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10. Emin #214;zmen. Keferghan, Syria. Aug. 31, 2013.2013年8月31日,叙利亚,摄影:埃明·厄兹曼I took this picture on August 31 in Keferghan, a town near Aleppo, in northern Syria. It was the fourth and last execution of the day committed by Al Qaeda-linked ISIS militias.8月31日,我在叙利亚北部阿勒颇附近的一个小镇拍下了这种照片。这天是和基地组织有关的民兵组织实施斩首行动的第四天,也是最后一天。There were people of the village with their children, observing the scene in silence. A man, covered with black clothes except for his eyes, his crimes for a long time. After the execution in Ehtemlat, the body was put on a pick-up and was taken to another village. The next was the execution in A#39;zaz, and the scene was repeated once again. The bodies were being taken from village to village. There was another execution right after A#39;zaz, and then Savran, and then Keferghan.村里人和孩子们观看着行刑,不敢发出声音。一个浑身裹着黑布,只露出双眼的男子花了很长时间宣读他的罪行。行刑后,他的尸体被扔到一辆卡车上,带到另一个村子。接下来又一个人被处死。他们的尸体从一个村子被带到另一个村子。类似的场景一次次重复进行。All the people who witnessed the executions seemed relieved. I was not even sure of what kind of a picture I was taking. I tried hard not to put my camera down. I only tried to record the events through my camera. I had to document what I saw, one way or another. This is a war, and I was in the middle of an unbearable moment.所有看完行刑的人似乎都如释重负。我甚至不确定我在拍什么,我一直不停地拍照。我只想用相机记录这些事。我必须用一定的办法记录下我所看到的。这是一场战争,我无法承受这一时刻。 /201312/269461

#39;I KNOW NOTHING about wine--where do I start?#39; is perhaps the most frequent question I am asked. An obvious starting point is with grape varieties, which each have their own distinctive character and flavor. “我对葡萄酒一无所知──我该从哪儿开始?”这可能是我最常被问到的问题。一般来说,可以从了解葡萄品种开始,每个葡萄品种都有自己与众不同的特征和味道。There are more than 5,000 varieties of wine grapes planted in the world. Luckily, for those new to the subject, only 100 or so have enough appeal to be deemed commercially viable. Luckier still, it#39;s a relatively small number that have found international recognition. 世界上种植着超过5,000种酿酒葡萄。幸运的是,对于葡萄酒新手而言,只有100种左右被认为有足够的商业吸引力。还很幸运的是,受到国际认可的品种也相对较少。These used to be referred to as the Noble Grape Varieties, a term coined by the British wine trade to describe the classic grapes of Europe (though it#39;s no longer used in professional wine exams). Nicholas King, research and development manager at the Wine amp; Spirits Education Trust, says it drifted out of use in about 2003. After using #39;common#39; or #39;international,#39; the educational body has now settled on the term #39;principal#39; grape varieties. Jean-Manuel Duvivier这些品种曾被称为“贵族葡萄品种”(Noble Grape Varieties),英国葡萄酒行业用这个词形容欧洲的经典葡萄品种(尽管在专业葡萄酒考试中已不再用这个词)。葡萄酒与烈酒基金会(Wine amp; Spirits Education Trust)的研发经理尼古拉斯·金(Nicholas King)称,此称呼在2003年左右退出使用。在使用过“常见”和“国际”后,这家教育机构现在将其定名为“主要”葡萄品种。