时间:2018年11月14日 08:35:18

Wang Chong (27~97), whose courtesy name was Zhongren, was born at Shangyu (now Shangyu County, Zhejiang Province), but his ancestral home town was Yuancheng at the Wei prefecture (present-day Darning, Hebei Province).王充(27~97),字仲任,祖籍魏郡元城(今河北大名),生在上虞(今浙江上虞)。He led a reclusive life in the countryside most of his life, teaching and writing books.他一生大部分时间都隐居乡里,以教书为生,以著书为业。A prolific writer, Wang Chong summarized his thoughts into Lun Heng (Discourses Weighed in Balance), a book that included 85 chapters (84 of them survived) and took him over 30 years to finish.著作颇多,代表作《论衡》共85篇(实存84篇),历时30多年写成,集中反映了王充的思想。At the beginning of the Eastern Han Dynasty, superstitious ideas were rampant.东汉前期,迷信思想泛滥。Wang Chong was so outraged by the chaos in the academic community that in Lun Heng, he criticized such practices as the idolization of Confucius and his thoughts. Under his attack were Confucius, Mencius and other key figures of Confucianism as well as their scriptures. He further pointed out that these “deities” and their scriptures were not without flaws.王充对思想界的黑暗混乱十分气愤,在《论衡》中,他针对神化孔子和儒家经传、经学神学化的现象展开批判,把批判锋刃直接指向孔子、孟子和五经,指出被神化的人物和经典本身并非完美无瑕,并不“神”。Wang Chong analyzed and vigorously attacked what the theological teleologists claimed as the interaction between Heaven and humanity. Heaven, he claimed, is natural so that it is not will-driven and emotional.王充对天人感应的神学目的论进行了有力的揭露和批判,指出天是一种物质实体,没有意志和情感,天是自然之天。Furthermore, Wang Chong criticized the prevailing superstitious ideas and practices, especially the belief of life after death. He held that human beings are born with original vigor and human beings are unique only because they have physical bodies and consciousness.他批判了当时流行的各种迷信思想和迷信活动,特别是对“人死为鬼”之说的批判最为彻底,他认为人禀元气而生,人之所以为人,是因为人有形体,有知觉,是形体和精神的结合体。After death, their physical condition changes conversely: ;Their bloods will exhaust; the exhaustion results in the extinction of vigor; the extinction causes the decay of the physical body, which will turn to ashes at last.”人死以后,自身状况发生了相反的变化,“人死血脉竭,竭而精气灭,灭而形体朽,朽而成灰土。”The illusion of ghosts and spirits are just hallucinations caused by frustration, illness and madness.同时指出人之所以产生鬼的观念,是由于人处在困、病、狂三种状态下容易产生见鬼的幻觉。Wang Chong also attacked the pursuit of immortality through practicing alchemy as well as other superstitious practice such as sacrifice offering and soothsaying. By exploring the root of superstition, Wang Chong helped to push the Chinese atheism to a higher level.另外,王充还批判了“度世不死”、“修炼成仙”的思想以及祭祀、占卜等迷信活动,探讨了迷信存在的根源,批判了形形色色的方士,将无神论思想发展到更高的水平。 /201510/404719

Prevail of Taoism and Buddhism道教与佛教的盛行During the Northern and Southern dynasties, since most emperors believed in it, Buddhism grew rapidly despite the demolition incidents.南北朝期间,尽管存在拆除毁坏,佛教仍然发展迅速。Buddhism found a receptive audience in China, while the influence of Confucianism waned.当儒家思想的影响逐渐减弱时,佛教在中国被群众广为接受。During Northern Wei period, the rulers were the most generous patrons in both the north and south.北魏期间,帝王们是南北朝时期最慷慨的资助者。They took Buddhism as a nationwide religion in order to enforce his dominion.他们将佛教看作国教以加强自己的统治。In the north, large amounts of Buddhist caves and temples were built.在北方,佛教石窟与僧人寺庙被大量建立。Mogao Grottoes in today’s Dunhuang, Yungang Grottoes in Datong and Longmen Grottoes in Luoyang were three flourishing centers of Buddhist culture in its glory.今天敦煌的莫高窟,大同的云冈石窟和洛阳的龙门石窟是佛教灿烂的历史中三大繁盛的中心地区。Buddhist monastic establishment grew rapidly at that time.佛教修道院在那个时候也被迅速建立。By 477 there were reportedly 6478 Buddhist temples and 77258 monks and nuns in the north.据传,到477年,北方出现了6478座寺庙和77528为僧人尼姑。The south was said to have 2846 temples and 82700 clerics some decades later.据称南方在几十年后有2846座寺庙和82700位传教士。Emperor Wu of Liang had even contributed himself to experience as a Buddhist disciple in a temple for three times.凉武王甚至曾三次亲自到寺庙中体验佛教学徒的生活。In Jiankang (present Nanjing city in Jiangsu Province), Buddhist temples added up to 500 with 10000 monks.在建康(今江苏南京),寺庙数量增至500座,其中共有10000名僧人。Women turned to Buddhism as ily as men.女人和男人一样乐意投身于佛教。Originally one philosophy school of dozens schools in the Spring and Autumn Period, Taoism grew up into a religion in the late Eastern Han Dynasty (25—220 AD).道教起初是春秋时期拥有一些学院的哲学学派,东汉(公元25——220年)末年它成为了一种宗教。At first, it only gain the popularity among civilians and during the Jin Dynasty (265—420) it became a prevalence in the upper society一开始,它只在平民中受到欢迎,晋朝(265——420)时它在上层社会得到广泛流行,and in the succession of Northern Qi and Northern Liang, Taoism gained good graces of the ruler and once play a critical role in court.在之后的北齐和北凉道教得到了当权者的恩惠并一度在朝堂之上扮演重要角色。Taoist activities and ceremonies were held for worship purpose.道教活动和仪式被用来祭拜天神。 /201510/398425

文章编辑: 好专家