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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年12月11日 11:07:03
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HONG KONG — Uber is spending money at a breakneck rate to crack the China market — even paying its drivers more than the fares they collect.香港——优步(Uber)正在以极快的速度投入资金,进军中国市场——甚至在提供比司机赚取的车费还要高的补贴。Fat with almost billion in venture capital, Uber, based in San Francisco, is doling out bonuses up to three times the amount of its fares, in a bet that its exceptional rise in the ed States can be matched in China.总部位于旧金山的优步坐拥将近60亿美元(约合370亿元人民币)的风险资本。它给中国司机发放的补贴至多达到乘客车费的三倍,希望借此在中国市场上复制它在美国的惊人崛起。So far, its strategy is working, shattering prevailing assumptions that young American tech companies cannot compete against local rivals.到目前为止,优步的策略发挥了作用,推翻了盛行的一种说法,即新兴的美国科技企业无法与中国当地的对手展开竞争。The spending spree has attracted droves of drivers like Jacky, a systems analyst at an international telecommunications company, who recently began moonlighting for Uber with his Ford Fiesta in Shanghai. In late May, Uber said it had created more than 60,000 jobs in China over the past month, with the sp of its service spurring protests from some taxi drivers.发放优厚补贴的热潮吸引了大批司机,比如在一家国际电信公司担任系统分析员的杰基(Jacky)。他最近开始成为优步的兼职司机,在上海开着自己的福特嘉年华(Ford Fiesta)赚外快。优步在5月底宣称,公司过去一个月在中国创造了六万多个就业机会。优步务的盛行还导致一些出租车司机发起抗议。“This is a really great opportunity for me to make some extra money,” said Jacky, 34, who declined to give his full name because he was releasing internal information about Uber.“这是我赚外快的大好机会,”34岁的杰基说。他拒绝提供全名,因为他透露的是有关优步的内部讯息。Though other ride-hailing services also offer driver bonuses, Jacky said Uber pays the most. In the first three weeks of May, he said, he made the equivalent of about ,000 from Uber — or almost half of his ,100 monthly salary at the telecommunications company — with the majority of his earnings as a driver coming from the subsidies.虽然其他打车软件也为司机提供补贴,但杰基表示,优步给得最多。他透露,在5月的前三周里,他通过优步获得了大约1000美元的收入——几乎是他在电信公司的2100美元月薪的一半。作为司机,他的大部分收入来自优步提供的补贴。While China represents huge scale as a market, it has fended off the entry of just about every major Western technology start-up. Uber, a five-year-old company that operates in more than 310 cities and 58 countries worldwide, faces homegrown Chinese rivals like Didi Kuaidi, which has more than 90 percent of the market and is backed by two of the largest Chinese Internet companies, Alibaba and Tencent. It may also have to grapple with a fickle central government that could shut it out of the market overnight.虽然中国市场规模庞大,但它阻止了几乎所有主要的西方科技初创企业进入市场。优步这家成立五年已在58个国家逾310座城市运营的公司在中国面对的是滴滴快的等本土竞争对手。滴滴快的占据的市场份额超过了90%,背后是中国的两大互联网巨头阿里巴巴和腾讯。优步可能还需要应对变化无常的中央政府,防止被其突然赶出中国市场。Yet more affluent and cosmopolitan Chinese have flocked to Uber’s service, attracted by fares that are on average at least 35 percent cheaper than taxis, with the cars generally more luxurious than cabs and drivers who offer free water and are typically more polite.不过,越来越多富裕而国际化的中国人纷纷开始使用优步的务。他们被优步的质优价廉吸引。优步的乘车费用平均比出租车的车费低至少35%,而提供务的汽车又通常比出租车高档,司机会提供免费的水,一般也更有礼貌。Uber is providing more than 100,000 rides a day in China, according to two people with knowledge of the company’s internal metrics, who declined to be identified because the numbers are confidential. That is about 10 percent of the total one million rides a day that Uber said it was getting companywide in December.了解公司内部数据的两人表示,优步每天会在中国提供逾10万次接送务。由于相关数据属于商业机密,这两人要求不具名。优步称,去年12月,全公司的接送务总量为每天100万次。前述数据相当于这个总量的10%左右。In the central Chinese city of Chengdu alone, Uber has attracted 20,000 drivers since 2014, compared with 26,000 in New York City who have come aboard since 2011. Travis Kalanick, Uber’s chief executive, is teaming up with the Chinese Internet giant Baidu and making multiple visits to the country, including one last month to the provincial capital of Guiyang in the southwest.从2014年开始,优步仅在中国中部城市成都就吸引了2万名司机,而在纽约市,从2011年开始提供务算起,累积的数字为2.6万。公司首席执行官特拉维斯·卡兰尼克(Travis Kalanick)正在与中国网络行业的巨头百度开展合作。他多次访华,上个月还曾到访位于中国西南部的省会城市贵阳。“Uber is doing quite well in the first-tier cities, and it’s a bit of a surprise,” said You Na, an analyst at IC International based in Hong Kong. “The subsidies make a big difference.”“优步在一线城市的表现非常好,有点意外,”工银国际驻香港的分析师尤娜说。“补贴产生了很大的影响。”An Uber spokeswoman declined to comment on the scale of the company’s business in China. Uber is in talks with investors to raise another .5 billion or so in a financing that would value it at billion.优步的一名女发言人拒绝就公司在中国的业务规模置评。目前,优步正在与投资者进行协商,意图通过新一轮的融资再筹集大概15亿美元。届时公司估值将达500亿美元。Uber still faces many hurdles in China, where the market is highly competitive, regulated and, at times, eccentric. Chinese tend to favor Chinese-branded services, said Mark Natkin, founder of the research firm Marbridge Consulting in Beijing, though sometimes using a globally leading brand — like Uber — has cachet.优步在中国仍然面临着重重阻碍。中国市场的竞争十分激烈,监管严格,有时还颇为反常。