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2018年12月11日 17:49:30来源:百家大夫

Almost 800 Corgis attended a meetup called Nor Cal Corgi Con in San Francisco, California, over the weekend上周在加利福尼亚的旧金山,将近800只柯基共同参加了一场名为Nor Cal Corgi Con的聚会。The Saturday event at Ocean Beach included #39;792 CORGEEZ and counting!!#39;, the Nor Cal Corgi Con Facebook page said on SundayNor Cal Corgi Con官方脸书说,周六在海洋沙滩聚会包括792只基仔,计数持续更新中。A Corgi in a hot dog costume participated in the costume contest on Saturday.上图:一只穿着热装扮的柯基参加了周六的着装大赛。The big day involved dog racing on the sand (pictured), a group photo, and a costume contest这一盛大的聚会包括沙滩赛跑,和着装比赛。Founder Cynthia Lee revealed that a dog dressed as comic book character Deadpool (in red) won the costume contest比赛的发起人Cynthia Lee透露说,一只扮着漫画书籍《死侍》里角色的红色饰的赢得了着装比赛。Lee has said: #39;We started out in 2013 as a very small gathering, and then last October we had 650 Corgis, and people actually flew in from all over the country#39;Lee说:“2013年开始的时候,我们只是一个小型的聚会,而后在去年十月份的时候,我们有650只柯基来参加,而且人们是从全国各个地方乘飞机赶过来的。 /201607/453636。

  • If you#39;ve not yet caught wind of the decade-old princess-culture-is-problematic discussion — especially if you#39;re a parent — you must be actively working to avoid it.如果你(尤其是为人父母者)还未听说对于风靡数十年的公主文化问题的讨论的话,那么你应该尽量避免这种文化。The latest study adding fuel to the fire comes out of Brigham Young University and finds that, yes indeed, folks, the Disney princess obsession can be harmful to girls.杨百翰大学最新的一项研究为该讨论火上浇油。该研究表明,对于迪士尼公主的沉迷会对女孩们有害。;I think parents think that the Disney princess culture is safe. That#39;s the word I hear time and time again — it#39;s #39;safe,#39;; lead study author Sarah M. Coyne of the Mormon institution in Utah noted in a press release. ;But if we#39;re fully jumping in here and really embracing it, parents should really consider the long-term impact of the princess culture.;该研究的首席作者莎拉·M·科因在新闻稿中表示:;我认为父母们会觉得这些迪士尼公主是无害的。我一遍又一遍地听他们说这很#39;安全#39;。但如果我们真的让它深入到我们的生活的话,父母们应该认真想想这种公主文化的长期影响。;So, what#39;s the problem this time around? Same as always, confirmed the study, published in the journal Child Development, which involved the assessment of 198 preschoolers: Lots of engagement with princess culture (whether through movies or toys) can lead to gender-stereotypical behavior as well as self-critical body image.那么,这次又是什么问题呢?和之前的研究一样,这项在《儿童发展》期刊上出版的研究评估了198名学前儿童,发现大量接触公主文化(无论是通过电影还是玩具)可能会导致性别刻板印象以及对于自己身体形象的自我批判。The strict gender stereotypes can become problematic, Coyne observes, if they hold girls back.科因发现,严重的性别刻板印象会很成问题,会阻碍女孩们的发展。;We know that girls who strongly adhere to female gender stereotypes feel like they can#39;t do some things,; Coyne said. ;They#39;re not as confident that they can do well in math and science. They don#39;t like getting dirty, so they#39;re less likely to try and experiment with things.;科因说道:;我们知道坚持女性刻板印象的女孩们会觉得她们不能做一些事情。她们不觉得自己在数学和科学上能够取的好成绩。她们喜欢整洁,所以她们不太愿意尝试做实验。;The researchers found that 96 percent of girls and 87 percent of boys had viewed Disney princess media. Meanwhile, more than 61 percent of girls played with princess toys at least once a week, while only 4 percent of boys did the same.研究人员发现,96%的女孩和87%的男孩都看过迪士尼公主频道,超过61%的女孩每周至少玩一次公主玩偶,而只有4%的男孩会这么做。;Disney princesses represent some of the first examples of exposure to the thin ideal,; Coyne said, echoing the many princess and Barbie critics who have come before her. ;As women, we get it our whole lives, and it really does start at the Disney princess level, at age 3 and 4.;科因和之前许多对公主、芭比进行批评的人持相同看法,她认为:;迪士尼公主代表了最初的消瘦审美观。