呼和浩特永泰整形医院整形美容科在线安问答
时间:2018年10月21日 22:43:51

What makes the human brain so special? Actually, it mightnot be that special after all.所以说是什么让人类的大脑如此特别?实际上,这或许根本就不特别。In , Dr. Suzana Herculano Houzel and her colleagues showed that the human brain has thesame density of nerve cells as other primates. Comparing humans to smaller primates, she claimsthat our brain is no bigger than it should be for our body size. Still, given the distinctive way thatprimate brains scale with size, we may have the most brain cells of any mammal.在年,苏珊娜·埃尔库拉诺·乌泽尔士和她的同事们展示了人类大脑的神经细胞密度和其它的灵长类动物一样。与其它较小的灵长类动物相比,苏珊娜士称我们的大脑与我们自身体型相比并不算大。但考虑到灵长类动物大脑尺寸比例的独特方式,人类拥有所有哺乳动物中最多的脑细胞。That being said, gorillas can grow to be three times our size, but still have much smaller brains thanours.话虽如此,大猩猩能长到我们体型的三倍,但它们的大脑仍然比我们小得多。Brain cells need more energy than most body cells. Although the brain is less than 2 percent of themass of the human body, it consumes 20 percent of our resting metabolic energy. Gorillas haveto spend more than eight hours every day eating to get enough calories to support their bigbody, and they simply cant afford a bigger brain.脑细胞比其它身体细胞需要更多的能量。虽然大脑所占人体的比重小于2%,但它却消耗我们静止时代谢能的20%。为了给庞大的身躯提供足够的能量,大猩猩每天要花费超过8小时的时间进食,因此它们无法负担更大的大脑。So, then, how did human ancestors overcome this limitation? Beginning with homo erectus, abouttwo million years ago, our ancestors couldnt have afforded the metabolic cost of their increasinglylarge brains if they ate raw food like gorillas do.所以,人类的祖先又是如何突破限制的?从直立的人类开始,大约两百万年前,随着大脑越来越大,如果人类的祖先还像大猩猩那样进食生的食物,那么他们将无法给大脑提供足够的代谢值。Primatologist Richard Wrangham thinks that the invention of cooking with fire is what made thisgrowth in brain size possible. Cooked food is easier to digest and yields more calories. Cooking mayhave made the human brain possible, and freed us from having to spend all day eating.灵长类动物学家理查德·兰厄姆认为发明用火烹饪,使得大脑生长变大成为可能。烹煮的食物更容易消化并且能产生更多的热量。烹饪或许促进了人脑的形成,并将人类从整日进食的境况中解放出来。 /201503/363315

I have to say, I never thought they would name the new Detroit River bridge after hockey legend Gordie Howe.Weve been calling it the New International Trade Crossing so long it was at first hard to think of it as anything else.Originally, planners called it the DRIC, for Detroit River International Crossing, a dful name that sounded like post-nasal drip.If you had asked me a week ago if the bridge should be named after a sports figure, Im sure I would have said no. But naming it after a cultural icon does make sense.And theres no man who better symbolizes the best of the partnership between the U.S. and Canada than Gordie Howe, the greatest hockey player of his time, if not ever.Howe was born in Saskatchewan , but began playing for the Detroit Red Wings when he was 18, right after World War II. He played professional hockey for more years and in more decades than any other player in history.He had many qualities one hopes the new bridge will have: Longevity, endurance, resilience. He was an extremely graceful player who could fight with the best of them, and was never above taking an opponent out with a hard check into the boards.There were many times when it seemed as if Ambassador Bridge owner Matty Moroun was on the brink of killing the new bridge to preserve his monopoly over heavy trade.Howe, too, had his share of problems.Early in his career, in 1950, his skull was badly fractured during a playoff game with Toronto. They had to operate to relieve pressure on his brain, and he very nearly died. But he returned to lead the league in scoring the next year.After a quarter century with the Red Wings, he retired due to a wrist injury.Later, he had surgery, joined a newly formed team, and played alongside his son Mark, who became an NHL star in his own right. Recent years have been difficult for Gordie Howe.His beloved wife Colleen died six years ago after a long struggle with a disease that was something like dementia. Gordie, now 87, and a veteran of many injuries, has dementia himself.Seven months ago, he suffered a major stroke, and we were told to expect the worst. But he went to Mexico for experimental stem cell treatment, and it seems to have worked amazingly.Were told he has gained twenty pounds, can play ;driveway hockey; with his grandkids, and has at least some flashes of lucidity.Anne Jarvis of the Windsor Star reports that when his son Murray told him the new bridge would be named for him, Gordie Howe reportedly said ;that sounds pretty good to me.; Actually, it seems to sound pretty good to everyone.Well, maybe not to Matty Moroun, who is still fighting a last-ditch effort to stop the bridge. His job, however, just got harder. After all, you can take on an anonymous concept called ;DRIC; or even New International Trade Crossing.Fighting Gordie Howe, however, is something else again. It always was. Heres hoping he is with us long enough to be in the first car driven over the new bridge. Somehow, that would just seem right.Jack Lessenberry is Michigan Radios political analyst. Views expressed in his essays are his own and do not necessarily reflect those of Michigan Radio, its management or the station licensee, The University of Michigan.201505/375480

