原标题: 成都牙齿矫正收费
America has the bald eagle, France the Gallic rooster and India the peacock. That Britain, a nation of animal lovers, does not have a bird to call its own, has spurned ornithologist David Lindo to action with a campaign to find our national bird.美国有秃鹰,法国有高卢雄鸡,印度有孔雀。而英国,作为一个满是动物爱好者的国家,却没有自己的国鸟,因此鸟类学家大卫·林多发起了国鸟选拔运动。He said: ;I want to encourage the great British public to vote for the bird that best represents all that is great about this nation.;他表示:“我想鼓励英国民众投票选出最能彰显英国伟大之处的鸟类。”More than 70,000 people voted in the first round to whittle it down to a shortlist of 10 and members of the public now have six weeks to choose which British bird they would like to see represent the country, he said。他说,超过7万民众参与了第一轮投票,海选过后得出十个最终候选鸟,在接下来的六周里,民众就要选出哪种鸟最能代表英国。The 10 most popular birds which have been voted for the by the public are the robin, kingfisher, barn owl, blue tit, wren, blackbird, puffin, mute swan, red kite and hen harrier。由民众投票选出的10个最终候选鸟分别是:知更鸟,翠鸟,仓鸮,蓝冠山雀,鹪鹩,画眉,海鹦,疣鼻天鹅,赤鸢和白尾鹞。Mr Lindo said: ;Along with the expected contenders - the friendly robin, charismatic puffin and elegant swan - there is one major surprise, the hen harrier, one of England#39;s rarest breeding birds。林多先生指出:“除了预料之中的竞争者——友好亲切的知更鸟,富有魅力的海鹦,高贵优雅的天鹅之外,意外上榜的还有英国最稀有的鸟类之一,白尾鹞。”;Down to just one breeding pair a couple of years ago, it may aly be extinct. Could the majestic hen harrier knock the hot favourite robin off its perch?;“数年前白尾鹞仅剩一对繁育后代,几近灭绝。庄重威严的白尾鹞能否一举将最受喜爱的知更鸟击落高位?”Although Mr Lindo says he is supposed to remain impartial he claims his vote would go to the blackbird whose birdsong reminds him of growing up and ;lazy, hazy sunny days;。林多先生说他虽然应该保持公正,但他自己将投票给画眉,因为画眉的叫声让他想起了自己成长的岁月和那些“懒洋洋,雾蒙蒙,天晴晴的日子”。The final round of voting forBritain#39;s National Bird Campaign closes on May 7, the day of the general election。英国国鸟竞选的最后一轮投票截止于5月7日,也是大选当天。Mr Lindo said he will be speaking to the Government once the public has voted to see if the winner can officially be made Britain#39;s national bird。林多先生称届时他将与政府协商被选出的冠军是否能够正式成为英国国鸟。 /201503/365005

These spiders can purr这种蜘蛛能发出低沉的声音Wolves howl to let others know that they#39;re around - and maybe even that they are looking for a mate. But not the wolf spider known as Gladicosa gulosa. It makes a kind of a purr. It#39;s quite a trick for guys of this species. And that#39;s because it#39;s not clear that the target of their attentions can actually hear a purr. A female may just feel the effects of that sound as vibrations in her feet. But even that may not happen unless both he and she are standing on the right surface.狼通过嚎叫的方式告知周围它们的存在,甚至还会用这种方式求偶。但一种被称为Gladicosa gulosa的狼蛛则不然,它们会发出一种低沉的咕噜声,对于这种生物来说这样做也的确算得上是一项独门秘技。因为他们所关注的目标实际上能否听见其低鸣尚不清楚,或许雌蜘蛛只能感觉到雄蜘蛛发出声音时在它们脚底下产生的振动,可是当他们没有站在合适的平面上时雌蛛可能连振动都感觉不到。How the spider purrs蜘蛛如何发出低鸣声?At mating time, male wolf spiders try to catch a female#39;s attention by creating ;persuasive; vibrations, Sweger says. They strum one structure on their body against another - somewhat as a cricket does - to impress the gals. Getting the message right can be a matter of life and death to the guy who#39;s doing the wooing. If the female isn#39;t totally convinced that he#39;s the ;one,; it could be worse than just being rejected, Sweger explains. ;She could eat him.; About one out of every five male wolf spiders will be eaten by the female he had been wooing. But the guys who prove suitably persuasive will get to mate - and live to tell the tale.