Whatever the term, it refers to the eight classic varieties--Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc, Syrah, Grenache and Riesling--whose flavor and character have led to them being exported around the world. Their success has, in many ways, been detrimental to their reputation: the level of planting being such that quality has inevitably been diluted. 不管使用什么名字,它指的都是八个经典葡萄品种──霞多丽(Chardonnay)、黑皮诺(Pinot Noir)、赤霞珠(Cabernet Sauvignon)、梅乐(Merlot)、长相思(Sauvignon Blanc)、西拉(Syrah)、歌海娜(Grenache)和雷司令(Riesling)──它们的味道和特征使它们出口到全世界。从许多方面看,它们的成功都对其声名有损:种植水平相当参差不齐,以至于质量也不可避免地下降。Wherever you are on the wine journey, whether a connoisseur or a novice, an understanding and appreciation of these varieties will benefit you enormously. 不管你对葡萄酒了解多少,是行家还是菜鸟,了解和鉴别这些品种都将使你获益良多。I rather like the old term for them as, in their finest form, these grapes are capable of producing wines that are among the very best in the world. Here#39;s my guide to what every wine drinker should know. 我更喜欢它们的旧名,因为最优质的葡萄才能酿造出世界上最好的葡萄酒。以下是我认为每位葡萄酒品尝者都应该知道的常识。Cabernet Sauvignon 赤霞珠Principally associated with the red wines of the M钼doc in Bordeaux, this variety has been planted all over the world. A late ripener, its small red berries produce wines that when young have a concentrated, dark color and taste predominantly of blackcurrant. Young Cabernet can also have a spicy, herby character and a lot of tannin. With age (and the very best will be long lasting), they develop secondary notes of cedar. Often blended with other varieties, Cabernet Sauvignon is also grown in Australia, Chile, South Africa and California, where it is very successful. 这个品种主要与波尔多(Bordeaux) 梅多克(Medoc)地区的红葡萄酒有关,世界各地均有种植。它是一种晚熟品种,小红浆果酿造出的葡萄酒在年份浅时色泽浓深,尝起来主要是黑醋栗味。年份浅的赤霞珠也可能有辛辣草香味道,富有大量单宁。随着年份渐深(最好的赤霞珠是年份深的陈酒),它们呈现出第二香调──雪松香。赤霞珠通常与其他品种混合种植,也成功生长在澳大利亚、智利、南非和加利福尼亚州。Drinking Now // 1996 Ch#226;teau Lynch Bages, EUR120; and 2011 Los Vascos Cabernet Sauvignon, EUR12 现在品尝//1996年靓茨伯酒庄(Chateau Lynch Bages)产赤霞珠,120欧元;2011年巴斯克酒庄(Los Vascos)产赤霞珠,12欧元Chardonnay 霞多丽Due to the fact that it can be grown successfully almost anywhere, this white grape variety from Burgundy is a global superstar. It can be all things to all men, from rich, buttery and nutty in Burgundy to taut, clean, crisp and dry (most notably in Chablis); sparkling where it is part of the Champagne blend; and ripe with a nose of exotic fruits in warmer regions. Sublime in Burgundy, Chardonnay is also successful in Australia, California, New Zealand and Italy. 由于它几乎可以在任何地方成功生长,这种来自勃艮第(Burgundy)的白葡萄是全球葡萄品种中的超级明星。它的口感多样,适合所有人,从勃艮第的醇厚、黄油和坚果风味到紧致、 透、干爽和清淡风味(夏布利酒(Chablis)最为明显)不一而足;与香槟混酿时它泡沫丰富,成熟时带有温暖地区异域水果的香气。最好的霞多丽产自勃艮第,它在澳大利亚、加利福尼亚洲、新西兰和意大利也可以成功生长。