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Thanks to the Apple Watch, Apple has become the second best-selling wearable devices brand in the world, leaving the tech giant just behind Fitbit, the latest data showed.最新数据显示,苹果手表使得苹果成为世界第二大可穿戴设备畅销品牌,仅位列于科技巨头Fitbit之后。Fitbit sold 4.4 million wearable devices in the second quarter this year, remaining top of the list, according to industry research firm IDC, followed by Apple with 3.6 million.据行业调查与分析公司——国际数据公司称,Fitbit今年第二季度的出货量为440万,仍高居榜首,苹果出货量为360万,紧随其后。Xiaomi ranked the third by owning 17.1 percent of the market share, said the report.报告称,小米以17.1%的市场份额排名第三。After three years of fast growth, the wearable devices industry has entered maturity, where challenging dominant players will become increasingly difficult, said analysts.分析师称,三年的快速成长期过后,可穿戴设备行业已经进入了成熟期,想要挑战这些占优势的公司越来越困难。Here#39;s a list of the world#39;s top 5 best-selling wearable devices vendors, compiled by the IDC.以下是由国际数据公司编辑的世界五大畅销可穿戴设备供应商一览。5.Samsung5.三星Shipment volume in the second quarter 2015: 0.6 million2015年第二季度出货量:60万Market share: 3.3%市场占有率:3.3%Samsung#39;s Gear S wearable device, which gives accessibility to Samsung Galaxy smart phone apps, is displayed at the 2015 International CES, a trade show of consumer electronics, in Las Vegas, Nevada,Jan 8, 2015.2015年1月8日,内华达州的消费性电子产品展会——国际消费电子展上展出了三星的可穿戴设备Gear S,这一设备可以使用三星Galaxy系列智能手机的应用软件。4.Garmin4.佳明Shipment volume in the second quarter 2015: 0.7 million2015年第二季度出货量:70万Market share: 3.9%市场占有率:3.9%Garmin#39;s new fenix 3 multi-sport GPS training watch is displayed at the 2015 International CES, a tradeshow of consumer electronics, in Las Vegas, Nevada, Jan 7, 2015.2015年1月7日,内华达州的消费性电子产品展会——国际消费电子展上展出了佳明飞耐时3多功能运动表。3.Xiaomi3.小米Shipment volume in the second quarter 2015: 3.1 million2015年第二季度出货量:310万Market share: 17.1%市场占有率:17.1%Customers browse MiBand, a fitness band designed by Xiaomi, in Wuhan city, central China?s Hubei province, Mar 5, 2015.2015年3月5日,在位于中国中部的湖北省武汉市,顾客们正在看小米手环——这是由小米公司设计的一款智能健康设备。2.Apple2.苹果Shipment volume in the second quarter 2015: 3.6 million2015年第二季度出货量:360万Market share: 19.9%市场占有率:19.9%Customers try to use an Apple Watch in an Apple retail store in Hangzhou city, East China#39;s Zhejiang province, April 24, 2015. The watch went on sale on April 24 around the world.2015年4月24日,华东地区浙江省杭州市,顾客们正在苹果零售店里试用苹果手表。4月24日,这款手表在全世界上市销售了。1.Fitbit1.FitbitShipment volume in the second quarter 2015: 4.4 million2015年第二季度出货量:440万Market share: 24.3%市场占有率:24.3%A display of the various Fitbit devices, outside the New York Stock Exchange, during the Fitbit initial public offering on Jun 18, 2015.2015年6月18日,Fitbit首次公开发行期间,在纽约券交易所外展示的各种Fitbit设备。 /201509/399647Volvo’s new S90 saloon has a familiar face. The car is the second big model to come off the Swedish brand’s heavily touted bn vehicle platform and follows the sleek, critically acclaimed XC90 sport utility vehicle.沃尔沃(Volvo)全新S90轿车有副“熟脸孔”。这是该瑞典公司备受吹捧、耗资110亿美元打造的车辆生产平台下线的第二款大型车,而第一款则是广受好评、外形典雅的XC90运动型多功能车(SUV)。The S90 has the same, T-shaped LED headlights — a nod to Thor’s hammer from Norse mythology — and a grille made of 23 rods of curved iron.S90同样配备了“T”字型LED大灯——取意于挪威神话中的“雷神之锤”,其格栅由23根呈现弧度的钢栏组成。