求偶时雄性狼蛛会使出浑身解数用;劝诱;的振动方式吸引雌性狼蛛的注意,他们用身体的一部分拍打另一部分发出震动声(就像蟋蟀一样),而后给雌蜘蛛留下印象。Sweger表示能否正确收到求爱信息关系着求爱者的性命,如果雌蜘蛛没能被完全说他就其 ;真命天子;,那么雄蜘蛛的情况有可能比被拒绝还要糟糕,他可能会被她吃掉。这并不稀奇,因为每五个雌性狼蛛中就有一个被他们的所追求的另一半吃掉。但如果事实明雄蜘蛛的确有劝诱能力,那么他们最终将会得到交配的机会,并向配偶讲述他们悲惨的;浪漫际遇;。Purring spiders ;are using the same vibratory tactics as every other wolf spider in North America. More or less,; Sweger says. ;They#39;re using the same structures. And they#39;re making vibrations.;But the scientists showed that compared to the wooing vibrations made by other wolf spiders, those by Gladicosa gulosa are far stronger.Swege称在北美这种能发出低吟声的蜘蛛或多或少使用的都是和所有其他狼蛛一样的振动技巧。它们使用的是同样的身体结构来产生振动。但科学家表示,与其他发出求爱振动信号的狼蛛相比,这种名为Gladicosa gulosa的狼蛛的振动更加强烈。Sweger discovered something else as well. When a purring spider was on a surface that is good at conducting vibrations, such as leaves, an audible sound was produced.Sweger还发现了其他一些东西。当一只低吟的狼蛛处在更有利于传导振动的位置,比如说树叶上时它们会发声音。If a person is within a meter of the courting spiders, they can actually hear the sound. ;It#39;s very soft, but when we#39;re out in the field, you can hear them,; Sweger says. The sound, he explains, is a bit like a ;little strumming chirp; or a ;soft rattle or purr.; (You can judge for yourself.)Sweger表示当一个人距离一只正求偶的狼蛛仅一米时,他会听到这种声音,和柔和。但当我们在野外时,你也会听到它的声音. 这种声音类似于有节奏的唧唧声,或者是那种柔和的咯咯声、咕噜咕噜的声音等等(这就得靠你自己判断了)。译文属 /201506/382573

Jewelry could be a service one day. A couple might go into a jewelry store early in their relationship and sit down with a designer who makes a ring that somehow reflects who they are to each other. Time passes. They return to the shop as they’ve both seen the relationship has progressed. The jeweler takes the same metal and diamond and refashions in it into a new shape to reflect the new stage. Then again as they marry, have kids, etc.或许有一天,珠宝可能变成一种务。比如一对情侣在确定恋爱关系初期,走进一家珠宝店,请一位设计师打造一对能够反映他们当前关系的戒指。时光荏苒,当这对情侣觉得彼此关系又深了一步时,他们重返这家珠宝店。珠宝商将把他们的戒指重新设计,再打造一对能够反映二人关系迈入新阶段的戒指。随着这对情侣结婚、生子,这种务还会不断更新。This is the vision of “tbc,” a conceptual brand imagined by the New York and London agency Pearlfisher in its report, Luxury Mode, a forward looking imagining of shifts anticipated in the luxury market based on observations of today. In a changing world where technology makes everything so much cheaper (and so fast), it’s worth asking what luxury consumers will want a few years from now that everyone can’t have.这正是珠宝商Pearlfisher构想出的“tbc”概念品牌,它在纽约和伦敦都设有分店。近日,Pearlfisher在其名为《奢侈格调》的报告中,畅想了未来奢侈品市场的可能发展模式。世界日新月异,科技已经使得一切都变得更加便宜快捷。而我们不妨扪心自问,几年后,奢侈品消费者想要哪些与众不同的东西?Yesterday’s luxury is commonplace today. Sophie Kleber of Huge, an international creative agency based in Brooklyn, pointed out that rapid home delivery of goods was once only available to the affluent. Now, goods delivered the same day or close to it is a reality for the regular urbanite. Uber has made black car service commonplace. Butlers on demand are even offered at attainable prices.昨日的奢侈品今天可能已经“平民化”。纽约布鲁克林Huge国际创意公司的索菲o克莱伯指出,在过去,送货上门是只有富人才能享受的务,而今天,当日送达等务对于都市人来说已经不是新鲜事了。Uber等打车软件使得高档租车业务也变得平易近人。甚至管家务的价格也不再那么高不可攀了。Which illustrates why being exceptionally luxurious will get harder as technology makes so much easier. A theme that many of the luxury agencies consulted for the survey kept returning to was the idea that luxury brands will take bespoke experiences to new levels as a way to stand out from the mass market. So, for example, soon customers may walk into a Prada store and the sales associate will get a report of their sizes and tastes to guide them to exactly what they might like swiftly.