The world this week-Politics本周政治要闻Tributes were paid to Antonin Scalia, one of the justices on Americas Supreme Court, who unexpectedly died while holidaying in Texas.前美国最高法院大法官安东宁·斯卡利亚(Antonin Scalia)在德克萨斯度假时意外身亡。The political bickering over replacing him was less dignified.葬礼上,他受到很多人的追悼,但关于其继任者的政治争吵却没有那么体面。Barack Obama said he would nominate a successor to the conservative Mr Scalia.巴拉克·奥巴马表示将选出保守派斯卡利亚的继任者,该人选需要获得参议院的认可。That person would need to be confirmed by the Senate.共和党人却主张把此任命推迟至新总统上任即十一个月后再进行。Republicans argued for a delay until the next president takes office in 11 months time, undoubtedly in the hope that he will be one of their own.毫无疑问,共和党此举意在希望能有一名共和党人出任该职位。A federal judge in California ordered Apple to help unlock the iPhone used by one of the Islamists who attacked an office party in San Bernardino last December, killing 14 people.加利福尼亚的一名联邦法官要求苹果公司破解一名伊斯兰教徒的手机。该教徒于去年十二月袭击了圣贝纳迪诺(San Bernardino)的一个办公室聚会,致使14人丧生。The FBI wants Apple to disable the password feature.联邦调查局希望苹果能够破坏密码系统,但该公司并未从。But the company is not complying, arguing that building the software to unlock the phone “would undeniably create a backdoor” to its encryption protocols and give the government “power to reach into anyones device to capture their data”.苹果认为编译解锁手机的软件“将无疑给加密协议开了后门”,同时还将给政府“进入个人设备获取数据的权力”。Trucks carrying aid entered several besieged towns in Syria, including the rebel-held town of Muadhamiya, near the Syrian capital, Damascus.载有救援物资的车辆驶入数个被围困的叙利亚小镇,其中包括叙利亚首都大马士革(Damascus)附近被反对派控制的穆阿达米亚(Muadhamiya)镇。This came ahead of a planned “cessation of hostilities” in Syrias war, thrashed out by America and Russia in Munich.此次救援发生在叙利亚内战的“休战”之前,这场有计划的休战由美国和俄罗斯在慕尼黑举行的会议上经研究后共同提出。No one expects the ceasefire to take hold.无人料到此次停火的出现。Members of opposition parties in the Democratic Republic of Congo went on strike to protest against efforts by Joseph Kabila, the president, to run for a third term in office.刚果民主共和国(Democratic Republic of Congo )的反对党通过罢工来抗议总统约瑟夫·卡比拉(Joseph Kabila)竞选第三任期。Britain was on the brink of agreeing on new terms for its membership of the EU at a summit on February 18th and 19th, clearing the way for a referendum in June.在二月十八日和十九日举行的峰会上,英国即将同意有关其在欧盟的成员地位的新条款,这为将在六月份举行的全民公投扫清了道路。David Cameron, the prime minister, was confident of securing a deal in Brussels, but Eurosceptics back home were poised to criticise whatever emerged from the talks.英国首相戴维·卡梅伦对于在布鲁塞尔达成协议十分自信,但国内的疑欧派却随时准备对会谈中发生的任何事情都进行批评。The European summit would also tackle the refugee crisis.欧盟峰会还将对难民危机进行处理。Austria set a daily cap of 3,200 migrants whom it will allow to cross its borders.奥地利把过境的难民人数上限设定在每天3200人,It also tightened border controls with countries in the Balkans that migrants cross to reach Austria.同时还加紧了对与巴尔干国家接壤的边境的控制。Many then travel on to Germany and Sweden.难民通过巴尔干国家进入奥地利后,很多人继续去往德国和瑞典。Turkeys prime minister, Ahmet Davutoglu, cancelled a visit to Brussels after a bomb in Ankara, the Turkish capital, killed at least 28 people.土耳其首都安卡拉(Ankara)发生爆炸,造成至少28人死亡,总理艾哈迈德·达武特奥卢(Ahmet Davutoglu)取消对布鲁塞尔的访问。The device was detonated close to the defence ministry as an army bus was passing by.一辆军车驶过时,爆炸装置在国防部附近被引爆。Turkey blamed Kurdish rebels.土耳其对库尔德武装分子提出谴责。Russia filed a lawsuit in a court in London to try to get Ukraine to repay a billion bond.俄罗斯在伦敦的一个法院对乌克兰提起诉讼,要求偿还价值30亿美元的债券。Ukraine says that Russia has refused to take part in negotiations over restructuring the debt.乌克兰表示俄罗斯此前拒绝了参与重组债务的和谈。Meanwhile Ukraines prime minister, Arseniy Yatsenyuk, survived a vote of no confidence in parliament after the countrys president, Petro Poroshenko, called on him to step down, ostensibly over the slow pace of reforms.与此同时,乌克兰总理阿尔塞·雅琴尼克(Arseniy Yatsenyuk)在一场议会不信任投票中险险保住职位,此前该国总统佩特罗·波罗申科(Petro Poroshenko)表面上以改革进程缓慢为由要求他辞职。The economy minister recently resigned and blamed Mr Poroshenko for hindering reform.最近,经济部长辞职并谴责波罗申科阻碍了改革的进行。 译文属译生译世201602/428463

