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  • Europe France’s economy欧洲 法国经济Austerity stakes紧缩困境A reluctant government faces the imperative of public-spending cuts法国削减公共出势在必行,政府陷入两难境界Franse’s finance minister, Pierre Moscovici, staged a charm offensive in London this week to improve his country’s battered economic image. Days after the European Commission had forecast that France would miss its budget-deficit target of 3% of GDP in 2013, a key promise of President Francois Hollande’s, Mr Moscovici urged people to look beyond “simplistic stereotypes”. The government may miss its target, he said, but it was making structural reforms to restore competitiveness and sound public finances.法国的财务首相皮耶尔 莫斯科维奇本周在伦敦打了漂亮的一仗,改善了法国经济窘迫不堪的形象。欧盟委员会预测法国将难以兑现2013年GDP3%的预算赤字目标,而那是总统弗朗西斯奥朗德的重点承诺。数日之后,莫斯科维奇呼吁人们看穿“单纯的陈见”。他表示,也许政府不能如期完成目标,但它采取结构化改革以恢复竞争力,重塑夯实的公共财政。The commission’s verdict was sobering. French GDP will grow by 0.1% this year, compared with a government forecast of 0.8%, and the deficit will reach 3.7%. After long defending the 3% target as a sign of its credibility, and insisting on overly ambitious growth forecasts, the government has abruptly switched message to plead for more time. And the commission clearly intends to opt for indulgence.委员会的裁定是一盆冷水。新的一年,法国GDP增长率将会是0.1%,与政府0.8%的预测相差甚远。而且赤字会达到3.7%.长期坚守3%的目标已成为法国信誉的象征,同时伴随着野心勃勃的增长预测。但风云突变,政府扭转口径,央求着要更多时间。显然,委员会意欲纵容之。Without much struggle, it seems, France has won the argument that it should not be punished for its failure. It blames poor growth—the commission forecasts a euro-zone recession in 2013—and fears that more belt-tightening might make things worse. The French claim that, judged by the structural deficit, adjusted for the cycle, the government has made a bigger effort than at first appears. Mr Moscovici does not plan an emergency budget to squeeze the deficit back towards 3% this year, partly for fear of provoking “a political and social shock”. Jens Weidmann, the Bundesbank chief, said that “putting consolidation off would just shift the problem into the future.” But the German government stayed silent and Wolfgang Schauble, the finance minister, told a newspaper he was “fully confident” thatFrance was on the right track.虽未曾付出太多的努力,但看上去,法国已经赢得不必为失败而受惩的舆论持。它责难低下的增长率——委员会预测了2013年欧元区的萧条——并担心紧缩政策会让一切更糟糕。法国宣称,由相对经济周期校准的结构性赤字判断,政府作的努力比表面上的要更为显著。莫斯科维奇并未制定紧急计划以在年内将赤字压缩到3%,部分是由于担心这会引起“政治和社会的震荡。”德国央行主观简魏德曼表示延迟“延迟”只是把问题留给未来。但德国政府保持沉默,而且财政首相沃尔夫冈邵伯向报纸表示他“无比自信”地认为法国经济正步入正轨。Mr Moscovici may get away with drift once, but he is unlikely to be indulged twice. As it is, letting him off the hook depends on taking seriously his efforts to sort out the public finances. This year, three-quarters of the effort to curb the deficit consists of higher taxes, says the Cour des Comptes, the national auditor. Yet with a total take of over 44% of GDP, Franceis aly the most heavily taxed country in the euro. Companies and the rich have been squeezed; investment has gone on hold. The constitutional court has rejected Mr Hollande’s planned 75% top income-tax rate, although the government plans to revive it in another form. Even some Socialist deputies concede that the government cannot go on pushing up taxes.但事不过三,莫斯科维奇很难继续得到包容。事实上,只有正视他为解决公共财政问题作出的努力才能让他免于责难。据国家审计员Cour des Comptes表示,今年控制赤字的努力有四分之三都用于征收高额税。法国已是欧元区课税最繁重的国家,税收占到GDP的44%。公司和富人保守压榨,投资搁置了。立宪法院拒绝了奥朗德设立最高75%所得税的计划,但政府计划通过别种形势实现它。甚至一些社会党代表也承认政府不能无止尽地抬高税收。That leaves no choice but cuts in public spending. Mr Moscovici says these will account for “most” of the deficit reduction in the 2014 budget. This is where the hard part begins. The commission forecasts a deficit in 2014 of 3.9%, even higher than in 2013, as well as a rise in unemployment to 11%. The government has begun to float various ideas, such as means-testing family benefits and lengthening the period for pension contributions. A policy review is under way with the aim of eliminating duplication and cutting jobs. The prime minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, has set up a commission to look into pension reform. “This is all very different to what Socialist governments did before,” says an insider.