调研企业北京迈瑞咨询有限公司(Marbridge Consulting)的创始人马克·纳特金(Mark Natkin)认为,中国人倾向于持本土品牌的务,尽管有时使用全球著名品牌——比如优步——会让人感觉良好。Uber has attracted Chinese customers like Li Yufang, 28, a Beijing resident and an employee at a property developer, who switched to Uber in January from other ride-hailing services.优步吸引了许多中国顾客,28岁的李云芳(音)就是其中之一。在北京生活的李云芳是一家房地产开发公司的员工,于今年1月弃用其他打车务,开始使用优步。“The reason I love Uber is because the price is really low compared with taxis or private limos,” Ms. Li said.“我喜欢优步,因为跟出租车和私人豪华轿车相比,它的价格很低,”李云芳说。On Chinese social media, jokes that Uber provides a convenient, self-selecting pool of potential husbands for single women have even made the rounds.在中国的社交媒体上,有人开玩笑,优步为单身女性提供了一个有筛选性的便利择偶途径。这种说法甚至已传播开来。Uber began tests in China in late 2013 in the southern cities of Guangzhou and Shenzhen, focusing on a service that would let people hail rides from licensed limousine companies. Instead of following other Western tech firms, which at times have relied on foreign managers with little knowledge of China, Uber hired and empowered local people to act as managers to run city operations as they saw fit. It now operates in nine Chinese cities.优步从2013年年底在中国南方的广州和深圳开始试运行,只提供让用户从有执照的豪车公司叫车的务。西方科技企业时常会依赖对中国毫无了解的外国经理人,但优步没有遵循这一路线,它聘请本地人才从事管理岗位,让他们放手用自己觉得最佳的方式去运作。现在优步在中国的九座城市运营。The company also took a more cautious, cooperative approach in China, unlike in other countries, where it has brazenly flouted authorities. In December, Uber sold a stake in itself to Baidu and began working to offer its service directly on Baidu’s popular maps application. Uber recently earned praise from the head of a major Chinese Internet industry group for behaving more like a Chinese company than like an eBay or an Amazon.在别的国家一向敢于公然挑衅权威的优步,在中国采取了一种更谨慎、更合作的态度。去年12月,优步向百度售出了一部分股份,并开始在百度很受欢迎的地图应用中直接提供优步务。中国一家主要互联网行业团体的负责人最近称赞优步更像是一家中国公司,而不是像eBay和亚马逊(Amazon)那样。In October, however, Uber expanded a new service that put it on questionable regulatory footing in the country. The service, playfully called People’s Uber after the Marxist language favored by the Communist Party, resembles what Uber does elsewhere by letting private drivers register and shuttle passengers for pay. The service runs counter to what is offered by companies like Didi Kuaidi, which either enable customers to hail taxis directly or use contracts with private limo companies to offer high-end cars at luxury prices.然而在10月,优步拓展了一项新务,让它在中国处在了暧昧的监管处境。这项务借用了共产党青睐的马克思主义式的语言,戏谑地称作“人民优步”(People’s Uber),它类似于优步在其他国家的做法,即让私家车注册并收费搭载乘客。这项务与滴滴快的等公司提供的务构成了竞争,后者要么直接允许乘客叫出租车,要么通过与私人豪车公司签约,以高昂价格提供高端车辆。It also drew scrutiny from local governments since the drivers are unlicensed. In the last two months, local authorities in Chengdu and Guangzhou have raided Uber offices in response to the questionable legality of People’s Uber.由于司机都没有执照,所以这项务受到了地方政府的严厉限制。成都和广州的地方政府,因为人民优步的合法性存疑而突击检查了优步的办公室。Local traffic authorities in Guangzhou and Chengdu did not respond to requests for comment. At the time of the raids, Uber said it was cooperating with officials. People’s Uber is still operating in both cities.广州和成都的地方交通部门没有回应置评请求。在突击检查之时,优步表示配合官方行动。人民优步在这两个城市仍在经营。The raids have spurred driver protests. In Chengdu last month, hundreds of Uber drivers lashed out at the local traffic police after one driver’s car was impounded.突击检查招致了司机的抗议。上个月在成都,一名司机的汽车被扣押后,数百名优步司机对当地交警进行了围攻。People’s Uber has also prompted a battle with Didi Kuaidi, which last month started its own service for private drivers, called Kuaiche. A few weeks later, Didi Kuaidi announced an initiative to spend 1 billion renminbi (0 million) subsidizing the program in the form of discounts to passengers and driver incentives.人民优步也对滴滴快的发起了战斗,后者上个月推出了自己的私家车叫车务——快车。几周之后,滴滴快的宣布,将启动十亿元人民币的补贴项目,向乘客提供折扣,向司机发放奖金。“We welcome all good competition,” said Jean Liu, Didi Kuaidi’s president, at a May 22 media briefing. “This is our home market; we love this market so much, we want to make sure it grows in a healthy, sustainable, safe way.”“我们欢迎所有良性的竞争,”滴滴快的总裁柳青(Jean Liu)在5月22日的新闻发布会上说。“这是我们的主场,我们很爱这块市场,我们希望确保它以一种健康、安全、可持续的方式增长。”The inducements from both sides are stirring resentment from taxi drivers, similar to what Uber has faced in other countries. In recent weeks, cabdrivers in Tianjin have lashed out at private car drivers.双方的补贴都招致了出租车司机的怨恨,这与优步在其他国家面临的处境相似。最近几周,天津的出租车司机袭击了专车司机。One woman, whose husband and father-in-law share a taxi in Tianjin, confirmed the protests but declined to be named. She said the popularity of services like Uber has cut what taxi drivers can make during the day by about a third.天津一名不愿具名的女性的丈夫和公公合开一辆出租车,她实了抗议事件的发生。她表示,优步这样的务开始流行,使得出租车司机每日的收入下降了三分之一。Another problem for Uber may be its own drivers. On Taobao, Alibaba’s e-commerce site, vendors run a thriving black market for driver accounts, allowing purchasers to circumvent Uber’s background checks. Jacky also confirmed reports in local news media that many drivers log fraudulent Uber rides using fake passenger accounts to get some of the bonuses the company is offering.优步面临的另一个问题是自己的司机。在阿里巴巴旗下的电子商务网站淘宝上,卖家推动了一个销售司机账号的活跃黑市,买主可以藉此绕开优步的背景核查。杰基也实了当地媒体的一些报道,即许多司机使用虚假的乘客账号,骗取该公司提供的一些奖金。Uber isn’t deterred.优步并没有退缩。“We’re particularly optimistic in China,” Mr. Kalanick said in a speech in China last month. “I’ve just seen cities everywhere and have found that mayors and city governments are far more focused on progress in their cities here in China than I’ve seen elsewhere, and it makes me incredibly optimistic.”“我们对中国尤其乐观,”卡拉尼克上个月在中国的一次演讲中说。“我在很多地方见到过很多城市,我发现在中国,市长和市政府与我在其他国家见到的相比,都远更关注于自己城市的进步,这让我异常乐观。” /201506/380098