“This is the face of Volvo,” says chief designer Thomas Ingenlath. “It’s confident, it’s proud and it is strong.”“这就是沃尔沃的前脸,”首席设计师托马斯英格拉特(Thomas Ingenlath)称,“它显得自信、骄傲、硬朗。”To that list could be added the word independent.这一系列的修饰语中还可以加入“独立”一词。Five years after falling under the control of Chinese industrial group Zhejiang Geely Holding in a landmark Asian acquisition, Volvo feels more Scandinavian — and more successful — than ever.5年前,中国浙江吉利控股集团(Zhejiang Geely Holding)完成了一桩在整个亚洲具有标志性意义的收购案,将沃尔沃纳入麾下。如今的沃尔沃感觉比以往更具北欧特色,也更加成功。The company is forecasting a large rise in profits and record sales this year. It is gaining credibility as an alternative to the three German premium carmakers. The privately held company is even preparing to tap the bond market for the first time.该公司预计今年利润将有大幅提高,并将创下销量纪录。其作为三大德系豪车品牌替代之选的声誉日盛。这家私人控股公司甚至准备首次进入债券市场融资。Now Volvo is trying to shake off its buttoned-up reputation and tell the world about its transformation.如今,沃尔沃正试图摆脱其内敛含蓄的名声,向世界宣告它的转变。“We’re a normal company,” says Hakan Samuelsson, Volvo’s understated chief executive, in an interview at the company’s Gothenburg headquarters. The group still shares part of the site with the truckmaker of the same name that used to own Volvo.“我们就是一家正常的公司,”行事低调的沃尔沃首席执行官哈坎萨缪尔森(Hakan Samuelsson)表示。他在哥德堡沃尔沃总部接受采访,该公司仍然与曾经的东家——同名的卡车制造商,共用部分办公地点。Mr Samuelsson’s predecessors had plenty of defending to do. Volvo, aS part of Ford’s Premier Automotive Group between 1999 and 2010, suffered stagnating sales. It was not helped by uninspired products that were — Volvo executives now say — compromised by having to share parts, styles and skeletons with its US parent.萨缪尔森的前任们做过很多自我辩护的事。1999年至2010年期间,作为福特(Ford)旗下Premier Automotive Group(P)的子公司,沃尔沃经历了销量停滞不前的时期。了无新意的产品更是于事无补。沃尔沃高层如今称,当时生产的车型不得不与其美国母公司的其他车型共用零件和整体架构,风格如出一辙。“If this was a hospital, the patient would have been declared dead,” says one Volvo manager of the then lossmaking company.“如果有汽车医院的话,那么当时沃尔沃这个病人就已经被宣布死亡了,”一位经理谈到当时亏损的沃尔沃时说道。Under Chinese ownership, Volvo is getting on to the shopping list of drivers who normally prefer Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz. The XC90 put Volvo into a higher price category and has had consumer magazines agog with its sleek interior, in-car technology and advanced safety features.在吉利控股下的沃尔沃逐渐进入通常偏爱奥迪(Audi)、宝马(BMW)和奔驰(Mercedes-Benz)的车主的选购清单。XC90提升了沃尔沃的产品价位,消费者杂志大谈该车型时尚的内饰、车载技术和先性的安全性能。“[Geely] bought Volvo because they assumed Volvo deserved a better future,” says Mr Samuelsson. “They wanted to release the tiger. And they are seeing that happening now, in steps.”“(吉利)收购沃尔沃,是因为他们认为沃尔沃值得拥有更好的未来,”萨缪尔森称,“他们想放出这只猛虎。现在,他们正在逐步看到这一切成为现实。”The company’s ambition draws comparisons with another resurgent premium carmaker — Jaguar Land Rover of the UK — which was also formerly part of the Ford stable and has since fallen into Asian possession.沃尔沃的雄心可与另一个东山再起的豪车品牌——英国的捷豹路虎(Jaguar Land Rover)作比。捷豹路虎以前也是福特旗下的品牌,后来被亚洲企业收购。So far, JLR’s profitability has left Volvo in the dust. The British-based group made 2.6bn in pre-tax profit in its last financial year — twice what Tata Motors paid Ford to acquire the two UK brands in 2008.目前为止,捷豹路虎的盈利能力令沃尔沃望尘莫及。上一财年,这家总部在英国的集团实现了26亿英镑税前利润——比2008年塔塔汽车(Tata Motors)从福特手中收购这两个英国品牌时付的代价高出一倍。