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2018年12月11日 11:16:55    日报  参与评论()人

赣州俪人美容医院激光去痘多少钱赣州俪人医院美容整形科The genetic history of Britain英国的基因史Who do you think you are?你认为自己是谁?An analysis of Britons genes confirms some myths and explodes others对英国人基因的一项分析论了神话中的虚与实THE waves of invasion and immigration that have, from time to time, swept over the British Isleshave led some to refer to Britons as a mongrel nation. A study just published in Nature by Peter Donnelly of Oxford University and his colleagues shows there is some truth in this, and that the palimpsest of those events is visible in peoples genes—or, at least, that it was still discernible in the late 19th century.外部入侵与移民浪潮时常席卷不列颠群岛,因此,有人将英国称为混血国。牛津大学教授彼得·多纳利与其同事在《自然》杂志上刚发表了一项研究,该研究表明:混血国的说法有一定的真实性,并且这些风云变幻的历史在人们的基因中有所体现(或者,至少在19世纪晚期依然可辨)。Dr Donnellys team looked in detail at the DNA of 2,039 Britons from all parts of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, each of whose grandparents had all been born within 80km of each other. They thus, in effect, sampled the distribution of genetic material in the country in 1885 (the average year of the birth of these grandparents), before the large-scale internal population movements of the 20th century had had a chance to confuse the issue. The results divided into 17 genetic clusters, illustrated on the map, which form a pattern that conforms quite well with what an historian might have predicted, but with some interesting wrinkles.多纳利士的研究团队对来自大不列颠岛和北爱尔兰岛各个地域的2039名英国人基因进行了详细研究,研究对象的祖父母均出生在距离对方80公里以内的地方。20世纪国内人口出现大规模流动,因此,该团队实际抽取了英国1885年(研究对象祖父母平均出生的年份)的基因材料作为样本分析,以防止出现失真的情况。研究结果分为17个基因群,其分布情况与一位历史学家的预测完全一致,但同时存在一些有趣的难题。The map is dominated by a DNA cluster that might reasonably be described as “English”. Comparison with continental Europe shows, as might be expected, that this English cluster is related to northern Germany, where the Anglo-Saxons came from—though the admixture is less than 50%, which indicates (again, as expected) that there was much interbreeding between interlopers and natives.可合理称之为“英格兰人”的基因群在地图上的分布数量最多。对照欧洲大陆后发现,正如所料,此基因群与安格鲁-撒克逊人的来源地德国北部相关联。混血基因范围不到一半,但这(再次如其所料)表明入侵者与本土人之间出现大量通婚现象。Others kept themselves to themselves. Yorkshiremen and women will be gratified to note that the west of their county clusters separately from the rest of England, and Lancastrians similarly horrified that Yorkshires tendrils extend into much of theirs.Cornwall, too, clusters separately from England. Indeed, as all good Cornish would have suspected, it clusters separately even from Devon (which is itself also genetically different fromEngland).而其他地域只是内部通婚。约克郡男女得知英国西部的基因群不同于英格兰其他地区后会满心欢喜,而兰开夏郡人则为约克郡人的触手深入自己的地盘感到万分惊骇。康沃尔(英格兰西南部)的基因群也不同于英格兰。的确如此,该郡的基因群甚至不同于德文郡(其基因亦与英格兰不同),这一点一直为善良的康尔沃人所怀疑。The whole so-called Celtic fringe, of areas in the west and north of Great Britain that were not invaded by the Saxons, is far more genetically diverse than its mythopoeic appellation suggests. Orkney, which has three clusters of its own, looks Norse. That is no surprise. It was, after all, part of Norwayfor 600 years. But north and south Wales are different from each other, and mainland Scotland has several clusters (two of which—a consequence, presumably, of the 17th-century plantations organised by King James VI and I—extend into Northern Ireland). The marcher lands between Englandand Scotland, and between England andWales, harbour still further indigenous clusters.所谓的凯尔特郡边缘地带整体包括萨克逊人未曾侵入的大不列颠西部和北部地区,其基因多样性远多于其神话时代名称所指的数量。自身分布有三个基因群的奥克尼郡极像挪威。这不足以为奇。它毕竟在挪威的统治下600年。但威尔士南北部互不相同,同时,苏格兰本土分布着几个基因群(其中两个据推测为17世纪詹姆斯国王一世和六世组织种植园的结果,并蔓延至北爱尔兰)。英格兰分别与苏格兰、威尔士的接界处还分布有土著基因群。The original Celts occupied a huge swathe of western Europe before the Roman conquest, so perhaps this diversity is not so surprising after all. Indeed, Dr Donnellys analysis found traces of genetic connections throughout the land with modern Belgium(which is named after a Celtic tribe, the Belgae) and various parts of France—or Gaul, as the Romans knew it. He did not, though, find any traces of the Vikings beyond those in Orkney, even though they held sway for some time over the eastern part of England. Maybe their fearsome reputation for uninvited sexual congress with local maidens was yet another myth.土著凯尔特人在罗马人征英国之前占有欧洲西部的大片区域,因此,基因存在多样性也许是情理之中的事情。确实,多纳利士经此次分析认为,有迹象表明该地区与现今比利时(该名取自凯尔特地区的贝尔格族)以及法国多个地区—罗马人所熟知的高卢—存在基因关联。然而,尽管维京人在一段时间内统治英格兰东部地区,但除奥克尼以外,他没有发现维京人的其他任何迹象。