科技让一切变得更便携的同时,所谓“高度奢华”越来越难以立足。在该调查中,许多受访的奢侈品机构都反馈称,奢侈品业务要想与平价市场拉开距离,就必须要把体验做到更高的水平。比如,在不久的将来,当顾客走近一家普拉达(Prada)专卖店时,销售助理可能会获得一份关于顾客的尺码和品味的报告,使他们能迅速引导顾客购买他们喜爱的东西。Yet, how long before that technology is comparably available to consumers at the Gap GPS 1.48% ? Or Target TGT 1.45% ? That sort of information technology scales so fast that any advantage a brand achieves digitally won’t last.不过,Gap或Target等平价品牌的消费者多久之后能用上这种务?由于信息技术发展得非常快,任何一个品牌都不会长期独享这种技术优势。High tech devices, in a way, undermine the very notion of luxury. Take the ,800 Vertu Signature Touch Smartphone. It comes with a year of global concierge service, with a camera and speakers certified by top brands, but it is still just running Android, and its processor isn’t even quite as good as the one in the 9.99 Moto X. On the outside, it has beautiful customizations, but, as a device, it is nothing extraordinary.从某种程度上来说,高科技设备已经冲击了所谓“奢侈品”的概念。以价格达10800美元的Vertu署名触屏智能手机为例。消费者可以享受一年的“全球管家务”,它的摄像头和话筒也是经过国际领先品牌认的,但它依旧运行的是安卓系统,而且它的处理器可能还不如499.99美元的Moto X手机。从外在看,它的定制做得很漂亮,但作为一款设备,它没有任何突出的地方。Yet a ,200 pair of earrings from Kimberly McDonald have no features at all, beyond being objects. People aren’t paying for the earrings or the phone’s function, but their quality as rare objects. If that’s so, experts say that luxury consumer will be looking for something not only rare but that expresses something about them. Pearlfisher calls this a shift, “from excess to asset.” People won’t want to be seen so much having lots of expensive things, but just the right ones.一对价值22200美元的金伯利(Kimberly McDonald)耳环,除了是一对物件,没有任何特殊功能。人们购买这对耳环或Vertu手机,看中的并不是它们的功能,仅仅是因为它们是稀罕物。因此,奢侈品专家表示,奢侈品消费者今后的消费方向将是那种不仅少见,而且还能表达他们自身某些特质的东西。Pearlfisher公司称之为“从放纵到资产”的转变。人们不再希望让别人觉得他们拥有很贵的东西,只想让别人觉得他们拥有对的东西。These consumers will want to make purchases that illuminate something about how the buyer sees the world. Pearlfisherpoints to Maison Martin Margiela, with a homeware collection that offers products such as a night-light sculpted to look like a basic, vintage light fixture, in glow-in-the-dark plaster.这些消费者希望他们购买的东西能反映出他们的三观。Pearlfisher的报告举了Maison Martin Margiela公司的产品作例子,这家公司主打高档家居产品,比如它的一款夜灯的形状就像一具非常简单的古代灯具,材质是能够发出荧光的石膏。The O Group’s Kristen Dillman echoed the idea of thoughtful, considered consumption. “Perhaps in the future,” she says, “we might see luxury brands playing on this idea that’s aly permeated the culture, of people investing in fewer but better things.” If this prediction is right, expert curators may be more in demand before long.纽约时尚创意机构The O Group的克里斯汀o迪尔曼也认为这个理念很有道理,她表示:“或许在将来,人们将普遍接受这一理念,那时人们开始投资更少的钱买更好的东西,奢侈品品牌也要基于这个理念发展。”如果这一预测是正确的,那么不久之后市场将需要更多的专业策划人才。The other implication of this shift could be that upstart brands who know their following will erode the legacy companies’ market share, Roxanne Genier, cofounder of Agence:Luxury, explained. Though no doubt some will always like the story of 200-year-old lines, like Goyard luggage. “When you start looking at all the big brands, their social media presence and their websites, it’s all about me,” Genier said, but she doesn’t think that works for the coming generation of consumers.品牌营销机构Agency:Luxury的联合创始人洛葛仙妮o吉尼认为,这种转变的另一后果,则是新兴公司将逐渐蚕食守成公司的市场份额。虽然总是有消费者喜欢那种像Goyard Luggage那样拥有两百年历史的老品牌,不过吉尼表示:“如果你看看所有的大品牌,看看他们的社交媒体内容和他们的网站,你会发现他们非常自恋。”