In 1997, scientists found the first scrap of Neanderthal DNA in a fossil. Since then, they have recovered genetic material, even entire genomes, from a number of Neanderthal bones, and their investigations have yielded a remarkable surprise: Today, 1 to 2 percent of the DNA in non-African people comes from Neanderthals.1997年,科学家在化石中第一次发现了尼安德特人DNA的碎片。此后,他们从陆续出土的多块尼安德特人的骨头中提取了基因物质,乃至完整的基因组。他们的研究收获了一个惊人的发现:今天,在除了非洲人之外的人类身上,有1%到2%的DNA来自尼安德特人。That genetic legacy is the result of interbreeding roughly 50,000 years ago between Neanderthals and the common ancestors of Europeans and Asians. Recent studies suggest that Neanderthal genes even influence human health today, contributing to conditions from allergies to depression.这份基因遗产,是大约5万年前尼安德特人和欧亚人的共同祖先混种繁殖的结果。近期的研究表明,尼安德特人的基因甚至影响到当今人类的健康,与包括过敏和抑郁在内的多个病状有关。Now scientists have found that the genes flowed both ways. In a study published on Wednesday in Nature, a team of scientists reports that another instance of interbreeding left Neanderthals in Siberia with chunks of human DNA.如今,科学家发现基因的流动是双向的。在《自然》杂志(Nature)周三发布的一篇研究论文中,一组科学家提交的案例表明,混种繁殖使得西伯利亚的尼安德特人带有部分人类DNA。This exchange, the scientists conclude, took place about 100,000 years ago. That’s a puzzling date, because a great deal of evidence indicates that the ancestors of today’s non-Africans did not expand out of Africa until 50,000 to 60,000 years ago.这群科学家得出结论,这种交融发生在约10万年前。这一日期令人困惑,因为大量据显示,直到5万到6万年前,如今不在非洲的人类的祖先才走出了非洲大陆。It’s possible, then, that these Neanderthals acquired DNA from a mysterious early migration of humans.那么,这些尼安德特人有可能是从一群早期的神秘人类迁徙群体身上获得了DNA。“I think at this point we’ve convinced everybody the observation is real,” said Adam Siepel, a geneticist at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and a co-author of the new study. “But the story behind the observation is still very much in dispute.”“我认为,现在我们已经让所有人信,我们的观测结果是真实的,”来自美国冷泉港实验室(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)的遗传学家亚当·西佩尔(Adam Siepel)表示。他是这项新研究的共同作者。“但观测结果背后的解释,依然争议重重。”Humans and Neanderthals split from a common ancestor in Africa about 600,000 years ago. At some point afterward, the ancestors of Neanderthals sp to Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia.在大约60万年前,拥有非洲共同祖先的人类和尼安德特人分道扬镳。此后的某个时刻,尼安德特人的祖先扩散到欧洲、中东和中亚地区。Along the way, Neanderthals took on a distinctive anatomy — a stocky, powerful build — and became impressive hunters of big game. The last Neanderthals appear to have died about 40,000 years ago.迁徙途中,尼安德特人演化出矮壮而有力的独特体型,并成为狩猎大型动物的佼佼者。最后一代尼安德特人似乎在大约4万年前灭亡。In 2010, scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, recovered about 60 percent of a Neanderthal genome from fossils found in a Croatian cave. Neanderthals shared certain mutations with living Europeans and Asians, the scientists found — but not with modern Africans. They concluded that humans must have interbred with Neanderthals after leaving Africa.2010年,德国莱比锡马克斯·普朗克演化人类学研究所(Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology)提取了尼安德特人的一个大约60%的基因组,所用样本来自克罗地亚一处洞穴中发掘出的化石。科学家发现,尼安德特人和如今的欧亚人共享一定的基因突变,但与现代非洲人并无共通之处。科学家得出结论,人类一定是在离开非洲大陆后和尼安德特人进行了混种繁殖。Three years later, the Max Planck team reconstructed the complete genome of a male Neanderthal from a toe bone dating back at least 50,000 years, which had been discovered in the Altai Mountains of Siberia. Comparing the Altai genome to modern human DNA confirmed the interbreeding.三年后,马克斯·普朗克的研究团队重构了一名男性尼安德特人的完整基因组。这些基因来自西伯利亚阿尔泰山脉发掘的一块距今至少5万年的趾骨。通过比较阿尔泰山脉尼安德特人的基因组和现代人类的DNA,确认了混种繁殖的存在。Recently, the researchers harvested more DNA from European Neanderthal fossils, putting together very detailed reconstructions of a single chromosome, Chromosome 21.近期,研究者从欧洲尼安德特人化石上收获了更多DNA信息,重构出非常详尽的单条染色体——第21号染色体。Sergi Castellano, a geneticist at Max Planck Institute, set out to compare this European Neanderthal DNA to the genes from Siberia. He was curious about how isolated the populations of Neanderthals were from one another, and how they were related to humans alive today.马克斯·普朗克研究所的遗传学家塞尔吉·卡斯特利亚诺(Sergi Castellano)着手比较了欧洲尼安德特人的DNA和西伯利亚尼安德特人的基因。让他感兴趣的是,尼安德特人群体相互隔离的程度,以及他们与当今人类的关联。He was joined by Dr. Siepel, who has developed powerful statistical models in recent years to trace how DNA changes over time. He and his colleagues are able to compare genomes and infer their common history: how their ancestors split apart, for example, and how large the populations of their ancestors were.