Volvo made only 0m in operating profits last year, despite selling an almost identical number of cars — about 460,000.去年,尽管沃尔沃卖出了几乎与捷豹路虎相同数量的汽车——约46万辆,但其营业利润仅为2.6亿美元。Operating margins at Volvo are also thin — 2.2 per cent in the first half of this year. JLR, by contrast, makes operating margins close to 10 per cent, having built on the success of products conceived during the Ford era, such as the Range Rover Evoque.沃尔沃的营业利润率也很低——今年上半年为2.2%。相比之下,捷豹路虎的营业利润率接近10%,这建立在未被收购前构想的多款车型——如路虎揽胜极光(Range Rover Evoque)——大获成功的基础上。At Volvo, “we based our turnround exactly on a new platform, new vehicles, not just new-style vehicles,” says Mr Samuelsson. “I don’t think you can say that Jaguar has that same process. So that, of course, takes a longer time.”在沃尔沃,“我们的复兴完全基于新平台、新车型,而不仅仅是同车型的新款,”萨缪尔森称,“我想你不能说路虎也经历了一样的过程。所以,这当然会导致我们需要更多时间。”Volvo created Spa (scaleable product architecture), the first of two completely new modular building systems, for large cars. It has moved to innovative, four-cylinder petrol and diesel engines that will power the majority of its future cars. And by 2019, it will have a line-up of nine new or reworked vehicles: three sizes in three different styles.沃尔沃建设了制造大型车的SPA平台(scaleable product architecture,可扩展车体架构),这是两个全新的模块化生产体系中的第一个。该公司已开始采用创新性的、四缸汽油或柴油发动机,未来其大多数车型将依靠这类引擎提供动力。到2019年,它将拥有9款全新或改进版车型的产品阵容,在3种不同风格的车型中分别有3种不同的规格。Volvo is now moving into phase two of its turnround: capitalising on the investments, launching the new products, and sustaining a higher price point.沃尔沃如今正步入其复兴计划的第二阶段:利用投资、推出新产品、维持较高价位。Attention now turns to the second, smaller toolkit: CMA, which stands for compact modular architecture and is the big test of Volvo’s relationship with its Chinese paymasters.现在把目光转向第二个较小的生产平台:紧凑型模块化架构CMA,它将给沃尔沃与其中国东家的关系带来重大考验。Geely Auto, the Hangzhou-based volume carmaker also owned by Volvo’s parent, is working with Volvo to create midsize cars in a variety of shapes — hatchbacks, sedans and small SUVs. The platform is an attempt to find cost savings and make acceptable margins on small cars.总部位于杭州的吉利汽车(Geely Auto)也是沃尔沃母公司旗下的公司。吉利汽车正在与沃尔沃共同研发各种车型——掀背车、轿车和小型SUV——的中级车。CMA平台是在小型车领域寻找成本节省空间、创造合意的利润率的一次尝试。It means upmarket Volvo must share parts with firmly mass-market Geely. That task has scuppered a high-profile former alliance with the DaimlerChrysler. “It’s very difficult to develop platforms and architectures if the brands are positioned very differently,” says Martin , associate professor at Stockholm School of Economics.这意味着,高端品牌沃尔沃必须与坚定地走大众市场路线的吉利共享零件。这样的任务破坏了此前沃尔沃与戴姆勒克莱斯勒(DaimlerChrysler)之间备受瞩目的合作。“如果不同品牌的定位截然不同,很难共同研发平台和架构,”斯德哥尔经济学院(Stockholm School of Economics)的副教授马丁斯科尔(Martin )。But the collaboration — enshrined in China Euro Vehicle Technology, a sister company to Volvo and Geely Auto — gives Volvo greater volumes for its engines. Geely in return gets European design and perhaps the chance to become the first Chinese carmaker to achieve global renown.但是,这次合作——双方成立了吉利汽车欧洲研发中心(China Euro Vehicle Technology,简称CEVT)——使沃尔沃可以生产更多发动机。吉利得到的回报是欧洲的设计,或许还有机会成为第一家享誉国际的中国汽车制造商。There is still some talk around Gothenburg and among suppliers of conflict between the Chinese and Swedish participants in and around CEVT.在哥德堡一带以及供货商中间,仍然流传着CEVT的中方和瑞方人员存在擦的说法。