作为女性,我们终身受其影响。而这种影响的的确确是在三四岁时受迪士尼公主影响开始的。;So, what#39;s a parent to do, beyond the unrealistic strategy of avoiding any and all princess imagery for the entirety of a girl#39;s childhood?那么,除了在孩子的童年时代不切实际地避免一切迪士尼之外,父母还能做些什么呢?;I#39;d say, have moderation in all things,; Coyne suggested. ;Have your kids involved in all sorts of activities, and just have princesses be one of many, many things that they like to do and engage with.;科因建议道:;我觉得对于所有的事物都要有节制。让你的孩子参与到各种活动中,而迪士尼公主们只是他们想做的事情的一部分。;;This study has changed the way I talk to my daughter, the things I focus on, and it#39;s been really good for me as a parent to learn from this study,; Coyne said. ;I usually can#39;t say that my research findings have such a personal impact on my life.;此外,科因还表示:;这项研究改变了我对女儿的交谈方式和重点。作为母亲,我从这项研究中受益匪浅。一般来说,我不会觉得我的研究对我自己的私人生活会有这么大的影响。; /201606/452084。
  • Americans seem very afraid of cancer, with good reason. Unlike other things that kill us, it often seems to come out of nowhere.美国人似乎非常惧怕癌症,而且有着充分的理由。跟其他那些杀死我们的东西不一样,癌症仿佛总是从天而降。But evidence has increasingly accumulated that cancer may be preventable, too. Unfortunately, this has inflamed as much as it has assuaged people’s fears.不过,有越来越多的据表明,癌症或许也可以预防。不幸的是,这一发现引发的恐惧,和它驱除的一样多。As a physician, I have encountered many people who believe that heart disease, which is the single biggest cause of death among Americans, is largely controllable. After all, if people ate better, were physically active and stopped smoking, then lots of them would get better. This ignores the fact that people can’t change many risk factors of heart disease like age, race and family genetics.作为一名医生,我遇到的很多人相信,美国人的单一最大死因——心脏病——在很大程度上是可控的。毕竟,如果吃得更健康,多做运动,并停止吸烟,大多数心脏病人的情况会好转。但一个事实被忽略了,人们无法改变诱发心脏病的许多风险因素,比如年龄、种族和家族基因。People don’t often seem to feel the same way about cancer. They think it’s out of their control. A study published in Science in January 2015 seemed to support that view. It tried to explain why some tissues lead to cancer more often than others. It found a strong correlation between the number of times a cell divides in the course of a lifetime and the risk of developing cancer.对于癌症,人们似乎往往并不这样看,而是认为自己无法控制它。一项于2015年1月发表在《科学》杂志(Science)上的研究,似乎为这种观点提供了撑。它试图解释,为什么相比之下,某些组织更容易发展出癌症。文中发现,细胞在一生当中的分裂次数与罹患癌症的风险之间存在很强的相关性。In other words, this study argued that the more times DNA replicates, the more often something can go wrong. Some took this to mean that cancer is much more because of “bad luck” than because of other factors that people could control.换句话说,该研究认为,DNA复制次数越多,出问题的可能性就越大。有人据此认为,带来癌症的主要是“坏运气”,远超其他一些人为可控的因素。Unfortunately, this simple explanation is not really what the study showed. Lung cells, for instance, divide quite rarely, and still account for a significant amount of cancer. Cells in the gastrointestinal tract divide all the time and account for many fewer cancers. Some cancers, like melanoma, were found to be in the group of cancers influenced more by intrinsic factors (or those we can’t control), when we clearly know that extrinsic factors, like sun exposure, are a major cause.不幸的是,这个简单的解释并非该研究真正表明的东西。举例来说,肺部细胞很少分裂,但肺癌在癌症中占有很大的比重。胃肠道的细胞时时都在分裂,那里生癌的几率却要小得多。有些癌症,比如黑色素瘤,被发现属于受内在因素影响更大的一类癌症(也就是我们无法控制的那种);与此同时我们也清楚地知道,一些外在因素,比如阳光暴晒,是它的一大诱因。