他邀请了西佩尔士加入。在过去数年里,西佩尔构建出强大的统计学模型来追踪DNA如何随时间而演化。于是,他和同事能够比较这些基因组,推断他们共同的历史:比如,他们的祖先是如何分化的,祖先的人口规模又有多大。Dr. Siepel, Dr. Castellano and their colleagues used these models to analyze the Neanderthal DNA and that of humans. Their analysis confirmed previous studies: Some Neanderthal DNA did indeed end up in modern Europeans and Asians.西佩尔、卡斯特利亚诺及同事利用这些模型分析了尼安德特人和人类的DNA。他们的分析结果实了之前的研究:尼安德特人的DNA片段的确出现在了现代欧亚人的身上。But they also found another example of so-called gene flow, and an unexpected one at that: The Altai Neanderthals in particular shared some mutations with living Africans, but not with Europeans and Asians.不过,他们还发现了“基因流动”的又一个例子,而且是个出人意料的例子:具体来说,是阿尔泰山脉的尼安德特人与今天的非洲人有一些同样的突变,而不是欧亚人。That pattern suggests that an African lineage of humans interbred with the ancestors of the Altai Neanderthal after they split from other Neanderthals.这意味着,有一非洲人类,在阿尔泰山脉尼安德特人的祖先与其他尼安德特人分开之后,与其进行过混种繁殖。Dr. Castellano and Dr. Siepel thought at first there was something wrong with their analysis, so they went back to fix it. But when they looked for the problem, they could not find it.卡斯特利亚诺和西佩尔起初以为是自己的分析出了错,于是回头去修正。但他们却没有找到问题。“We poked and prodded and poked and prodded, and couldn’t get it to go away,” said Dr. Siepel.“我们这里看看,那里瞧瞧,就是没有办法让它消失,”西佩尔说。Once the scientists accepted that the interbreeding was real, they estimated when it happened. When DNA gets passed down through the generations, it gets shuffled into new arrangements that can be used to build a sort of timeline.一旦科学家们接受了混种繁殖的情况真实存在,他们就开始估算它发生的时间。DNA在代际遗传的时候,会进行重组,而这就可以用来建立某种时间表。Based on this gene shuffling, the scientists estimated that humans and the ancestors of the Altai Neanderthals interbred about 100,000 years ago — long before people were thought to have left Africa. “This observation throws a wrench in the works,” said Dr. Siepel.基于这种基因重组,科学家们估算出,人类与阿尔泰山脉尼安德特人的祖先在大约10万年前进行过混种繁殖——远在普遍认为的人类离开非洲的时间之前。“这一观测结果给我们的工作造成了很大的麻烦,”西佩尔说。Bence Viola, a paleontologist at the University of Toronto and a co-author of the new study, said he was skeptical when he first learned of the genetic data. “It’s really weird, that’s my main impression,” he said.同为这项新研究作者的多伦多大学(University of Toronto)古生物学家本斯·维奥拉(Bence Viola)表示,刚听到这些基因数据的消息时,他本人满腹狐疑。“实在是奇怪,这就是我的主要印象,”他说。Eventually, however, Dr. Castellano persuaded him the data were strong, and Dr. Viola looked over the fossil record for possible explanations for the interbreeding.不过,卡斯特利亚诺最终说他相信数据是可靠的。于是维奥拉士查看了或许可以解释这一混种繁殖的化石记录。In the 1930s, for example, scientists discovered 120,000-year-old fossils in Israel that looked a lot like living humans. Many scientists viewed them as a failed human migration from Africa, with no genetic connection to humanity today.比方说,上世纪30年代,科学家们在以色列发现了一批12万年前的化石,与现代人类有诸多相似之处。许多科学家认为,它们代表了人类走出非洲的一次失败尝试,与今天的人类没有基因联系。In October, Chinese researchers discovered another intriguing clue in a cave: 47 teeth that they estimate are between 80,000 and 120,000 years old. The scientists argue that the teeth belonged to modern humans.去年10月,中国研究者在一处洞穴发现了另一个有意思的线索:47颗牙齿。这些科学家估算牙齿有8到12万年历史,并提出它们属于现代人类。Dr. Viola is not completely convinced by the Chinese study. Instead, he thinks the scenario that best fits the evidence is that humans expanding into the Middle East encountered and interbred with Neanderthals there. The Neanderthals then migrated east to Siberia, taking human DNA with them.中国科学家的研究并未完全说维奥拉。他认为,能与据吻合得最好的情景是,扩散到中东地区的人类与当地的尼安德特人进行了混种繁殖。然后尼安德特人东迁到西伯利亚地区,身上带着人类的DNA。“It seems pretty solid,” said Jonathan K. Pritchard, a geneticist at Stanford University who was not involved in the study. “Overall, the story they’re telling is pretty coherent.”“看起来很有说力,”没有参与这项研究的斯坦福大学(Stanford University)遗传学家乔纳森·K·普里查德(Jonathan K. Pritchard)这样评价道。“总体而言,他们提出的这套说辞比较条理分明。”Dr. Pritchard said that more examinations of ancient DNA would help resolve the many questions raised by the new study and help scientists understand the scope of the intimate back-and-forth between Neanderthals and humans.普里查德士表示,对古DNA的更多研究将有助于解答这项新研究提出的许多问题,并帮助科学家理解尼安德特人与人类之间亲密的相互来往的范围。“There’s going to be a lot more data really soon,” he said. “I would expect in the next few years we’ll have much, much more of the jigsaw puzzle, and it will be possible to piece this all together.”“很快就会出现许许多多的新数据,”他说。“我认为,在接下来的几年里,会有多得多的碎片冒出来,也就有可能把它们都拼接起来。” /201602/427234