“Of course it has been challenging — God, I can tell you, there are days I wonder, ‘How the hell should we fix this?’,” says Mats Fagerhag, the former Ramp;D chief at Saab who runs CEVT.“这当然很有挑战性——天啊,我可以告诉你,有时我会想,‘我们到底该怎么解决?’”CEVT的负责人方浩瀚(Mats Fagerhag)称。他曾主管萨(Saab)研发部门。But he says the focused nature of the collaboration means Volvo and Geely have created a “smarter” way of integrating. “Somehow you are forced: let’s solve those cultural issues here quickly here because we have an important task to do.”但是他称,此次合作目标明确,意味着沃尔沃和吉利创造了一种“较聪明的”融合方式。“某种程度上你是被逼的:让我们迅速解决这些文化问题,因为我们还有重要的任务要去完成。” /201601/419975

Uber is much in the news recently, for mostly the wrong reasons. One of its senior executives threatened to investigate journalists who wrote negative things about the taxi service platform. An Uber passenger was allegedly attacked by a driver. And an Uber-affiliated driver ran over a pedestrian in San Francisco. And the company’s CEO has been accused of fostering a frat boy culture.打车应用Uber最近吸引了很多媒体的关注,但引发关注的可不是什么好事。该公司一位高管近日威胁称,要对一位给Uber写负面新闻的记者进行调查。另外据称,一位用Uber打车的乘客被司机殴打。在旧金山,一位在Uber上提供务的司机碾压了行人。而且,Uber的CEO因为据说培养了一种“兄弟会文化”而受人诟病。Without downplaying the seriousness of these events, I believe the fundamental issues posed by Uber have less to do with the company’s specifics and more to do with a business model that works by offloading responsibilities, something that many other platform companies—businesses that make money by making connections rather than providing a real product or service—do as well. I am not sure people fully appreciate the many problems inherent in this type of business.我无意淡化这些问题的严重性,不过我认为,Uber带来的这些基本性问题,与该公司一些具体的经营手法并没有多大关系,而主要是由于它采用了一种自身不承担责任的商业模式。除了Uber之外,其他很多做平台的公司——也就是通过扮演中介的角色赚钱,而不是自身提供某种产品或务——也有同样的问题。我不知道人们是不是充分意识到了这种模式的许多内生性问题。This summer, I used Airbnb to rent a house in Claremont, Calif. The booking fee was —more than 10% of the rental cost. Did the house have a king-sized bed, I inquired of the owner? She would put one in time for our rental, she assured me by e-mail.今年夏天,我用租房应用Airbnb在加州克莱尔蒙特租了一套房子。预订费用是79美元——超过了租金的10%。我问房东,房子里有大床吗?她在电子邮件里回复说,等到我们入住的时候,她就会放一张大床进去。Four weeks before the reservation date, I tried to reach her. No response. Airbnb provided only modest help, with a long lag between e-mailing them and getting any reply. In the end, no king-sized bed, so we stayed at the Sheraton in Pomona as hotels in Claremont were fully booked by that time. Airbnb did, with some prodding, refund our entire booking fee, but they didn’t have to. As the company’s terms of service clearly state, this is an online platform and “Airbnb is not an owner or operator of properties.”在入住日之前四个星期的时候,我试图再次联系房东,但是没有得到任何回复。Anrbnb只是提供了非常有限的帮助,从我联系他们到收到回复之间隔了很长时间。最后,那间房子里没有大床,我们只好住进了波莫纳的喜来登酒店(Sheraton in Pomona),因为克莱蒙特的旅店当时都已经订满了。经过一番催促,Airbnb的确返还了我们所有的预订费用,不过其实他们不必这样做。正如该公司的务协议明示的那样,这只是一个在线平台,“Airbnb并不是房产的拥有者或运营者。”What a great business model. Airbnb collects money for providing a matching service on a highly scalable IT platform but faces none of the normal operating costs entailed in providing accommodations. The company is not responsible for maintenance and repairs, cleaning (or cleanliness, an issue that has caused a colleague of mine in Berkeley to stop using them)—or anything, really.