Further, this study was focused more on the relative risks of cancer in one type of tissue versus another. What we really care about is how much we can reduce our own risk of cancer by changing our behavior.此外,该研究更为关注的是,一类组织与另一类组织相比,生癌的相对风险有多大。而我们真正关心的是,通过改变自己的行为,我们可以在多大程度上降低罹患癌症的风险。A more recent study published in Nature argues that there is a lot we can do. Many studies have shown that environmental risk factors and exposures contribute greatly to many cancers. Diet is related to colorectal cancer. Alcohol and tobacco are related to esophageal cancer. HPV is related to cervical cancer, and hepatitis C is related to liver cancer.发表在《自然》杂志(Nature)上的一项更为近期的研究称,我们能做的事其实很多。许多研究表明,环境风险因素及风险暴露会大大促进许多种癌症的发生。节食与大肠癌有关。酒精和烟草与食道癌有关。人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)与宫颈癌有关。丙型肝炎与肝癌有关。And you’d have to be living under a rock not to know that smoking causes lung cancer and that too much sun can lead to skin cancer.只要不是与世隔绝的人应该都知道,吸烟会导致肺癌,日晒过多可能会导致皮肤癌。Using sophisticated modeling techniques, the researchers argued that less than 30 percent of the lifetime risk of getting many common cancers was because of intrinsic risk factors, or the “bad luck.” The rest were things you can change.通过使用精密的建模技术,研究人员提出,罹患癌症的终生风险有不到30%由内在因素导致,或说“坏运气”。其他的都属于你可以改变的东西。Most recently, in JAMA Oncology, researchers sought to quantify how a healthful lifestyle might actually alter the risk of cancer. They identified four domains that are often noted to be related to disease prevention: smoking, drinking, obesity and exercise.最近,在《美国医学会期刊·肿瘤学》(JAMA Oncology)上发表的论文显示,研究者试图量化健康的生活方式可以如何实质性地改变罹患癌症的风险。他们找出了四个经常被指出与疾病预防有关的因素:抽烟、喝酒、肥胖和运动。They defined people who engaged in healthy levels of all of these activities as a “low risk” group. Then they compared their risk of getting cancer with people who weren’t in this group. They included two groups of people who have been followed and studied a long time, the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, as well as national cancer statistics.他们把在这四个方面保持健康水平的人列为“低风险”人群,然后把他们患癌症的风险与不在此列的人作比较。其中包括被追踪和研究了很长时间的两组人,即护士健康研究(Nurses’ Health Study)和医药卫生从业人员随访研究(Health Professionals Follow-up Study)的参与者,还参考了全美的癌症数据。Of the nearly 90,000 women and more than 46,000 men, 16,531 women and 11,731 men fell into the low-risk group. For each type of cancer, researchers calculated a population-attributable risk, which is the percentage of people who develop cancer who might have avoided it had they adopted low-risk behaviors.总共有将近9万名女性和逾4.6万名男性参与者,其中16531名女性和11731名男性属于低风险人群。研究人员计算了每种癌症的人群归因风险——即当初如果采取低风险行为模式,或许本可以避免患上癌症的病人的比例。About 82 percent of women and 78 percent of men who got lung cancer might have prevented it through healthy behaviors. About 29 percent of women and 20 percent of men might have prevented colon and rectal cancer. About 30 percent of both might have prevented pancreatic cancer. Breast cancer was much less preventable: 4 percent.当初如果秉承健康的生活方式,大约82%的女性肺癌病人和78%的男性肺癌病人或许可以避免患上这种疾病。大约29%的女性和20%的男性或许本可以避免罹患结直肠癌。大约30%的男性和30%的女性或许本可以避免罹患胰腺癌。原本或许可以避免患上乳腺癌的病人比例要低得多,只有4%。Over all, though, about 25 percent of cancer in women and 33 percent in men was potentially preventable. Close to half of all cancer deaths might be prevented as well.不过,总体而言,大约25%的女性癌症病人和大约33%的男性癌症病人或许本可以把癌症拒之门外。此外,所有死于癌症的人中,大约有一半或许本可以避免这种结局。