但是下一代的消费者可能对此并不买账。They want brands they can be in conversation with, she says. “The younger generation, they want something that’s them. They don’t want to be a copycat like everyone else.” In fact, beyond customization, Genier pointed to one small brand, Anatomie, whose designer has such a close relationship with his best clients that he’s been known to visit them at home to personally style them.吉尼表示,新一代消费者想要的是能和他们对话的品牌。“新一代人想要能反映‘他们’的东西。他们不想像其他人一样盲从。”吉尼还举了一个名叫Anatomie的小品牌的例子,这个品牌的设计师与他最好的客户保持了非常好的关系,他们甚至邀请他到家里去给他们做造型。As bespoke becomes the watchword, services may become the ascendant luxury product. Genier is working with Presidential Private Jet Vacations, which plans an entirely customizable itinerary, makes all the arrangements and escorts their guests through it in a private plane.随着定制变得流行,务可能成为一种大有可为的奢侈品。吉尼正在与一家名叫Presidential Private Jet Vacations的公司合作,这家公司专门规划完全定制化的旅行线路,所有行程安排都是通过私人飞机完成的。Kleber spoke to the deeper value proposition of this kind of service. “The biggest luxury today is time,” she says. Services that can give deliver unique experiences but save clients the trouble of making them and add value to shared experiences are likely to be sought after going forward.克莱伯指出,这种务具有更深层次的价值定位:“如今,最大的奢侈品是时间。”那些可以为消费者带来独特体验,同时省却他们很多麻烦,并能带来附加值的务,很可能将成为消费者追捧的对象。Rare experiences are also likely to be more prized, experts agreed. Dillman pointed to Afar Magazine, saying that luxury consumers will look to “travel deeper.” For example, The champagne company VeuveCli runs an invitation-only hotel in Reims, France, L’Hotel du Marc. It features neoclassical architecture complemented by a rotating collection of contemporary artwork. With just six rooms, very few people will ever get to say they’ve been.专家们认为,一些稀有体验也将变得更加珍贵。迪尔曼举了旅行杂志《Afar》为例,表示奢华型消费者更期望“深度游”。比如香槟公司VeuveCli在法国的兰斯有一家只有获得邀请才能入住的酒店,名叫L’Hotel du Marc。该酒店具有新古典主义的建筑风格,以及一系列当代艺术作品。由于该酒店只有六间房间,能够入住的人少之又少。Which isn’t to say that goods and technology have no place in the high end market. More engineers are turning their skills to devices rather than digital products such as software and websites, and the marginal cost of machines never reaches zero, as it does with digital inventions.这并不是说,商品和科技在高端市场中已经没有一席之地了。越来越多的工程师正在把工夫下在设备上,而不是软件和网站等产品上。而机器的边际成本永远不会像软件与其它数字产品那样趋于零。Jessica Banks founded Rock Paper Robot, a high-end furniture maker that uses principles of physics to make furniture that appear to do the impossible (her signature piece is a levitating table). She says, “Versatility, customization and modularity: that’s what I think the future is about. And I’m banking on it.” Right now, that consists of making a chandelier that can sp light out or focus it in based on the mood it senses in a room.杰西卡o班克斯是Rock Paper Robot公司的创始人,这家公司是一家高端的家居制造商,它的独特之处在于,通过使用物理学定律来生产一些貌似几乎不可能存在的东西(比如她的标志性作品是一款悬浮桌子)。班克斯表示:“我认为功能性、定制性和模块化是未来的关键,这也正是我的发展方向。”班克斯的公司还生产了一款神奇的吊灯,可以通过判断屋里人们的情绪来决定散射或集中光线。Where might high-end customization of the home lead? Imagine whole walls covered in electronic paper whose color and patterns could change in a moment. Later, there could be furniture that could rearrange or transform itself at a voice command, from dining room to den to ballroom in the same space.家居市场的高端定制化会朝着哪个方向发展呢?我们不妨想象一下:不久的将来,整面墙都用电子墙纸包裹,墙的颜色和图案可以迅速改变。再往后,说不定你只要下一条语音指令,家具就可以自己整理甚至像变形金刚一样变形,同一间屋子不一会儿就能从餐厅变成卧室再变成舞厅。