多好的一个业务模式啊!通过在一个具有高度可扩展性的IT平台上提供一种对接务,Airbnb就能坐收大笔收入,它也无需承受与任何常规住宿务相关的运营成本。Airbnb不用负责房子的维修和清洁工作(或者干净程度,这个原因让我在伯克利的一个同事不再使用Airbnb),其实它什么都不用做。Making a business out of not being responsible做一门不用承担责任的生意Of course, Airbnb is not alone in perfecting a business model in which companies take fees for doing nothing other than facilitating transactions. As it makes abundantly clear in its terms of service, Uber does not function as a transportation carrier nor does it provide logistics services. Passengers and drivers, and maybe even pedestrians in the way of Uber cars, are pretty much on their own.当然,Airbnb并不是唯一一家通过赚中介费挣钱的公司。Uber在其务协议中也非常清楚地阐明,Uber既不是运输商,也不提供物流务。所以无论是乘客也好,司机也好,甚至挡了车辆的行人也好,出了问题只能靠他们自己解决。Similarly, eBay is not a retailer. As it explains in its user agreement, eBay does not “guarantee the existence, quality, safety, or legality of items advertised.” I bet the retailers who get stuck with toys with lead in them or with inventory they can’t sell wish they had thought of such a clever out.与之类似,易趣(eBay)也不是一家零售商。就像它在用户协议中阐明的那样,易趣并不“保所展示商品的存在、质量、安全性或合法性。”我敢说,那些因为销售含铅玩具而倒了霉的零售商,或是那些有大量存货卖不出去的零售商,肯定希望他们当初也能想到一个如此绝妙的生意。The list of companies that build platforms but eschew responsibility for the quality or even availability of goods or services grows daily, and why not? Margins can be enormous if you don’t have to deliver anything other than a website.现如今,通过构建中介平台来赚钱的企业越来越多,因为这样能规避为产品和务的质量甚至可用性承担风险,所以何乐而不为呢?如果你除了网站之外什么都不用做,利润当然是非常可观的。Give these companies credit for learning from experience. Remember Webvan, the startup run by a former Accenture executive that ran through billion in an effort to build a business delivering groceries to homes? Webvan hired employees to drive trucks that the company purchased to haul products from its own distribution centers operated by extraordinarily complex software. Dumb business plan. Today, companies such as Instacart use contractors, not employees, to buy products at existing grocery stores and deliver it to people. Much less investment and risk.要说这些公司还是学到了不少经验的。不知大家是否还记得Webvan,这是一家前埃森哲公司(Accenture)高管创办的企业,这家公司砸了10亿美元重金,试图提供日常生活用品送货上门务。Webvan雇了很多人驾驶该公司自己购买的货车,然后利用非常复杂的管理软件,让司机从该公司自己的配送中心提货。现在看来,这个商业计划还真是蠢到家。如今像Instacart等公司使用的都是承包商,而不是自家的员工,从现成的食杂店里购买产品,然后递送给消费者。这种运营模式的投资和风险都小得多。Amazon could follow suit and raise its profit margins significantly. Why should it have warehouses or warehouse employees? It, too, could turn itself entirely into a transaction facilitator and simply take a cut for bringing buyers and sellers together—never needing to house a book or anything else it sells.亚马逊也完全可以跟个风,显著提高自己的利润水平。它为什么要搞自己的仓库并且雇那么多工作人员呢?它完全也可以把自己改造成一个中介,通过介绍买卖来提成——完全不需要储存书籍或其他商品。No responsibility, greater profits无责任,大利润So, what’s wrong with this? Nothing, if you don’t mind a sort of Wild West business ecosystem. The nice thing about big companies with substantive physical businesses is that you can collect taxes from them, regulate them, enforce employment laws, and do all the other things that go out the window in the “new economy.”那么,这种业务模式有什么不对的地方?其实没有任何问题,只要你不在乎它犹如“狂野西部”的商业生态系统。对于那些拥有大型实体业务的企业来说,最妙的一点是你能向他们征税并且监管他们,要求他们遵守劳动法,做所有其他你在“新经济时代”逐渐无法做的事情。