如此一来,法国别无选择,唯有削减公共出。莫斯科维奇表示那会占到2014年预算赤字削减的“大部分”。艰险的征程由此展开。委员会预测2014年的赤字率会达到3.9%,甚至高于2013年的,与此同时失业率会上升至11%。政府集思广益,采用诸如家庭付能力调查以及延长养老金的供期。首相吉恩马克 艾洛特已成立一个委员会调查养老金改革。“这与此前社会党政府的所作所为大相径庭。”内部人士透露说。The difficulty is political. It may be evident to outsiders—and to some in the government—that, given its competitiveness and growth problems, France has no choice but to rethink its generous welfare state and well-staffed public sector. But a year after the 2012 election campaign, public debate has barely begun. Mr Hollande was elected on a promise to kick-start growth, cut unemployment and end austerity. Now he presides over recession, rising joblessness—and the need to impose more austerity on dumbfounded voters.难度在于政治方面。考虑到法国的竞争力和经济增长困境,它除了对优厚的福利和齐整的公共部门加以慎思外别无选择。但2012年选举结束的一年之后,公众的质疑声才刚刚开始泛滥。奥朗德带着促进经济增长,降低失业率和终结紧缩的承诺上任。如今,他要为经济萧条和上涨的失业率买单——以及让投票者目瞪口呆的紧缩政策。翻译:袁航译文属译生译世 /201610/471723
  • Psychology心理学Time is not money时间不等于金钱Thinking about it makes you a better person, not a worse one时间观念只会提升人格,绝无裨益“THE love of money”, St Paul memorably wrote to his protege Timothy, “is the root of all evil.” “All” may be putting it a bit strongly, but dozens of psychological studies have indeed shown that people primed to think about money before an experiment are more likely to lie, cheat and steal during the course of that experiment.圣保尔曾在给其亲信蒂莫西的信中写到“金钱是万恶之源”。或许,“万恶”一词说的过于严重,但无数心理研究表明实验前被灌输金钱观念的人更容易在实验过程中撒谎、作弊并行窃。Another well-known aphorism, ascribed to Benjamin Franklin, is “time is money”. If true, that suggests a syllogism: that the love of time is a root of evil, too. But a paper just published in Psychological Science by Francesca Gino of Harvard and Cassie Mogilner of the University of Pennsylvania suggests precisely the opposite.另一名言—“时间就是金钱”,出自本杰.富兰克林。如果他说的有理,那么就可以推断出:对时间的珍爱也是万恶之源。然而,哈佛商学院的弗兰切斯卡· 吉诺(Francesca Gino)和宾夕法尼亚大学的凯希·莫吉内尔(Cassie Mogilner)教授共同撰写发表在《心理科学》的论文则持有完全相反的结论。Dr Gino and Dr Mogilner asked a group of volunteers to do a series of what appeared to be aptitude tests. As is often the case in such experiments, though, what the volunteers were told, and what the truth was, were rather different things.他俩召集了一些志愿者,参加一系列类似性向测试的实验活动。和其它这类实验一样,这些志愿者被告知的与事实往往是不同的。In the first test they were asked to make, within three minutes, as many coherent sentences as they could out of a set of words they had been presented with. What they were not told was that each of them had been assigned to one of three groups. Some volunteers word sets were seeded with ones associated with money, such as “dollars”, “financing” and “spend”. Some were seeded with words associated with time (eg, “clock”, “hours”, “moment”). And some were seeded with neither. Thus unknowingly primed, the volunteers were y for the second test.第一轮测验要求他们用所给词汇在限定的三分钟内尽可能造出更多连贯的句子。但他们并不知道,所有参与者已被悄悄分为三组。第一组所给词汇主要是金钱类的,如“美元”、“融资”、“消费”等。第二组则与时间相关,如“钟表”、“小时”、“一刻”等。第三组则为中性词汇,完全不同于前两组。就这样毫无知觉地,志愿者们进入了下一轮测试。This was mathematical. They were given a sheet of paper with 20 matrices which each contained 12 numbers, two of which added up to ten (for example, 3.81 and 6.19). They had to write down, on a separate answer sheet, how many of these pairs they could manage to find in five minutes. They were also given a packet of money and told they could reward themselves with a dollar for each pair they discovered.第二场是数字游戏。每人持有一张印有20个数阵的试卷,每个数阵含12个数字,两两相加为10(如3.81和6.19)。要求每人5分钟内在答题纸上写下所能找到的所有相加为10的配对。同时,每人得到一袋硬币,且被告知,若找到一对即可奖励自己一美元。