Leading Nazis had gathered here to celebrate the 15th anniversary of the Munich Beer Hall Putsch a sacred date for the Nazi party.纳粹头目聚集这里庆祝,慕尼黑啤酒馆暴动的15周年纪念,对于纳粹党而言是个神圣日子。On the evening of 9th November, they learnt that a German diplomat in Paris had been shot by a German-Polish Jew.11月9日晚,他们有消息称一位德国驻巴黎外交官被德裔波兰犹太人杀。Joseph Goebbels, the propaganda minister, a vicious anti-Semite himself, suggested to Hitler that Nazi Stormtroopers be let loose against the Jews of Germany.时任德国宣传部长的约瑟夫?歌堡本身就是邪恶反犹分子,他建议希特勒派纳粹冲锋队对付德国犹太人。This was how Hitlers charismatic leadership could work-he had a vision, he hated the Jews and wanted to get rid of them, but others suggested the ways in which this could be implemented.这是希特勒领导能力得以实践的方法,他憎恨犹太人,想铲除他们,但由其他人提出从而达到了目的。Hitler agreed with Goebbels idea and so, Nazi Stormtroopers ran wild on the night of 9th November, attacking Jews and their property.希特勒和歌堡一拍即合,于是纳粹冲锋队在11月9日晚疯狂袭击犹太人及其住所。Around 25,000 Jews were imprisoned in concentration camps and more than 100 were murdered.约有两万五名犹太人被送进集中营,百多名犹太人遇害。Shortly afterwards, the SS newspaper warned of terrible consequences if a Jew assassinated another leading German.不久,党卫军报刊登,称若再有犹太人刺杀德国高官后果将不堪设想。;There will be no more Jews in Germany.德国将不再有犹太人。;We hope we make ourselves clear!;我们希望你们能听明白这句话!They also threatened...他们还威胁...;Because no power on Earth can stop us, we will bring the Jewish question to its total solution.世上没任何势力能阻止我们,犹太人的问题将得到根治。;The programme is clear-total expulsion, complete separation.;我们的计划很明确-全部驱逐隔离。 译文属201604/438713

Did you ever wonder what occurs inside your body when something funny happens? 你有没有想过当有趣的事情发生时你身体里面会发生什么?What is this thing we have in our brains that makes us say “ha-ha” when someone slips on a banana?当有人踩到香蕉皮滑倒时我们大脑中是什么让我们发出“哈哈”的大笑声呢?One way to find out is to watch the brain laugh. 寻找的其中一个方法就是观察大脑对于笑的反应。Thats pretty much what Dartmouth neuroscientist William Kelley did. 达特茅斯大学神经学家威廉·凯利所进行的就是这样的研究。He and his team had a number of volunteers watch an episode of Seinfeld while being monitored by an MRI-thats a machine that allows researchers to see which parts of the brain are active at any given time. 他和他的团队让志愿者们收看一集搞笑电视剧《宋飞正传》,而研究人员通过监控机器观察大脑的哪个部分在任何给定的时间是呈现活跃状态。They then synchronized the MRI data with the laugh track to see how the brain changes when its registering something funny. 然后研究人员们将笑的数据同机器进行同步,进而跟踪观察有趣的事情发生时大脑的变化。Theres no one “funny center” in the brain–but the findings were pretty suggestive.大脑中并非存在这样一个“有趣中心”,但这项研究结果却具有启发意义。201502/357499


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