或许,他们与当地少女私下交配这一可怕的名声还是另一个谜。翻译:石海霞 校对:胡雅琳 译文属译生译世 /201503/367152赣州血管瘤哪家医院好 This is a range of items taken from beneath a killing tree of a white-bellyed sea eagle on a continental island.这是一个陆边岛上一只白腹海雕的杀戮树下捡来的一些东西。The killing tree is where the sea eagle will actually take apart its member and eats its prey.杀戮树就是海鹰将它的食物撕开,肢解然后吃掉的地方。And it is a very good representation of what these animals eats and indeed their strategy for their hunting.要想了解这些动物吃什么,以及它们的狩猎策略这是个非常好的例子。You got a parrot fish, which is a deeper swimming fish.这是一条鹦鹉鱼,是一种底层鱼。You got things like these long toms which actually swim right on the surface.这些像长射程大炮的东西事实上是海面上游动的鱼。They have got birds here.这里甚至还有鸟。Most remarkable of all, youve got these fresh water turtles that dont exist on the island.最令人印象深刻的是,这些岛上没有的淡水龟。They are on the mainland, so the eagle has flown to the mainland, taken these turtles and brought them back to their nest.它们生活在大陆上,所以海雕飞到大陆,将这些龟抓回到自己的巢里。And its an excellent representation of the strategy of these animals.这些是反映海雕捕食策略的绝佳例。If the food items are short locally, in short supply on the island,如果岛上的某种食物短缺,theyll actually seek alternatives and this generalist approach makes them very very successful in a limited environment that an island represents.它们会找其他食物替代,这种多面手的方法使得它们在资源非常有限的岛上非常成功地存活下来。Even so, fish make up half of its diet.即使这样,鱼类依然占据了它们一半的食谱。To catch them, it uses huge talents.抓鱼需要巨大的爪。They are also weapons it can use to have a crack at these, fruit bats.爪也同样是用来撕开这些果蝠的利器。Spectacle fruit bats are big.眼镜狐蝠体型硕大。They have a wing span of about a meter and may roost on an island forest as well as those on the mainland.它们的翼展大约1米而且栖息在岛上和大陆的森林里。Babies have to cling on tight.小蝙蝠需要紧紧地抓住母亲。201503/361511How do we break the cycle of poverty? What can we, as a state and a nation, do to help poor children escape poverty and move up and out?Jamie Fogel is a pre-doctoral fellow with Harvards department of economics and a researcher on the Quality of Opportunity project that takes a close look at the effect of poverty and geography.Fogel and his research team ask first and foremost: To what extent is the U.S. a ;land of opportunity?;They wanted to chart levels of mobility in the country and see how it varies across the nation.;If parents earned X, what do we expect their kids to earn? And in general, we focused on parents who were at about the 25th percentile of income distribution … and we looked at the outcomes for their children,; Fogel says.Ottawa County is the most upwardly mobile place in Michigan, according to the project.Fogel says Ottawa ranks above average in racial segregation, does very well in terms of income equality, and has relatively good test scores.The same cant be said for Washtenaw and Wayne counties. Kids who grew up in Ottawa saw income gain by ,000; Wayne County kids earned ,600 less than their parents.Fogels team also found that the longer you spend in a place, ;the more you look like that place.;;If you moved to a high-mobility area when youre younger, youre going to be more likely to experience that mobility, whereas if you move to that high-mobility place at a later age, youll still get some of the effects of the mobility, but to a lesser extent.;;Places matter,; Fogel says. He hopes his project can show policymakers that there is something we can do and that poverty is not intrinsic to individuals and their families.201506/378291赣州哪里隆鼻做得好

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赣州俪人男科医院激光去痘手术多少钱 Its that time of year in the Southwest when dust storms take shape and raise health and safety risks. 西南地区每年的那个时候,沙尘暴形成并引发健康和安全风险。This year, due to a dry winter, the Southwest is seeing a greater number of dust storms. 今年,由于干燥的冬天,西南正遭遇更多的沙尘暴。Experts say the infamous haboobs, as theyre known in the Phoenix area, will likely be active this summer when monsoon season begins. 专家称菲尼克斯地区知道的臭名昭著的哈布沙暴,今夏当季风季节开始时可能活跃起来。In southern Arizona, a series of dust blasts on Interstate 10 near the New Mexico border have shut down the highway at least seven times in the past few weeks. 在亚利桑那州南部,新墨西哥州边界附近州际公路10号的系列尘爆在过去几周至少七次关闭公路。The dust is reportedly coming from a farm near the town of San Simon, Arizona, that was ied for planting but never seeded, leaving loose soil that is easily picked up by winds.据称灰尘来自亚利桑那州圣西蒙附近的一个农场,准备种植但没有播种,使松散的土壤易被风刮起。译文属。201605/444820赣州麦格假体哪家医院好赣州丰唇手术要哪家医院好

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