Crucially, they were not asked to show their workings on the answer sheets—and the matrix sheets, on which those workings might have appeared, carried no identifier and were ostentatiously discarded once the test was done. Nevertheless, by hiding an identification code in a sample matrix on the answer sheet, Dr Gino and Dr Mogilner knew which matrix sheet each candidate had been given and thus who had cheated and who had not. They found that 88% of those who had been primed with money-related words in the first test cheated, as did 67% of those given neutral words. Of those primed with time-related words, though, only 42% cheated.关键是,本次测验并未要求考生上交答卷或在试卷上写下姓名等身份信息,尽管试卷上可能会有他们的做题思路,但测试一结束就被狠狠地抛弃了。不过,吉诺教授和莫吉内尔教授其实事先已在答题卷上秘密标好对应试卷的身份代码,因此哪些人作弊、哪些人没作弊,他们是一清二楚的。结果表明,第一次实验中接触金钱相关词汇的志愿者有88%的人作弊,接触中性词汇的志愿者有67%的人作弊,而接触时间相关词汇的只有42%作弊。Nor, despite St Pauls aphorism, was the lure of lucre during the experiment (as opposed to the effect of thinking about it as a result of being primed) necessary as a corrupting influence. A similar trial on different participants showed that presenting the matrix as a test of intelligence also caused those primed with the idea of money to cheat more than those primed with the idea of time—though, intriguingly, that did not apply if the matrix was presented as a test of personality.尽管圣保尔的格言并非毫无道理,但并不一定明就是试验中的利益诱惑才如此广泛地腐蚀了人们纯洁的心灵(该观点反对将实验结果归于事先所灌输的观念)。因为在另一相似的实验中(参与者不同),参与者被告知自己是在做智力测验,最后发现也是同样的结果,即那些有着金钱观念的比时间观念的更易作弊——有趣得是,如果只是视为人格测验,结果却完全不同。This led Dr Gino and Dr Mogilner to suspect that self-reflection played a part in controlling unethical behaviour during the test. They therefore conducted a third test in which, for half the volunteers, there was a mirror in the cubicle they were sitting in when doing the experiment.针对以上测试结果,吉诺教授和莫吉内尔教授怀疑测试中的非道德行为是受自我反省控制的。为此,他们又设计了第三场试验,其中半数人在测验过程中眼前是搁有镜子的。Volunteers primed to think about money cheated 39% of the time when a mirror was present but 67% when it was not. Those primed to think about time cheated 32% of the time in the presence of the mirror and 36% in its absence—results that are statistically indistinguishable.被灌输金钱思想的一组,当现场设有镜子时,参与者在39%的测试过程中出现作弊行为,而没有镜子时,则为67%。相同条件下,被灌输时间观念的一组,分别为32%和36%,该组前后结果基本没什么变化。Finally, a fourth experiment asked primed volunteers to fill in a questionnaire before tackling the matrix. In among “filler” questions intended to disguise what was happening this asked them to rate how they felt about self-reflective statements like, “Right now, I am thinking about who I am as a person.”最后第四场实验要求每位已有不同思想输入的参与者在解决数阵前先完成一份问卷。问卷上设有掩饰之前不光行为的“补充性”问题,调查他们在看到自我反思表述语句时的想法与感受,如“此时此刻,我在思考着作为人,自己究竟是谁。”。As in the previous tests, those primed with money words cheated more often than those primed with neutral words and far more often than those primed with time words. But whether someone cheated was also related to how strongly he felt about the self-reflective statements presented to him in the questionnaire.之前的实验结果显示,被输入金钱类词汇的参与者作弊倾向最高,被输入中心词汇的其次,而被输入时间类词汇的作弊倾向为最小。但是,最后一次实验明,参与者是否作弊也受其在看到问卷上自我反思陈述时的内心感受所影响。It seems, then, that thinking about time has the opposite effect on people from thinking about money. It makes them more honest than normal, rather than less so. Moreover, the more reflective they are, the more honest they become. There must be an aphorism in that.由此,我们似乎可以得出这样一个结论,时间观念与金钱观念对人们所产生的影响是截然不同的。时间观念带给个人诚信的只会是正能量,绝非负能量。而且,一个人越懂得反躬自省,那么他就越诚实。我想,对此必定也有那么一句格言的吧。译者:徐珍 校对者:毛慧 译文属译生译世 /201512/415246