Imagine being talked about behind your back. Now picture that conversation taking place covertly in your own sitting room, with you unable to hear it.想象一下有人在你背后谈论你。现在设想一下,这样的谈话就悄悄发生在你家客厅里,而你却无法听到。That is the modus operandi of SilverPush, an Indian start-up that embeds inaudible sounds in television advertisements. As the advert plays, a high-frequency signal is emitted that can be picked up by a mobile or other device installed with an app containing SilverPush software. This “pairing” — currently targeted at Indian consumers — also identifies users’ other nearby devices and allows the company to monitor what they do across those. All without consumers hearing a thing.这就是印度创业企业SilverPush的做法,该公司在电视广告里嵌入听不到的声音。广告播放时,会发出一种高频信号,安装有内置SilverPush软件的应用的手机或其他设备可接收到这种信号。这种“配对”——目前是针对印度消费者的——也会识别出用户附近的其他设备,让该公司得以监控他们在这些设备上做些什么。这一切都在消费者无知无觉的情况下发生。This “cross-device tracking technology”, being explored by other companies including Adobe, is an emblem of a new era with which all of us — governments, companies, charities and consumers — will have to contend.这种“跨设备跟踪技术”——包括Adobe在内的其他公司也在探索此技术——标志着一个新时代的来临。这个新时代是所有人——政府、公司、慈善机构和消费者——将不得不应对的。Last month, the Royal Statistical Society hosted a conference at Windsor castle to ponder the challenges of Big Data — an overused, underexplained term for both the flood of information churned out by our devices and the potential for this flood to be organised into revelatory and predictive rivers of knowledge.不久前,英国皇家统计学会(Royal Statistical Society)在温莎(Windsor)城堡召开了一次大会,思考大数据带来的挑战。大数据是一个被滥用、内涵解释欠清楚的术语,既指我们的设备产生的海量信息流,也指把这些信息整理为分门别类的一股股具有揭示性和预见性的信息流的潜力。The setting was apt: the ethics and governance surrounding the growing use of data are a right royal mess. Public discussion about how these vast quantities of information should be collected, stored, cross-referenced and exploited is urgently needed. There is excitement about how it might revolutionise healthcare — during outbreaks of disease, for example, search data can be mined for the greater good. Today, however, public engagement largely amounts to public outcry when things go wrong.这次大会召开得正是时候:围绕日益增加的数据使用的伦理和治理可谓一团糟。目前迫切需要就这些海量数据应当如何收集、存储、相互参照和利用展开公众讨论。有人对大数据可能催生医疗革命感到兴奋:比如说,在疾病爆发时,可以为了更高的利益挖掘搜索数据。然而,如今,当出现糟糕情况时,公众讨论很大程度上变成公众的强烈声讨。The extent to which tech shapes our lives — the average British adult spends more than 20 hours a week online, according to a report by UK media regulator Ofcom — means our behaviour, habits, desires and aspirations can be revealed by our swipes and keystrokes.英国媒体监管机构英国通信办公室(Ofcom)的一份报告显示,英国成年人平均每周在线时间超过20小时。科技对我们生活的巨大影响,意味着我们的行为、习惯、欲望和抱负都可以通过触摸屏和键盘操作显露出来。This has made analysis of online be a new Klondike. Personal data are like gold dust, and we surrender them every time we casually click “OK” to a website’s terms and conditions.这使得对在线行为的分析成为一座新的金矿。个人数据就像金砂,每次我们随意对一家网站的条款与条件点击“确定”时,就把我们的个人数据交了出去。And here is our first problem: most of us click unthinkingly (it is usually impenetrable legalese, anyhow). It is thus questionable whether we have given informed consent to all the ways in which our personal data are subsequently used. To demonstrate this, a security company set up a public WiFi spot in the City of London and inserted a “Herod clause” committing users to hand over their firstborn for eternity. Within a short period of time, several people unwittingly bartered away their offspring in return for a free connection.这是我们面临的第一个问题:我们中大多数人都是不假思索地点击的(不过,条款与条件通常是难懂的法律措辞)。那么,我们对自己的个人数据随后被使用的各种情形是否行使了知情同意权,就成了疑问。为了明这一点,一家安全公司在伦敦金融城(City of London)设立了一个公共WiFi热点,并嵌入一个“希律条款”(Herod Clause),要求用户承诺永远放弃他们的第一个孩子。在很短时间内,就有不少人为了免费上会儿网稀里糊涂地放弃了自己的孩子。Legal challenges aside, there is rarely independent scrutiny of what is a fair and reasonable relationship between an online company and its consumers. Facebookfell foul of this when it manipulated the news feeds of nearly 700,000 users for a psychology experiment. Users claimed they had been duped by the study, which found that those exposed to fewer positive news stories were more likely to write negative posts. The company retorted that consent had aly been given. Approval last week of EU data protection rules permitting hefty fines for privacy breaches may prevent a repetition; consent will no longer be the elastic commodity it was.除了法律挑战,关于网络公司及其消费者之间公平与恰当的关系应该是怎样的,我们也很少进行过独立的审视。Facebook在这一点上便曾引起众怒,因为它为了做一个心理实验,对近70万用户的动态消息动了手脚。用户们声称,他们被那项研究给耍了,研究结果显示,那些接收到更少积极消息的人更可能写出消极的内容。Facebook反驳称,他们已获得了用户的同意。不久前,欧盟通过了数据保护规则,新规允许对侵犯隐私的行为处以高额罚款,这或许能阻止类似情况再次发生;用户不再像以往那样无论代价如何都只能被动同意了。A second challenge arises from the so-called internet of things, when devices bypass humans and talk directly to one another. So my depleted smart fridge could automatically email the supermarket requesting replenishment. But it could also mean my gossiping gadgets become a network of electronic spies that can paint a richly detailed picture of my prandial and other proclivities, raising privacy concerns. Indeed, at a robotics conference last month, technologists identified the ability of robots to collect data, especially in private homes, as the single biggest ethical issue in that field.第二个挑战源自各种设备绕过人类、直接彼此对话的所谓物联网。所以,我的智能冰箱在储存消耗光了的时候可以自动给超市发电邮,要求补货。但这也可以意味着,我的那些“八卦”的设备构成了一张电子间谍网,它可以绘制出一幅有关我的饮食与其他癖性的极其详尽的图画,令人担心隐私暴露。实际上,在不久前的一个机器人学大会上,技术专家们把机器人收集数据(尤其是在私人住所里)的能力认定为大数据领域最大的单个伦理问题。