For example, while Airbnb posts requirements for its “hosts” to adhere to disability and anti-discrimination laws on its website, enforcement is obviously much tougher than it would be in dealing with a hotel chain. Many cities and counties that have passed hotel and occupancy taxes aren’t going to collect from Airbnb, which has finally agreed to collect taxes only in a handful of cities and leaves it to the individual “hosts” to comply with tax regulations.比如,尽管Airbnb在网站上明文要求“房东们”必须要遵守残疾人法和反歧视法,但相较于一家连锁酒店,让他们执行这些法律的难度要大得多。很多已经通过旅馆税和占用税的城市和县都不会向Airbnb征收这些税,该公司最终只同意在极少数城市代收税款,而履行税法的义务则完全在个体“房东”一方。There are regulations that govern how long people, particularly in transportation, can work. These regulations seek to protect drivers and others from accidents. Good luck enforcing those rules on thousands of independent contractors. And say goodbye to unemployment insurance and employer contributions to Social Security—because most of the people working for these companies are independent contractors, not employees.有些法律规定了人们的工作时间(特别是交通业)。这些法规旨在保护驾驶员及他人免于遭受交通事故。但愿政府能够督促个体承包商遵守这些法规。另外,不要指望这些公司缴纳失业保险和社保金,因为大多数为这些公司工作的人都是独立承包商,而不是雇员。The other nice thing about real businesses providing real products and services is that if there are problems, there is an entity that can offer remedies. The old Webvan would be responsible if it delivered rotten produce or bad meat from its warehouses, but not the new delivery services. Retailers like Nordstrom guarantee their products’ quality, not eBay. Limousine companies have established liability for hiring and supervising their drivers, and paying when things go wrong. Not Uber, although that remains to be seen as cases wind through court. Hotels carry liability insurance and have the financial wherewithal to protect guests who are assaulted by their workers or otherwise harmed by building safety problems. Not Airbnb, which certainly has plenty of financial resources but, as a “non-operator,” has shed any responsibility for what happens to you in your temporary rental.提供实际产品和务的企业还有一个好处,就是一旦出了问题,毕竟会有一个实体出来采取补救措施。比如,如果Webvan给消费者提供了变质产品或肉类,就得为此负责。诺德斯特龙(Norstrom)等零售商会给产品质量提供质保,但易趣不会。有一些租车公司在雇佣和管理驾驶员方面已经建立了良好的信用,一旦出了问题也愿意赔钱。而Uber就不会这样做——不过如果打起官司,会是什么结果还不好说。酒店一般都交了责任保险,也有必要的财务手段,一旦住客受到员工侮辱、伤害或其它安全问题,酒店会出面赔偿损失。Airbnb则不会这样,虽然该公司有大量经济资源,但是作为一家“非运营商”,不管你在短租期内出了什么问题,它早已把任何责任推卸得一干二净。Offloading responsibility, including the responsibility for liability insurance, compliance with government regulations, and payroll taxes, saves costs, lots of costs. This gives new economy companies an inherent, and maybe even unfair, advantage over the competition.这样推卸责任,包括推卸责任保险、遵守政府法规和缴纳工资税等责任,的确会节省大量的成本。这使得这些所谓“新经济”公司得以获得天生的、或许也是不公平的竞争优势。Company attempts to shed responsibility for their employees—and costs—is an old story. Many years ago, some employers decided that having actual employees was a pain. There were the payroll taxes, the expense and time of hiring, legal exposure to wrongful discharge and discrimination suits if you fired people; all in all, too much trouble. So, employers offloaded employees and their work to temporary help agencies and contracting organizations, which is one reason that “nonstandard employment” has grown so rapidly and there are even associations representing the interests of the many companies operating in this industry.