  • One evening, while my husband and I were talking with a young couple who manage a Community Supported Agriculture business, we wandered onto the topic of summer interns. Because of the couples urban location, their CSA drew workers from the local college who were eager to build raised beds and weed beets.My friend Stacy was amazed at how many of the students never held a summer job. They asked if they would be stiff and sore every morning.My husband John and I joked about how we still felt every muscle after a day of grading and packing several tons of blueberries, but the four of us also ruminated on how interns can restore our wonder and dedication to organic methods as we watch them experience farm life.A couple of years ago, the small farmer guru Joel Salatin wrote an article about how farms thrive when multiple generations work the land. Because less than one percent of the American population was employed in agrarian pursuits, he urged farmers to welcome interns so that young people would embrace agriculture.For many years, John and I had nurtured numerous apprentices from as far away as Japan and the Netherlands, until we adopted our sons and concentrated on raising them. While pondering Salatins thoughts, a friend from Ann Arbor called and asked if we would hire her daughter, Lisa, and her best friend, Rebecca, who were finishing their freshman years in college. I looked at John, and he nodded his head. ;Yes, when will they arrive?; I answered.On a June day, the duo rolled up in a white Subaru Outback stuffed with sleeping bags, a box of books, a guitar case, and a jumble of clothes. Dlocks dangled around Rebeccas shoulders, as she stretched out her hand and introduced herself; I hugged blond-haired, diminutive Lisa whom I had known since she was ten. After showing the young women the old white farmhouse where they would live, and talking a bit about our farms routine, we left them to settle in.The next day heat waves shimmered off the hay field as John drove the baler while Lisa and Rebecca stacked hay bales onto the low wagon with a high rack rising from the far end. Hay chaff coated their arms, clogged their throats and sifted into their boots. Wide sombreros shaded their faces from the ninety degree sun.;Like your hats,; I said, and then poured everyone a round of lemonade as we paused in the shade of the hay barn.;Hows it going? Do you want to share supper with us? We could take you swimming this evening.;;Oh, thanks, but well cook something,; Lisa said. Sweat plastered her red t-shirt and jeans to her slim body.;Were fine.; Rebecca wiped her mouth on the neck of her t-shirt. ;Really.;A few weeks later, the girls would reveal that they had been so exhausted that they had collapsed and slept for a couple of hours before hitting Lake Michigans beach. Over the next two months their hands developed calluses as they weeded young blueberry bushes, thinned peaches, and hoed the garden. But we also found them perched in sweet cherry trees, red juice dribbling from the corners of their mouths or wandering along a farm lane, plucking blackberries.Meanwhile, a pyramid of empty, vegetarian refried bean cans grew on their kitchen counter.;What are you two giggling about?; I asked one morning as we taped together boxes to hold blueberries.;How many tacos we plan to eat for lunch,; Rebecca said. ;And for dinner, she ate nine yesterday,; Lisa said, and we all laughed.By the end of what John and I dubbed Pleasant Hill Summer Boot Camp, Lisa and Rebecca not only had stronger muscles, but they had developed an inner strength that helped them tackle arduous jobs. They understood that when a crop needed to be harvested, the farmer had to ignore the heat and humidity and focus on the satisfaction of a barn stuffed with hay bales or boxes of frozen blueberries waiting to be purchased.After the girls departed, John and I moped around, grieving our taco-eating duo that had added a certain spice to our summer and rejuvenated our passion for farming. A couple of weeks later, Lisa sent me an email.;I havent eaten a decent blueberry since leaving the farm. Miss you guys.;;Miss you too,; I wrote, and then returned to posting an advertisement for next summers interns on an organic farming webpage.201507/389331