If it’s a safe bet now that tomorrow’s luxury consumer will seek brands that speak to their unique selves, further down the road, logic says it would go one step further: affluent consumers could demand solutions that can adapt on the fly to precisely the person they want to impress.如果说,明日的奢侈品消费者青睐的是那些能够表达出自我个性的品牌,那么随着时间的推移,它还会合乎逻辑地继续迈进一步:未来的奢侈品消费者很可能需要一些能够即兴发挥,精确适应目标人群品味的解决方案。(财富中文网) /201412/350916India#39;s gender chore gap, the difference between the amount of housework done by women and men, is the largest of any country for which data is available, according to new figures compiled by the World Economic Forum.India ranks top, or bottom (depending how you look at it), in terms of the number of minutes women spend on housework each day versus the amount of time men dedicate to daily household tasks世界经济论坛显示:在印度的男女之间差距在家务劳动分配比重中得以表现,并且相对于其他国家更为严重。印度女性家务劳动比重排名世界榜首。。Women in India on average spend 351.9 minutes every day doing housework, men spend just 51.8 minutes on such duties: a difference of 300.1 minutes. The next closest country is Mexico, with a gap of 260.7 minutes.The findings are part of the annual Global Gender Gap Report 2014 published Tuesday. This year, India fell 13 places to 114 out of 142 countries in the latest ranking, which measures equality between the sexes in access to work, education and healthcare. The fall was caused by a drop in economic participation and opportunity for women, as well as a dip in female educational attainment.2014年全球性别差距报告指出在印度的女性平均每天花351.9分钟做家务,男人花51.8分钟工作:一共300.1分钟的差距。下一个国家是墨西哥,差距为260.7分钟。今年,在142个国家的最新排名印度13个地方降至114位,用于衡量两性平等以及获得工作,教育和医疗的权利。下降是由于印度女性经济参与度和就业机会下降,以及女性的受教育程度。“Indian women end up doing very badly in paid work and one of the reasons for that is that they are spending so much time in unpaid work,” said Saadia Zahidi, head of the gender parity program at the WEF and one of the authors of the report.The decline in female participation in the workforce has fallen irrespective of the country#39;s economic growth, according to a report by the International Labor Organization in February 2013.Between 2004-05 and 2009-10, a period of rapid economic growth in India, female participation in the work force fell from 37% to 29%.“印度女性花了那么多时间在无报酬的家务劳动上所以不可能在出去找工作,”萨迪亚扎西迪说(世界经济论坛的性别平等程序主管和报告的作者之一)。女性就业的下降无关与国家的经济增长,国际劳工组织的一份报告显示。2004 - 05至2004 - 10年,印度经济快速增长的时期,女性劳动力的参与从37%降至29%。;Women have lost out in terms of employment in the growth story,; said Indrani Mazumdar, a senior fellow at the Centre for Women#39;s Development Studies in New Delhi.In rural areas, for example, increased use of machinery in farming has led to a reduction in jobs, and the jobs that remain usually go to men, Ms. Mazumdar said.But the chore gap is most pronounced in cities, rather than villages. Among women surveyed by India#39;s National Sample Survey Organization in 2011-12, around 39% in rural areas and about 50% in urban areas spent most of their time on domestic duties. Of those women, ;about 60 per cent in rural areas and 64 per cent in urban areas did so due to the reason #39;no other member to carry out the domestic duties,#39;; according to the survey.“女性在经济的增长之中失败原因有很多“Indrani Mazumdar说(妇女发展研究中心高级研究员)。例如在农村地区因为增加使用机械就会导致减少就业机会,但是仍然得有人干活。所以家务差距最为明显是在城市,而不是农村。印度国家抽样调查调查的女性组织在2011 - 12,大约39%在农村地区,约50%在城市花了大部分时间浪费在家务劳动上。