Alongside the new EU rules on data protection, we need something softer: a body of experts and laypeople that can bring knowledge, wisdom and judgment to this fast-moving field. There is aly a Council for Big Data, Ethics and Society in the US, comprising lawyers, philosophers and anthropologists.除了欧盟新的数据保护规则外,我们也需要更软性的方式:一个由专家和非专业人员构成的机构,为这一快速发展的领域带来知识、智慧和判断力。眼下,美国已有了一个由律师、哲学家和人类学家组成的大数据、伦理与社会委员会(Council for Big Data, Ethics and Society)。Europe should follow this example — because, as a stream of anecdotes at the Windsor conference revealed, companies and academics to be navigating this new data-rich world without a moral compass. In 2012 a Russian company created Girls Around Me, an app that pooled publicly available information to show the real-time locations and pictures of nearby women, without their consent; the app, a stalker’s dream, was withdrawn. High-tech rubbish bins in London’s Square Mile, which captured information from smartphones to track unwitting owners’ movements in order to target them with advertising, were ditched on grounds of creepiness.欧洲应当仿效美国的做法,因为正如温莎大会上的一连串趣闻所显示的那样,公司和学术界人士在这个数据丰富的新世界航行时,似乎没有带上伦理指南针。2012年,一家俄罗斯公司推出了一款名为“Girls Around Me”的应用(App),可以汇集公开可见的信息,在不经使用者附近女性同意的情况下显示她们的实时位置和照片。这款跟踪骚扰者梦寐以求的应用被撤下了。“平方英里”(Square Mile,即伦敦金融城,因面积正好1平方英里得名——译者注)的高科技电子垃圾箱捕捉来自智能手机的信息,以跟踪不知情的机主的行踪,从而针对他们发布广告,这些垃圾桶因令人毛骨悚然而被取缔。Meanwhile, a scientist has created software that combs Twitter connections to infer a tweeter’s ethnicity and even religion, raising the question of whether public posts can legitimately be used to deduce private information. Do we, as one lawyer suggested,need laws against misuse of our online personae?同时,一名科学家做了一款软件,能够通过彻底搜查推特(Twitter)人脉图,推断一名推特用户的种族、甚至宗教,这引发了使用公开发言推断私人信息是否合法的疑问。我们是否如一名律师所认为的那样,需要出台防止个人在线角色被滥用的法律?We have wearable devices that, like Santa, see you when you are sleeping and know when you’re awake. It is possible that a company will find a way of deducing — through sentiment analysis of social media postings, visits to charity websites, checks on your bank balance and fitness tracking — if you’ve been bad or good.我们有了可穿戴设备,这些设备像圣诞老人一样,在你睡着时注视着你,也知道你何时是醒着的。一家公司有可能找到推断你近来生活是否积极向上的办法——通过分析社交媒体发言表现出的情绪、访问慈善网站以及核查你的存款余额和健康追踪。This goes to show: just because big data makes it technically possible to do something, does not mean we should.这明:并非仅仅因为大数据使某事在技术上具备可行性,就意味着我们应该那么做。 /201601/421342

  Amazon has seen the future — and it is a pushcart on the New York subway. The online retail giant has started delivering parcels to its Manhattan customers using the city’s underground train network, having discovered what New Yorkers have known for years: it can be much quicker than driving.亚马逊(Amazon)从纽约地铁上的手推车看到了未来。这家在线零售巨头发现了纽约人多年来就已熟知的一个道理:乘地铁可能比开车快得多,已开始通过遍布纽约地下的地铁网络向曼哈顿的客户递送包裹。In December, Amazon started piloting an ultra-fast service, Prime Now, which promises to deliver popular items such as phone chargers, soap and pet food in as little as an hour for .99, or within two hours for free. The scheme was launched in New York, but has since been rolled out in a handful of other US cities, including Miami and Dallas.去年12月,亚马逊试行了一种超快捷务Prime Now。这种务承诺最快在1小时内,以7.99美元的价格递送手机充电器、肥皂和宠物口粮之类急需用品,或在两个小时内免费递送这类商品。这项务首先在纽约启动,自那以来已在包括迈阿密和达拉斯在内的其他几个美国城市推出。Two delivery workers pushing large trolleys of Amazon parcels on the subway said the company was using underground trains for most Prime Now deliveries because traffic on Manhattan’s gridlocked streets made it impossible to honour a 60-minute guarantee. Both asked not to be named because they were not authorised to speak to the media.在纽约地铁上,两名用手推车递送大量亚马逊包裹的员工表示,多数Prime Now货物都用地铁递送,原因是曼哈顿拥堵的路面交通让60分钟送达的可能性几乎为零。由于公司未批准他们与媒体打交道,这两名员工都要求不要公开他们的姓名。Amazon confirmed it was using the subway for Prime Now orders: “In Manhattan, our folks bike, walk or use public transportation. They only drive if the item is large like a flat screen TV.”亚马逊确认了该公司正在使用地铁投递Prime Now订单:“在曼哈顿,我们的员工会使用自行车、徒步或使用公共交通方式递送包裹。他们只有在商品像平板电视那么大的情况下,才会采用驾车的方式送货。”Amazon’s Prime Now service is part of a push to capture the instantaneous purchases that have so far proven elusive to online retailers, according to Sucharita Mulpuru, an ecommerce analyst at Forrester Research.福里斯特调查公司(Forrester Research)电子商务分析师苏乍利达#8226;墨普鲁(Sucharita Mulpuru)表示,亚马逊的Prime Now务是该公司实现“即时购物”体验举措的一部分。迄今“即时购物”仍被明是在线零售商的一大短板。“With online retail, one of the fundamental weaknesses is that you cannot get products immediately. This is an attempt to address that,” said Ms Mulpuru.墨普鲁表示:“对在线零售而言,一个根本缺陷就是你无法在购物时立刻获得商品。这项务正是试图解决这个问题。”However, she warned the service could struggle to gain traction with customers, especially in New York where there are drug stores on nearly every street corner selling many of the same items as Amazon’s Prime Now service.不过,她警告说该务可能很难吸引客户——尤其是在差不多每个街道拐角都设有便利店的纽约。这些便利店出售的许多商品都与亚马逊Prime Now务提供的商品雷同。Ms Mulpuru also suggested some customers might feel uneasy about having their deliveries transported on a mass public transport system. “I wouldn’t want my packages sitting on the smelly New York subway for long,” she said.墨普鲁还暗示,对于通过人流密集的公共交通投递他们的包裹,部分客户可能会感到不适应。她说:“我不希望我的包裹长期停留在气味难闻的纽约地铁中。” /201505/376320