Drinking Now // 2011 Au Bon Climat Los Alamos Chardonnay, EUR24; and 2008 Joseph Drouhin Puligny-Montrachet 1er Cru, EUR60 现在品尝//2011年奥邦洛斯阿拉莫斯酒庄(Au Bon Climat Los Alamos Chardonnay)产霞多丽,24欧元;2008年约瑟夫杜鲁安皮里尼-蒙哈谢一级酒庄(Joseph Drouhin Puligny-Montrachet 1er Cru)产霞多丽,60欧元Grenache 歌海娜Powerful, low in acidity, high in alcohol, this hearty red-wine grape is the staple for Ch#226;teauneuf-du-Pape, where it finds its greatest expression. Extensively planted, it is believed to have originated in Spain before being introduced to the Rh#244;ne valley, where it produces rich, fruity wines. Often blended with Syrah and Mourv dre, you will also find Grenache in Australia, California, Spain, and throughout the Mediterranean basin. 这种劲大、低酸度、高酒精度的美味红酒葡萄是教皇新堡(Chateauneuf-du-Pape)的主要原料,它的特征在这里发挥得淋漓尽致。这种广泛种植的葡萄被认为原产于西班牙,之后它被引入罗讷河谷(Rhone valley),在那里酿造出浓醇的果味葡萄酒。歌海娜经常与西拉和慕维德(Mourvedre)混酿,它也生长于澳大利亚、加利福尼亚洲、西班牙和整个地中海盆地。Drinking Now // 2009 Ch#226;teau Mont Redon Ch#226;teauneuf-du-Pape, EUR18; and 2008 Domaine de la Mordor钼e Lirac La Reine des Bois, EUR25 现在品尝//2009年夕铎酒庄(Chateau Mont Redon)产教皇新堡,18欧元;2008年份蒙多利酒庄(Domaine de la Mordoree) 利哈克(Lirac)产区产森林女王(La Reine des Bois),25欧元Merlot 梅乐Soft, supple and fruity, Merlot is the yin to Cabernet Sauvignon#39;s yang. Mainly grown on the Right Bank of Bordeaux, it is the principal variety of Pomerol and is often blended with Cabernet. It produces red wines that are packed full of fruit notes such as blackcurrant and plums--wines that can be high in alcohol but, due to their soft tannins, can be drunk young. Outside of France, it is grown in northern Italy, California, Washington state and Chile. 梅乐的口感绵软、柔和、带有果香,如果赤霞珠是阳,它就是阴。梅乐主要生长在波尔多右岸(Right Bank),是波美侯(Pomerol)的主要品种,通常与赤霞珠混酿。它酿造出的红葡萄酒充满水果香调,例如黑醋栗和李子──这种葡萄酒的酒精度可能很高,但由于含绵软的单宁,可以在年份较浅时喝。除了法国,它还生长在意大利北部、加利福尼亚州、华盛顿州和智利。Drinking Now // 1999 Ch#226;teau Saint-Poly, EUR27; and 2010 Meerlust Merlot, EUR24 现在品尝//1999年 波丽酒庄(Chateau Saint-Poly)产梅乐,27欧元;2010年美蕾酒庄(Meerlust)产梅乐,24欧元Pinot Noir 黑皮诺Delicate, early-ripening and, with thin skins, difficult to grow, Pinot Noir grapes find their natural home in France#39;s Burgundy region. Here, the variety produces texturally light red wines that have aromas of raspberry, cherry, violets and sometimes game. It is also successfully grown in cooler regions such as Oregon, Germany, parts of Australia, California and New Zealand, where it achieves greatness. As well as producing red wines (for which it is rarely blended), it is also grown in Champagne and blended with Chardonnay and Pinot Meunier. 黑皮诺葡萄娇嫩、早熟、皮薄、很难种植,它的天然家乡在法国的勃艮第地区。在这里,黑皮诺酿造出质地轻盈,带有覆盆子、樱桃、紫罗兰(有时还有野味)香气的红酒。它在俄勒冈州、德国、澳大利亚的部分地区、加利福尼亚州和新西兰等较凉爽的地区也可以成功生长。它不但可以用来酿造红葡萄酒(此时很少混酿),还生长在香槟地区,与霞多丽和莫尼耶皮诺(Pinot Meunier)混酿。