Cultural taboos about female employment makes the problem more pronounced in cities, said Ranjana Kumari, author of ;Gender, Work, and Power Relations,; and director of New Delhi-based think tank the Centre for Social Research. ;Even if women are highly educated, they aren#39;t allowed by in-laws and husbands to do any job outside the home,; Ms. Kumari said. ;Women are graduating to get a good groom not a good job,; she added.So what are women in India spending their time doing? The NSSO survey found that the majority spent time making cow-dung patties–used for cooking fuel–collecting firewood, sewing, tailoring, or collecting drinking water.印度文化禁忌对城市女性就业是一个打击,Ranjana Kumari表示“如何处理好印度社会的性别、工作与权力的关系“即使是女性受过高等教育,但是公婆和丈夫不允许她们在外面做任何工作,”库玛丽女士说。“女人上大学是为了找好的新郎而不是为了找一个好工作,”她补充道。所以女性在印度花费他们的时间是在干什么?NSSO(国家样本测量组织)的调查发现,大多数花时间是把牛粪做成小馅饼样子当柴火用,还有做衣,或者收集饮用水(河边打水)。Urban Indian women also make cow-dung patties and walk to collect clean water, but in lower numbers. Other household chores performed by women included: fishing, grinding food grain, husking rice paddy, preserving meat and tutoring children.Solving India#39;s shortage of power and clean water could help get more women into the workforce, said Indu Agnihotri, director of the Centre for Women#39;s Development Studies.;Women spend so much time negotiating the lack of basic civic amenities, like water and power, that even though they have a desire for work there are obstacles to getting it,; Ms. Agnihotri said.印度城市女性也把牛粪做成馅饼,或者走到河边收集干净的水,但是比较而言城市女性更喜欢去钓鱼、磨粮食,剥稻壳,保存鲜肉和辅导孩子。如果能解决印度的电力短缺和干净的水的问题可以帮助更多的女性进入职场,妇女发展研究中心主任Indu Agnihotri说。“女人花那么多时间去承受缺乏基本的市政设施,像水、电的痛苦,即使他们渴望得到一份工作也是有障碍的“Agnihotri女士说。 /201412/349814I have a very 2014 question for you: How would you respond if you found out that a man living down the street regularly has sexual intercourse with a horse?我有一个非常适合在2014年提出的问题:如果你发现住在同一条街上的邻居定期和一匹马性交,你会作何反应?Would you be morally disgusted? Consider him and his behavior an abomination? Turn him in to the police? (This would be an option in the roughly three-quarters of states that — for now — treat bestiality as a felony or misdemeanor.)你会不会产生道德层面的厌恶感?将他和他的行为视为变态?会不会让警察逮捕他?(这个选项可以在大概三分之一的州得以实现-目前这些州将人兽性交视作一项重罪或者品行不端罪。Or would you perhaps suppress your gag reflex and try hard to be tolerant, liberal, affirming, supportive? Maybe you#39;d even utter the slogan that deserves to be emblazoned over our age as its all-purpose motto and mantra: Who am I to judge?或者你也许会压制住你的呕吐反射症状并努力想要对这种行为表达容忍,自由主义,肯定,甚至持态度?也许你甚至会吼出一句在我们这个时代备受推崇,多用途的口号和咒语:我又有什么资格来评判别人呢?Thanks to New York magazine, which recently ran a completely nonjudgmental 6,200-word interview with a ;zoophile; who regularly enjoys sex with a mare — unironic headline: ;What it#39;s like to date a horse; — these questions have been much on my mind.真要感谢《纽约杂志》。它于近期刊登了一篇6200字的非主观报道。它采访了一位名为“zoophile”的人,他定期同一匹母驴进行性交-采访报道的题目颇具讽刺意义:同一匹马约会是什么感受。我近期一直在想着这些问题。They should be on yours, too.你们也真应该思考一下。Because this is a very big deal, in cultural and moral terms.这是一件大事,不论是文化层面还是道德层面。No, not the fact of bestiality, which (like incest) has always been with us, but the fact of an acclaimed, mainstream publication treating it as a matter of complete moral indifference. (Aside, of course, from the requisite concern about animal abuse — a nonhuman analog to the pervasive emphasis on consent as the only relevant moral criterion for judging sexual behavior. The interview dispenses with this worry by informing us that the zoophile regularly brings his equine lover to orgasm orally — and that she often initiates acts of intimacy, showing that she appears to enjoy their sexual interactions.)