No study is perfect, and this is no exception. These cohorts are overwhelmingly white and consist of health professionals, who are not necessarily like the population at large. But the checks against the national data showed that if anything, these results might be underestimating how much cancer is preventable by healthy behaviors.没有哪项研究是完美的,该研究也不例外。这些参与者均为医护专业人员,而且大多数都是白人,这和人口的整体结构有所不同。但与全国数据比对显示,如果这有什么影响的话,那就是:上述结论或许低估了通过采取健康的行为模式预防癌症的成功率。As we talk about cancer “moonshots” that will most likely cost billions of dollars and might not achieve results, it’s worth considering that — as in many cases — prevention is not only the cheapest course, but also the most effective.我们在谈论癌症“登月计划”这一极有何能耗费数十亿美元资金,但却可能一无所获的项目之际,有必要考虑一下——在许多情况下——预防不仅仅是最便宜的解决方案,而且是最有效的。Simple changes to people’s behaviors have the potential to make sure many cancers never occur. They have a side benefit of preventing health problems in many other areas, too. Investment in these efforts may not be as exciting, but it may yield greater results.人们只要改变自己的行为方式,就有可能永远把癌症拒之门外。这样做还有附带的好处:可以让其他许多领域的健康问题得到预防。对这些预防工作的投资或许没有那么令人振奋,但却可能带来更大的回报。 /201607/453317。
  • If you thought running was just great for the body, then think again.如果你认为跑步只对身体有好处,那么再想想吧。Scientists have uncovered evidence the sport not only keeps people trim but also boosts brain power.科学家已经找到据明体育运动不仅能让人保持苗条身材,还能提升脑力。The research found that people who keep fit are more likely to have larger brains, better memories and clearer thinking.研究发现,喜欢健身的人一般大脑更大,更好,思维更清晰。They also found that unfit people tended to have smaller brains and reduced cognitive skills.他们也发现不喜欢健身的人往往大脑较小,认知功能退化。The findings add to a growing body of evidence which links exercise with helping protect the brain against ageing and also aiding it replace dying cells.越来越多的据表明,锻炼有助于抵御大脑老化,促进死细胞代谢。This might reduce the risk of debilitating illnesses and diseases such as Alzheimer#39;s.锻炼还可能降低患老年痴呆症等退行性疾病的风险。One research paper within its latest issue sees scientists at Kentucky University putting 30 adults aged 59-69 on a tmill.在研究这一新论题的一篇论文中,肯塔基大学的科学家们对30位59-69岁的人做了一项实验,让他们在跑步机上锻炼。Their heart and lung capacity was measured and an MRI scanner was used to assess the blood flow to their brains.研究者测量了他们的心肺功能,使用磁共振成像仪判断大脑的血液流量。Those who were less fit had smaller brains compared to the fitter volunteers who had larger brains.那些身体不太健壮的志愿者大脑较小,而体格健壮的人大脑较大。Scientists in Germany followed 21 adults aged between 60-77. As they went through a three-month fitness program they saw improvements in their memory.德国的科学家们对21名60-77岁的成人做了跟踪调查。经过三个月的运动健身,他们的得到了改善。Researchers are not yet sure why exercise helps to protect brain cells but some research in mice has produced results.研究者们还不确定锻炼有助于保护脑细胞的原因,但一些对老鼠的研究已经找到了。Mice, examined at the National Institute on Aging, in Baltimore, found that cells in the hippocampus, an area of the brain used for memory, were actively reproducing while their fatter peers were in decline.位于巴尔的的美国国家衰老研究所发现,那些体型苗条的老鼠,大脑用于记忆的区域——海马体中的细胞在积极地繁殖,而胖老鼠的海马体细胞在下降。Linda Clare, professor of clinical psychology of ageing and dementia at Exeter University and a member of the Global Council on Brain Health told The Sunday Times: #39;Moderate-intensity aerobic activity such as brisk walking, cycling or running can produce changes in brain structure and function.#39;英国埃克塞特大学衰老和痴呆临床心理学教授、全球脑健康委员会成员琳达#8226;克莱尔对《星期日泰晤士报》说:“快走、骑车、跑步等中等强度的有氧运动可以改变大脑的结构和功能。” /201605/444157。
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