  • NPR photojournalist David Gilkey, who won wide acclaim for his work chronicling major conflicts and disasters around the world, died Sunday in Afghanistan after the Afghan unit he was traveling with was hit by rocket-propelled grenades in an apparent ambush. NPRs Afghan interpreter, Zabihullah Tamanna, was also killed in the attack, as was Afghan soldier at the wheel of their vehicle. Gilkey was 50 years old, Tamanna 38.NPR described Gilkeys body of work in its release confirming his death:It is fair to say that David witnessed some of humanitys most challenging moments: He covered wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. He covered the conflict between Israel and Hamas in Gaza. He covered the end of the apartheid regime in South Africa. He covered the devastating earthquake in Haiti, famine in Somalia, and most recently the Ebola epidemic in Liberia.Gilkey previously worked for the Detroit Free Press, and was considered one of the countrys best photojournalists in his time there, and was part of the team that won the paper an Emmy for Outstanding Current News Coverage for Broadband for the series ;Michigan Marines: Band of Brothers.;He also won a George Polk award for NPR in 2010, and the White House Photographers Association named him Still Photographer of the Year in 2011.Gilkey was the first non-military U.S. journalist to die in Afghanistan since the latest conflict there began in 2001.Joe Swickard, Gilkeys former colleague at the Detroit Free Press, joined us today on Stateside.201606/448213
  • Europe Greece and the euro欧洲 希腊与欧元Toil and trouble受苦受难The government gets its latest austerity measures through, but only just希腊新一轮紧缩政策终以微弱优势通过Greece’s fragile coalition government only narrowly averted disaster on November 7th when it won parliamentary approval for a drastic new austerity package. The package scraped through with 153 votes to 128 in the 300-member house.11月7日,希腊风雨飘零的联合政府终于在国会通过了新一轮大规模财政紧缩的一揽子计划,但全过程命悬一线。在300人组成的国会中,该计划仅以153票对128票的微弱优势勉强得到通过。Antonis Samaras, the prime minister, made the best of it, saying that “Greece has turned a page.” Meanwhile furious anti-austerity protesters outside parliament hurled stones and Molotov cocktails at police in what has become a grim ritual.希腊总理安东尼斯·萨马拉斯(Antonis Samaras)对此大加吹捧,表示此刻“希腊翻开了崭新的一页”。而与此同时,紧缩政策的反对者们十分愤怒,他们在国会外向警察投掷石块和燃烧弹,这一严峻的事实已令人习以为常。The debate over the latest austerity measures, the toughest yet, had turned angry even before lawmakers studied the 500-page “poly-law” before them. Presenting the four-year programme to parliament’s economics committee, Yannis Stournaras, the finance minister, fended off attacks from Syriza, the leftist opposition party, pointing out that if it were voted down Greece would lose a desperately needed 31.5 billion euro( billion) slice of its bail-out funding, would default on its next debt repayment and would surely then make a disorderly exit from the euro.本次财政紧缩是目前规模最大的一次,甚至在立法机关亲自研究了这500页的“多方法案”之前,关于该政策的论辩已被激化。向国会经济委员会递呈这项四年计划的是希腊财长亚尼斯·斯图纳拉斯(Yannis Stournaras)。面对左翼反对党派“希腊极左翼联盟”(Syriza)的抨击,他回应称,若该计划未得到通过,那么,希腊将失去其急需的一笔315亿欧元(约400亿美元)救助金,进而无法在下一规定时间完成债务偿还,最终必然退出欧元区,引发经济混乱。Mr Stournaras had gradually given ground over four months of negotiations with the “troika” of the European Union, the European Central Bank and the IMF on the package to be implemented in 2013 and 2014. Greek proposals for cuts in government operating costs were rejected as unrealistic. So they were replaced by “permanent” spending reductions, code for slashing salaries and pensions.斯图纳拉斯财长与“三驾马车”(troika,即欧盟、欧洲央行和国际货币基金组织)就本次预计于2013年至2014年实行的紧缩计划进行过谈判。