不,困扰我们的并不是人兽性交这件事(类似乱伦),而是一股收到赞扬的,主流出版物将这种事情视作对于道德的完全无视。(当然,除此之外。关于这件事情的争议还有: 对于这个非人类代替物会产生动物虐待行为的普遍担心,到普遍将同意与否视为唯一一个评判性行为的相关道德标准。受访者让我们排除了这种担心,他表示,他通过口交定期给他的马爱人性高潮。并且他的马儿会经常模仿亲密的行为,已示自己对于这种性交的喜爱。Am I worried that large numbers of people will soon choose to shack up with their pets or farm animals? Not at all. I can#39;t imagine that very many people will ever be drawn to bestiality, no matter how casually it is treated in the media.我会担心有很多人会选择“搞上”他们的宠物或家畜吗?完全不。无论媒体对兽交的态度如何随便,我都不认为会有多少人被吸引。Why, then, is the New York interview a big deal? Because it#39;s perhaps the most vivid sign yet that, in effect, the ed States (and indeed the entire Western world) is running an experiment — one with very few, if any, antecedents in human history. The experiment will test what happens when a culture systematically purges all publicly affirmed notions of human flourishing, virtue and vice, elevation and degradation.然而,为什么这种现象被纽约媒体采访成一个大新闻?因为它也许是最生动的迹象表明,美国(实质是整个西方世界)实际上正在运行一个实验,一个很少甚至未曾出现过人类历史先例的实验。这个实验将测试当一个文化去系统地,全面地否认所有人们公认的价值观,善恶观,荣辱观时,会发生什么。Moral and religious traditionalists have seen this coming and warned about its consequences for years. And indeed, they are the ones raising the loudest ruckus about the New York interview.道德和宗教上的保守人士已经预见到这种情形并在多年来一直警告其后果。事实上,他们也是对纽约的采访反响最大的。I share some of their concerns. But there are at least two problems with their analysis of the experiment.我对他们的担心有一些赞同,但他们的实验分析至少存在两个问题。First, the trads are wrong to blame the purging of publicly affirmed notions of human flourishing on the sp of relativism. Viewed from inside traditionalist notions of virtue and vice, a culture that seeks to redefine ;normal; to include zoophilia might seem like a culture defined by relativism. But it isn#39;t. Rather, it#39;s a culture fervently devoted to the moral principle of equal recognition and affirmation — in a word, to an absolute ethic of niceness. Moral condemnation can be mean, and therefore it#39;s morally wrong — that#39;s the way growing numbers of Americans think about these issues.首先,传统人士不应该把大众价值观的丢失归咎于相对主义的传播。从传统观念上美德和恶习的角度来看,一个试图将人兽交重新定义为“正常”的文明似乎是由相对主义定义的。但它并不是,相反,这个文明热烈地忠于某些道德准则,而这些道德准则基于公众的普遍认知与许可——总而言之,这个文明忠于绝对意义上的美德。道德上的谴责可以很残忍,因此它在道德上是错误的——这正是越来越多的美国人在思考这些问题时用的方式。Of course, these nonjudgmental Americans would think differently — they would continue to publicly affirm notions of human flourishing and condemn acts that diverge from the norm — if they confidently believed in the foundation of these judgments. But increasingly, they do not. Judeo-Christian piety used to supply it for many, but no longer.当然,这些不偏不倚的人们有着不同的见解,他们将继续肯定人类公认的价值观并谴责与之相违背的行为——只要他们能肯定地相信着这些判断的基准。然而这样的人却越来越少。犹太教和基督教带来的虔诚信仰提供了许多道德基准,但已不再有过去的影响力。Then there#39;s the option of basing our judgments on what conservative bioethicist Leon Kass once called ;the wisdom of repugnance; — that is, on our commonsense moral intuitions. But as the liberal philosopher Martha Nussbaum has argued, the ;ick factor; just isn#39;t a reliable basis on which to make moral evaluations. And we know that from lived experience. Interracial romances once seemed icky, but then they didn#39;t. Next it was homosexual acts that passed through the looking glass from repellant to respectable. Faced with this slippage and uncertainty — with a long string of reversals in moral judgment — it#39;s no wonder that the ethic of unconditional niceness increasingly trumps all other considerations.