企业推卸对员工的责任,削减成本,早已是老生常谈。很多年前,就有雇主觉得雇佣员工是件头痛的事。既要缴纳工资税,又要花时间去招聘,如果你炒了人家的鱿鱼,还要小心人家以不当解聘或是歧视为由把你告上法庭。所以有不少企业裁掉了不少员工,把他们的工作交给临时性持机构和承包商来完成,这也就是所谓“非正规雇佣”发展得如此之快的原因之一。现在市场上甚至出现了一些协会,代表的正是这个行业中许多公司的利益。The IRS and state employment services feared that they were going to lose out on unemployment and payroll taxes from independent contractors. So, they developed a checklist to ascertain whether “nonemployees” doing work for some company actually were or were not employees, and they conducted audits to ensure employees were treated as such.美国国税局和各州就业务部门担心,他们将无法掌握个体承包商的失业率和工资税情况。所以他们制定了一份清单,以确认为某些公司工作的“非雇员”究竟是不是雇员,然后进行审计以确保雇员获得合理待遇。The jig may soon be up好日子即将到头Cities and states are beginning to try to impose some oversight on at least some of the new economy companies, although such efforts are often met with derision and characterized as stifling innovation. I am not sure that avoiding responsibility and legal liability is really as “innovative” as is sometimes claimed. Bypassing zoning regulations on where hotels can be located and negating licensing requirements related to who can pick up passengers poses risks that, if you believe the terms of service agreements, truly should make the buyer beware.美国各州和各大城市已经开始对至少某些新经济公司实施监管,尽管此类努力经常会受到人们的嘲笑,并且背上了扼杀创新的罪名。我不知道推卸责任和法律义务是否真的属于“创新”。规避旨在监管旅馆位置的区划法规,对谁有资格开车载客的规定不管不顾,必然会带来一些风险,被务一方真的应该警觉这些风险,如果你相信务协议的话。For those people who worry about income inequality, there is another reason to think twice about these new business models. In a careful analysis of 53 countries from 1960 to 2006, University of Michigan business school professor Gerald F. Davis and a colleague found that the higher proportion of employees who worked in large companies, the lower the level of income inequality. This makes sense because internal labor markets and the greater social contact among employees reduces variation in wages much more so than in market-like arrangements.对于那些担心收入不均的人,还有一个理由让他们重新审视这些新商业模式。密歇根大学(University of Michigan)商学院教授杰拉德oFo戴维斯和他的同事对53个国家在1960-2006年之间的数据进行了仔细分析。他们发现,人们在大公司里工作的比例越高,收入不均的水平就越低。这一发现是有道理的,因为内部劳动力市场以及雇员之间更密切的社会交往,比市场安排更易于减少员工的收入差异。Call me old-fashioned, but I actually like a company whose “terms of service” entails providing the product or service I am purchasing rather than stating all the things it is not responsible for. I prefer to buy from a company that stands behind its products, with management that cares enough about its customers to provide oversight of its employee workforce and quality assurance for its services.你可以说我“老套”,但我的确更喜欢一家公司的“务协议”里写明它究竟提供哪种产品和务,而不是说它对任何事都不负责。我喜欢光顾的公司,是那种有自己的产品、有严格的管理、关心它的顾客、对员工提供监管、为务提供质量保障的公司。(财富中文网) /201412/346015

Sony Corp SNE 0.18% is likely to cut average pay next year in a rare move for a big Japanese company, and one that goes against Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s push for higher wages to get the economy moving.索尼(Sony Corp)明年可能下调员工平均工资,这对日本大公司而言颇为罕见,也和日本首相安倍晋三提出的通过涨薪来促进经济增长的想法背道而驰。For a second year, Abe is pressuring major companies to raise base pay in the fiscal year from April and boost investment, to kick-start a positive cycle of higher wages, profits and prices to end 15 years of deflation.