  The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has fined Honda Motor million for failing to submit reports of fatal accidents and injuries to the government.因未就造成人员伤亡的事故向政府提交报告,本田汽车(Honda Motor)被美国国家公路交通安全局(National Highway Traffic Safety Administration)处以7000万美元(约合4.4亿元人民币)的罚款。It is the largest amount that the safety regulator has ever levied against an automaker. The penalty stems from the automaker’s failure to report 1,729 death and injury claims to the agency for the last 11 years, and its failure to report certain warranty and other claims in the same period.这是该安全监管机构对汽车生产商开出的最高罚单。本田受罚是因为在过去11年里,它未向该机构汇报1729起伤亡索赔,且在同一时期,该公司未汇报某些保修及其他一些索赔。“Today’s announcement sends a very clear message to the entire industry that manufacturers have responsibility for the complete and timely reporting of this critical safety information,” Mark Rosekind, the new head of the agency, said on Thursday.“今天的通告向整个行业传达了一个非常明确的讯息,那就是厂商有责任全面、及时地汇报这类关键的安全信息,”国家公路交通安全局新任局长马克·罗斯金德(Mark Rosekind)周四说。Under a system called Early Warning Reporting, automakers are required to disclose claims they receive that blame vehicle defects for serious injuries or deaths.根据尽早预警汇报(Early Warning Reporting)制度的要求,车企应在收到称车辆缺陷造成了重伤或死亡的索赔后,将其公开。Honda publicly disclosed in November that it had grossly underreported the number of deaths and injury claims linked to possible defects in its vehicles for more than a decade. An audit, commissioned by Honda, found that the Japanese automaker had not reported 1,729 written claims or notices on injuries or deaths from mid-2003 through mid-2014 — far more than the approximately 900 reports for that period that it did make.本田于去年11月透露,在超过十年的时间里,公司大幅漏报了与车辆可能存在的缺陷有关的伤亡索赔数量。本田委托进行的审计发现,从2003年中期一直到2014年中期,这家日本车企漏报了1729起书面伤亡索赔或通知,远远超出该公司同一时期汇报的约900起索赔。A Honda employee identified the problem in 2011, and federal regulators notified Honda of potential underreporting of death and injury claims in 2012, but the car company did not take action until September 2014. In November, after receiving preliminary findings of the audit, the safety agency demanded that Honda submit more information on its reporting. That action came after the Center for Auto Safety, a private advocacy group, accused Honda in an open letter in October of systematically underreporting the Early Warning claims.本田的一名雇员在2011年发现了这个问题,2012年,联邦监管机构通知了本田可能少报了伤亡索赔,但该公司直到2014年9月才采取行动。去年11月,在获得初步审计结果后,该安全监管机构要求本田提交更多有关其汇报事宜的信息。在那之前的10月,私立权利倡导团体汽车安全中心(Center for Auto Safety)在一封公开信中指责本田有组织地漏报了尽早预警制度要求上报的索赔。“We have resolved this matter and will move forward to build on the important actions Honda has aly taken to address our past shortcomings in early warning reporting,” Rick Schostek, executive vice president of Honda North America, said in a statement on Thursday. “We continue to fully cooperate with N.H.T.S.A.”“我们已经解决了这个问题,并将继续以本田已经采取的重要行动为基础,应对我们过去在尽早预警方面存在的不足,本田北美(Honda North America)的执行副总裁里克·朔斯特克(Rick Schostek)在周四的一份声明中说。“我们会继续与国家公路交通安全局全面合作。”Honda noted that, of the underreported claims, eight, including one death claim, were related to defective Takata airbags, which can deploy violently and rupture in an accident, sending metal fragments flying toward the driver or passenger instead of protecting them.本田指出,漏报的索赔中,包括一起死亡索赔在内的八起索赔与高田(Takata)的问题气囊有关。发生事故时,高田的问题气囊可能会猛然弹出并破裂,导致金属碎片飞向驾驶员或乘客,而不是保护它们。Honda said in a statement that the reporting failures stemmed from data entry, programming and coding errors, as well as a too-narrow and sometimes inaccurate interpretation of regulations.本田公司发表声明称,报告问题是由数据输入、编程及代码错误,以及对规定进行了过于狭隘、有时甚至是错误的解读造成的。Anthony Foxx, the secretary of transportation, said it did not matter that Honda said it had not meant to violate the law.美国运输部部长安东尼·福克斯(Anthony Foxx)表示,本田自称并非有意违法是于事无补的。“Good intentions don’t help the automaker,” he said, adding that the safety agency has asked all automakers to audit their Early Warning reports for compliance.他说,“善意对车厂是没什么帮助的。”他还表示,交通安全局已经要求所有汽车制造商按照规定,对早期预警报告进行审计。Mr. Foxx said that the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration had alerted the Justice Department to Honda’s reporting problems, but that it would be up to that agency to make a decision about a criminal investigation.福克斯表示,国家公路交通安全局已经告知司法部本田的报告问题,但最终由司法部决定是否开展刑事调查。“Seventy million dollars is a start,” said Senator Bill Nelson, a Democrat from Florida. “But we still need automakers to step up and take care of consumers with defective airbags, and we need regulators to insist on more timely and accurate reporting of possible safety defects.”“7000万美元的罚款是一个开始,”佛罗里达州民主党参议员比尔·尼尔森(Bill Nelson)说。“但我们仍需要汽车制造商加快速度,对拥有问题气囊的顾客负责,我们也需要监管部督促制造商更加及时、准确地上报潜在的安全缺陷。”