然后,出现了一种选择,让我们的判断基于保守派生物伦理学家Leon Kass一度所说的“厌恶的智慧”——就是说,基于我们的常识中的道德直觉。但如自由主义哲学家Martha Nussbaum所辩驳的那样,是否感觉“令人作呕”并非一个可靠的道德评估依据。我们从各种生活经验中已知道这一点。不同人种间的爱情曾经受到厌恶,后来则不会。然后同性恋行为也在经历从被排斥到被尊重的过程。面对这样的易变与不确定性——带有一大堆观点相抵的道德观——难怪有关无条件美德的伦理正日益压倒所有其他的观念。And that brings us to the second way in which the trads go wrong — in speaking confidently about how we#39;re ;galloping toward Gomorrah.; This implies that they know exactly where the experiment is going to end up. The truth is that they — and we — have no idea at all. Because there has never been a human society built exclusively on a morality of rights (individual consent) and an ethic of niceness, with no overarching vision of a higher human good to override or compete with it.而这让我们见识到了传统出现问题的第二个面向—— 自信的谈论我们如何”快速的接近罪恶之城”。这意味着他们知道这个实验的最终结局是怎样的。真相是他们——还有我们——根本就不知道结局是怎样的。因为人类历史中从来没有出现过单单以权利道德(个体的同意)和友善伦理为基础的人类社会,没有一个更高人类善行的总体设想来推翻它或者与它进行竞争。As I noted above, I find it hard to imagine that more than a tiny fraction of human beings will ever choose to engage in sex acts with animals, even if and when the taboo has been thoroughly deconstructed and the behavior mainstreamed by dozens of sympathetic stories in the media. I suspect the same is true about incest and polyamory. Most people will continue to live boring, mundane sex lives, monogamously committed to one human being of the opposite sex at a time.正如我在上面所提到的,我根本无法想像会有很多人愿意与动物性交,即使这样的禁忌被重新结构以及主流媒体对这样的行为表示同情。我觉得这样的道理同样可以应用在乱伦和一夫多妻制上。大多数人将继续过无聊的世俗的性生活,并且坚持异性的一夫一妻制。So what, then, is there to worry about? Why is this cultural experiment a big deal?所以还有什么好担忧的?这样的文化实验又有什么了不起的呢?Because it stands as a stunning testament to our ignorance about ourselves. Roughly 2,500 years since Socrates first raised the question of how we should live, several centuries since the Enlightenment encouraged us to seek and promulgate scientific knowledge about the universe and human nature, Western humanity seems to have come to the conclusion that we haven#39;t got a clue about an answer. There is no consensus whatsoever about what ways of life are intrinsically good or bad for human beings.因为它对于我们自身的无知给予一个惊人的明。大约2500年前苏格拉底首次提出我们应该如何生活的问题,几个世纪以来的启蒙文化促进我们去寻找和传播关于宇宙和人类的本性,西方人文科学好像得出了结论那就是我们还没有得到最终的。关于人类如何去生活在本质上没有评判的标准。为什么要结婚和有孩子呢?如果这是你想要的,当然听起来很不错。你准备好恋爱多元化了吗?只要每个人都同意,又有乐趣。那么和马谈恋爱做爱能怎么样呢?关键要确保没有人会伤害,伤害是狭隘的定义(包括物理伤害和侵犯个人喜好)。That#39;s all we#39;ve got. Or at least all we#39;re left with, now that we#39;ve shed the (ostensibly) discredited notions of human virtue that most people once affirmed.这是我们所拥有的一切文化。或者至少这些都被我们继承了,既然我们已经摆脱了虚伪的人类表面观念和美德。Is that good enough? Can we do without a publicly affirmed vision of human flourishing? Fulfilling personal preferences (whatever they happen to be), seeking consent in all interactions, and abiding by the imperative of universal niceness — is that sufficient to bring happiness? Or will a world that tells us in a million ways that we are radically undetermined in our ends leave us feeling empty, lost, alone, unmoored, at sea, spiritually adrift?那样足够好吗?我们可以脱离大众观念去那样做吗?满足个人偏好(无论他们发生什么),寻求交流的一致,尊重普世法则——这足以带来幸福吗?或者我们根本无法确定我们来自哪里去向何方(结局的无法预料),那种空虚,失落,孤独,无依无靠就像在大海中漂流然而这个世界用一百万种方式告诉我们那根本就无法解决。I have no idea.搞不懂哎。But I suspect we#39;re going to find out soon enough.但是我们会尽快搞清楚的。 /201501/353760

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