在这场长达4个多月的谈判中,斯图纳拉斯不断陷入被动。希腊政府曾提议削减政府运营资本,但“三驾马车”认为该计划不够现实而予以否决。因此,最终希腊政府接受了“永久性”减少政府开,这表示公务员的收入和年金将遭到大幅削减。Many elderly Greeks’ worst fears were realised when the law was unveiled. The biggest chunk of savings next year, about 4.6 billion euro, comes from reducing pensions, starting with a 5% cut for those on a modest 1,000 euro a month. “It feels as if the troika has selected the old for special punishment,” commented Constantina Athanassakis, a 70-year-old retired hairdresser.这一法案出炉的同时,众多希腊老人的噩梦成真了。政府明年预计达到的财政储蓄额度中,约46亿欧元的大头将通过降低养老金来获得。而首当其冲的则是对每月1000欧元的低额年金削减5%。“看来三驾马车选择让老人来接受这特殊的惩罚。”年高70的退休理发师Constantina Athanassakis表示。Salaries of better-paid public-sector workers such as central-bank employees, university teachers, judges and hospital doctors, will also be cut. Salaries at public-sector corporations are being reduced by 35% and capped at 5,000 euro a month, which means take-home pay of just 2,900 euro for bosses and fewer perks. Some cuts will be backdated. Next year’s budget assumes the economy will shrink by another 4.5%, but local economists predict that a collapse in spending by cash-strapped consumers could lead to an even bigger fall.而如央行职员、大学教师、法院法官和医院医生这些公共部门的高薪岗位,同样面临减薪。国有企业员工的降薪幅度达35%,月薪将不得高于5000欧元。换言之,领导们的税后月薪将仅为2900欧元,津贴也将大幅缩减。其中,部分减薪还将提前施行。据财政部估计,明年希腊经济规模将再次缩减4.5%。但希腊国内经济学家则预计,本已囊中羞涩的消费者,加上本次开削减,将使希腊经济面临进一步衰退。Antonis Samaras, the centre-right prime minister, promises this will be the “last and final” round of cuts. But Greece’s creditors are not so sure, given the poor record of all Greek governments on reform. The economy is not expected to start growing again before 2015. Few observers expect the government to keep to its new timetable of cutting 110,000 civil-service jobs by 2016. The privatisation programme has been disappointing. With Greece looking politically unstable and facing two more years of recession, it will be hard to attract foreign investors.对此,身处中间偏右派立场的萨马拉斯总理承诺本轮紧缩将是“最后最后一次”。但鉴于希腊政府在改革上鲜有佳绩,其债权国则并不表示乐观。据预计,希腊经济将至2015年才有望再次回升。希腊政府最新出台了2016年前削减11万公务员岗位的安排,但并不为观察家们所看好。另外,其私有化计划也收效甚微。像希腊这样政局动荡,外加后两年经济不振的国家,实非海外投资者的佳选。It does not help that Mr Samaras’s three-party coalition is increasingly fragile. His centre-right New Democracy party is expected to stay loyal at the next parliamentary test, approving the 2013 budget this weekend. Fotis Kouvelis, leader of the small Democratic Left, has also pledged to back the government. But his decision to abstain from the vote on November 7th has undermined his credibility with Mr Samaras. Mr Kouvelis could soon face a leadership challenge.即使财政紧缩计划得到了通过,也无力挽回萨马拉斯总理领导下三党联合政府(由希腊“新民主党”、“泛希腊社会主义运动”与“左翼民主党”于今年6月协商联合成立的政府,译者注)走向衰弱的事实。萨马拉斯总理所在的中右翼“新民主党”(New Democracy)将持下一轮国会的考验,即本周末通过2013年财政预算。联合政府中的小党“左翼民主党”(Democratic Left)党首佛提斯·科维利斯(Fotis Kouvelis)同样宣誓忠于政府决定。但11月7日法案投票当天,科维利斯宣布弃权。这一行为有损于他与萨马拉斯总理间的信任。因此,科维利斯此后不久可能乌纱不保。Many observers also believe that Evangelos Venizelos, leader of the PanHellenic Socialist Movement (Pasok), may be unseated. Mr Venizelos’s reluctance when serving as finance minister to investigate the so-called Lagarde list of 2,000 Greeks with bank accounts in Geneva has annoyed many in his party. Several former ministers think they could do a better job of rebuilding Pasok’s popularity, which is at an all-time low of around 6%, according to the polls. Yet if Pasok fragments, the government risks losing its majority—and the prospect of a Grexit will loom yet again.据众多观察家表示,同样面临失势的还有“泛希腊社会主义运动”(Pasok,简称“泛希社运”)领导人伊万格勒斯·维尼则罗斯(Evangelos Venizelos)。这位前财长在任期间曾拒绝调查所谓的“拉加德名单”,该名单中记录着2000名拥有日内瓦账户的希腊人信息(即2000名有逃税嫌疑的希腊人,译者注)。此行为引来其党内众多人士的不满。据民调显示,泛希社运的持率跌至历史最低的6%。对此,众多前任要员都认为,在重振该党持率上,自己一定比维尼则罗斯要干得出色。但若泛希社运一旦分裂,联合政府可能失去国会的多数席位。随之而来的,将是“希腊脱欧”危机的再一次降临。翻译:沈骜译文属译生译世 /201608/461574
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