Drinking Now // 2008 Bruno Clair Marsannay Les Vaudenelles, EUR18; and 2009 Marimar Estate Pinot Noir, EUR26 现在品尝//2008年布鲁诺克莱尔酒庄(Bruno Clair)马沙内(Marsannay) 产区坡顶产黑皮诺,18欧元;2009年玛尔玛酒庄(Marimar Estate)产黑皮诺,26欧元Riesling 雷司令This ancient variety from Germany is particularly popular with oenophiles. In Germany it produces wines that are crisp, light and fruity. Their nose can range from pungent perfume to flowers, limes, lemons and, with age, petrol. Their charm is the way they can marry acidity with either dryness or sweetness on the palate. The very best are always refreshing. Riesling is also grown in Alsace, Australia, Oregon and California. 雷司令这个来自德国的古老品种特别受到品酒行家好评。在德国,它酿造出爽口、清淡、带有果香的葡萄酒。它的香气从刺鼻香水到鲜花、酸橙和柠檬香不一而足,年份深时为汽油香。它的魅力在于能将酸度和清单或甘甜的口感完美搭配。最好的雷司令总是口味清爽的。雷司令也生长在阿尔萨斯(Alsace)、澳大利亚、俄勒冈州和加利福尼亚州。Drinking Now // 2012 Weingut Thorle Riesling Kalkstein, EUR24; and 2011 Concha y Toro Corte Ignacio Casablanca Riesling, EUR10 现在品尝//2012年托勒酒庄(Weingut Thorle)石灰岩土壤产雷司令,24欧元;2011年份干露酒庄(Concha y Toro) 产科尔特-伊格纳西奥(Corte Ignacio) 卡萨布兰卡谷(Casablanca)雷司令,10欧元 Sauvignon Blanc 长相思Refreshing, grassy, aromatic, scintillating, light, direct--there are myriad descriptors suitable for this white grape variety. Now widely planted, it was originally grown in Bordeaux and the Loire, where it produces a crisp, dry style. Today it is best known for its new spiritual home in New Zealand, where it overflows with ripe, tropical characteristics such as gooseberry, pineapple and green pepper. 清爽、草香、芬芳、起泡、轻盈、直白──无数形容词都适合这种白葡萄。原产于波尔多和卢瓦尔河(Loire)流域的它现在种植广泛,可以酿造出干爽清淡型葡萄酒。如今,它最为人熟知的新精神家园在新西兰,它在那里充分散发出成熟的热带特征,例如醋栗、菠萝和青椒香气。 Drinking Now // 2011 Lucien Crochet Sancerre, EUR15; and 2013 Cloudy Bay Sauvignon Blanc, EUR32 现在品尝//2011年吕西安克罗谢酒庄(Lucien Crochet)桑塞尔产区(Sancerre)产长相思,15欧元;2013年云雾之湾(Cloudy Bay)产长相思,32欧元Syrah or Shiraz 西拉或设拉子(Shiraz)In France, Syrah produces a dark, brooding red wine, packed full of tannin, that smells overwhelmingly of pepper and can age beautifully. In the northern Rh#244;ne it is found in such famous appellations as Hermitage and C#244;te-R#244;tie. In Australia, where it is known as Shiraz, it produces an altogether different wine, replacing its savory northern Rh#244;ne notes with dark fruit, chocolate and licorice. Widely planted around the world, this variety produces big, bold red wines that are best drunk with red meat. 在法国,西拉酿造出黯深、沉郁的红葡萄酒,充满单宁香气,闻起来有冲鼻的胡椒味,年份越深越漂亮。在罗讷河(Rhone)北部,它见于埃米塔日(Hermitage)和罗帝丘(Cote-Rotie) 等著名产区。在澳大利亚(它在那里被称为设拉子),它酿造出一种完全不同的葡萄酒,黑色水果、巧克力和甘草的香气代替了美味的罗讷河北部香调。这个品种广泛种植于全世界,酿造出香醇浓烈的葡萄酒,饮用时最好与红肉搭配。Drinking Now // 2010 Andr钼 Perret St. Joseph, EUR27; and 2009 Torbreck Woodcutter#39;s Shiraz, EUR25 现在品尝//2010年安爵佩雷酒庄(Andre Perret)产 约瑟(St. Joseph),27欧元;2009年托布雷酒庄(Torbreck)产伐木工设拉子(Woodcutter#39;s Shiraz),25欧元 /201404/289531


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