, moonless night,youre bound to see a few brilliant ;shooting stars.; These actually have nothing to do with stars: Theyre meteors, and if your viewing conditions are good, you can see about seven per hour on any given night. During a ;meteor shower; however, this rate may increase to over a hundred meteors an hour. What are meteors, and what makes them gather into showers?如果在没有月亮的晴朗夜晚,你远离城市,花一个小时观察天空。你一定会看见许多绚丽的一划而过的星星。它们其实不是真正的星星。它们只是流星,如果观察条件允许,你每小时大约可看见七颗流星。然而,如果遇上一场流星雨,你流星出现的频率会增加,达到每小时100多颗。什么是流星?它们是怎么聚集从而形成流星雨的?Meteors are caused by bits of rocky material that enter our atmosphere from space, then burn up because of friction. They dont have to be big for you to see them. Surprisingly, most visible meteors are caused by debris no larger than a single grain of sand. They burn so brightly because of tremendous friction when they hit our atmosphere at more than forty miles per second.流星是由很小的外太空陨石进入大气层,与空气擦燃烧引起的。那些陨石很小,人类并不能用肉眼看见。出人意料的是,大多数可见的流星其实是由比沙粒还小的碎石屑形成的。陨石以每秒40多英里的速度闯入大气层,产生巨大的擦力,从而发出明亮的光芒。Why would something as random as flying specks of space debris gather into showers? Its because the Earth passes through the same regions of space each time it orbits the sun. Certain regions have more debris than others, so we have meteor showers on those nights.为什么从外太空随机飞入的陨石屑会汇聚成流星雨呢?这是因为地球每次绕太阳轨道公转会经过同样的区域。某些区域比其它区域有更多的陨石屑,所以地球经过这些区域时的夜晚,我们就会看见流星雨。Of course this raises the question of why certain parts of our orbit would be especially full of debris. The answer has to do with comets. Comets are big, dirty snowballs that orbit our sun. Long after a comet and its tail have passed us by, it leaves behind a thin trail of dust and debris. If a comet crosses the Earths orbit, we pass through this trail each year. For example, every October twenty-first we pass through the Orionid shower, which is debris left behind from Halleys comet. 当然这又会引出另一个问题,为什么地球公转轨道上的某些区域会有特别多的陨石屑。与彗星有关。彗星就像是围绕太阳转的巨大的,脏兮兮的雪球。彗星及其彗尾扫过之后,会留下一道充满细小尘埃和碎屑的痕迹,并存在很长一段时间。如果有一颗彗星经过地球公转轨道,那么我们每年都会经过这道满是尘埃和碎屑的区域。例如,每年10月21号我们会经过猎户座流星雨,这就是哈雷彗星残留的陨石屑引起的。201205/182984赣州俪人医疗美容光子嫩肤手术多少钱瑞金市妇幼保健人民医院打玻尿酸多少钱

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