安倍连续第二年给大公司施加压力,要求它们在下一财年(从4月份开始)提高基本工资并增加投资,以便开启工资-利润-物价依次上涨的良性循环,进而结束日本长达15年的通缩。Japan’s main union of electronics workers is likely to demand a hike of over 2% in base pay, and companies are widely expected to comply. Most Sony workers, however, don’t belong to the Japanese Electrical Electronic amp; Information Union, and the company’s average pay of 8.85 million yen (,000) is among the industry’s highest.日本最大的电子行业工会全日本电机电子信息关联产业工会联合会(JEIU)可能要求将基本工资提高2%以上,预计相关企业将普遍满足这项要求。但大多数索尼员工都不属于这个工会,而该公司885万日元(7.4万美元)的平均薪酬则是行业最高工资水平之一。Sony is going through a painful restructuring after cutting its earnings forecasts six times in two years, and the once-storied electronics maker said earlier this year it will overhaul its salary structure for the first time in a decade, without elaborating on expected changes in pay.两年来,索尼已六次下调盈利预期,目前正在经历痛苦的重组。今年早些时候,这家曾经传奇的电子制造企业表示,将对薪资结构进行十年来的首次大调整,但未具体说明工资将出现怎样的变化。“We are at this time studying various issues as Sony overall is in a difficult situation,” spokeswoman Yo Kikuchi said. “The current human resources system was put in place around 10 years ago, so it was also time for a review.”索尼发言人菊池洋表示:“整个索尼都面临困境,目前我们正对多个方面进行研究。现有的人力资源体系建立于大约10年前,因此也到了重新评估的时候。”Pay cuts are unusual in Japan, especially at big companies with their tradition of jobs-for-life and seniority-based compensation. Employers typically adjust to hard times by trimming bonus and overtime pay and hiring fewer new graduates.在日本,减薪并不常见,特别是那些以终身雇佣为传统并且论资历付薪酬的大公司。状况艰难时,雇主往往采取降低奖金和加班费,以及减少聘用应届毕业生的方法。While Japan’s economy is fitfully recovering under ‘Abenomics’, with profits at record highs, Sony remains in a defensive mindset. In September, the company widened its annual net loss forecast to 230 billion yen from 50 billion yen and scrapped its dividend for the first time since going public.“安倍经济学”给日本经济带来了时断时续的复苏,尽管利润已经处于历史高点,索尼仍保持着防御型思维模式。9月份,该公司将全年净亏损预期从500亿日元上调至2300亿日元,并取消了分红,这是索尼上市以来首次做出这样的决定。Kikuchi said details of the pay cuts have not been decided, although the overall average is likely to decline. The overhaul will focus on improving meritocracy, meaning employees who do not hold management titles but are in leadership roles may be paid more, while some others could see a cut.菊池洋称,尽管全公司的平均工资可能下调,但降薪细节尚未敲定。本次调整的重点是改善精英管理制度。也就是说,不担任管理职务但发挥领导作用的员工可能加薪,其他人的工资则可能下降。“First and foremost, we’re hoping employees can be paid and graded according to the roles they play. Cost effectiveness should improve as a result,” she said.她指出:“最重要的一点是,我们希望按照员工发挥的作用来付薪水并评定其等级。这样应该可以提高成本效益。”Takahiro Nonaka, general secretary of the electronics union, said it has not yet set its official position, but higher pay is crucial for the economy. The union is likely to demand the same 2% rise as Japan’s pace-setting metal workers’ union, which includes carmakers.JEIU秘书长矢木孝幸表示,该组织尚未确立官方立场,但提高工资对日本经济很关键。包括汽车制造商在内的日本金属行业工会引导着工资调整幅度,JEIU可能像其一样要求将工资上调2%。“Personal spending, which accounts for around 60% of gross domestic produt, needs to grow,” Nonaka told Reuters. “We want to share that understanding with companies as we negotiate.”矢木孝幸对路透社(Reuters)记者说:“个人消费约占日本GDP的60%,需要予以提升。我们希望在谈判过程中和公司方面分享我们对这个问题的理解。”(财富中文网) /201412/347715

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