The auto safety agency has had a difficult past year. Last year brought record vehicle recalls and intense scrutiny from lawmakers, safety experts and the news media. A New York Times investigation into the agency’s handling of major safety defects over the last decade found that it often had been slow to identify problems, tentative to act and reluctant to use its full legal arsenal against automakers.过去一年中,这家汽车安全机构的日子并不好过。去年出现了创纪录的汽车召回事件,议员、安全专家及新闻媒体密切关注相关问题。《纽约时报》对该机构过去十年处理重大安全缺陷的举措进行了研究,结果发现它迟迟无法确认问题,采取行动时犹豫不决,而且不愿充分利用法律武器,惩罚汽车制造商。Mr. Rosekind, a former member of the National Transportation Safety Board, was confirmed as the agency’s administrator in December, almost a year after the resignation of David L. Strickland as the agency’s leader. David J. Friedman led the agency in the interim and took much of the heat aimed at its work during a series of congressional hearings last year that focused on the ever-expanding recalls of Takata-made airbags and faulty ignition switches, which General Motors failed to disclose for more than a decade.前国家安全运输委员会(National Transportation Safety Board)成员罗斯金德于去年12月,也就是戴维·L·斯特里克兰(David L. Strickland)辞去国家公路交通安全局局长一职的一年之后,确认担任该局局长。在过渡时期主持工作的戴维·J·弗里德曼(David J. Friedman)因为该机构在去年一系列国会听会期间的工作而饱受批评,听会主要关注规模不断扩大的高田气囊召回及存在故障的点火开关等问题,通用汽车(General Motors)在十多年里没有披露这些问题。This week, Mr. Rosekind said that the safety regulator was overhauling its recall infrastructure to see how it could be improved and said he wanted more resources, including additional workers, for the agency.本周,罗斯金德表示,该安全监管机构正在对分管召回工作的部门进行整顿,看看如何改进工作。罗斯金德表示,他希望为该机构争取更多资源,包括增加工作人员。“This is an agency that is so under-resourced,” he said. “It’s more severe than I realized from the outside.”“这是一个资源极度缺乏的机构,”他说。“比我来这里任职前估计的情况更严重。” /201501/353632。

  The Sundial日晷The sundial,an ancient Chinese timekeeping instrument consisting of a bronze needle and a stone dial,measures the time by taking advan-tage of the shadow of the sun.日晷又称“旧规”,中国古代利用日影测得时刻的一种计时仪器。The needle crosses the center of the dial vertically,just like the pole of the gnomon,and the stone dial is placed onto a stone plat-form,higher in the south and lower in the north.通常由铜制的指针和石制的圆盘组成。铜制的指针叫做“晷针”,垂直地穿过圆盘中心,起着圭表中立竿的作用,因此,晷针又叫“表”,石制的圆盘叫做“晷面”,安放在石台上,呈南高北低,The sundial surface is therefore parallel to the equatorial plane. The upper end of the sundial points right to the North Pole,and the lower end to the South.使晷面平行于天赤道面。这样,晷针的上端正好指向北天极,下端正好指向南天极。Both sides of the dial are divided into 12 parts,each part representing two hours. When the sunlight beams down on the sundial,the shadow of the needle falls on the surface and moves as the sun moves.Therefore,the needle’s shadow resembles the needle of a modern watch or clock,and the stone dial is like the watch or clock’s dial plate,indicating time.在晷面的正反两面刻划出12个大格,每个大格代表两个小时。当太阳光照在日晷上时,晷针的影子就会投向晷面,太阳由东向西移动,投向晷面的晷针影子也慢慢地移动。于是,移动着的晷针影子相当于现代钟表的指针,晷面则是钟表的表面,以此来指示时间。From the vernal equinox(about March 20)to the autumn equinox(about September 22),the sun moves in the northern side of the equator, casting the needle’s shadow on the upper part of the stone dial.由于从春分到秋分期间,太阳总是在天赤道的北侧运行,因此,晷针的影子投向晷面上方;Likewise,since the sun moves in the southern side of the equator from the autumn equinox to the vernal e-quinox, the shadow is cast on the lower part. Therefore,when observing the sun-dial,it is important to first find out the projection position in the two different peri-ods.从秋分到春分期间,太阳在天赤道的南侧运行,因此,晷针的影子投向晷面的下方。所以在观察日晷时,首先要了解两个不同时期晷针的投影位置。 /201511/409365

  

  Apple is expected to unveil its latest device, the iPhone 6s (or 7), on September 9 in what should be a sigh of relief for investors, who have had a tough ride this week. Despite CEO Tim Cook’s assurance that China’s economic difficulties should not adversely impact the tech giant’s sales, the company’s stock is still trading below its 5 a share level just a few weeks ago, even after the robust market rally on Thursday, and far below its 52-week high of 4.54 a share.苹果公司预计将于9月9日发布最新款手机iPhone 6s(或iPhone 7),在过去一周经历股价震荡的投资者们理应松一口气。尽管首席执行官蒂姆錠克信誓旦旦地声称,中国的经济困境不会对这家科技巨头的销量造成负面影响,但就在几周前,苹果股价依然低于115美元,即便是在上周四股市强劲反弹之后依然如此,远低于52周以来的最高点134.54美元。At least some of the market punishment seems unique to Apple. Investors are worried about the company for many reasons, including competition from low-cost Chinese smartphone makers and only modest traction for Apple Music and Apple Pay.至少,来自市场的某些惩罚似乎就是专门冲着苹果来的。投资者有许多理由为这家公司担心,比如中国智能手机厂商的低价竞争,Apple Music和Apple Pay的吸引力十分有限,等等。Which is why the new iPhone is crucial for Apple to restore investors’ confidence, and there’s a good chance it will for several reasons.有鉴于此,投资者能否重拾信心,新款iPhone的表现至关重要。基于以下几个原因,它很可能会不负所望。The phone will have a 12 megapixel camera, a big increase from previous versions; 4k recording; faster processing speed; longer battery life, which many users consider to be an extremely important feature, according to multiple studies cited by Tech Insider; animated wallpaper like the Apple Watch and Android phones; the ability to detect when a Wi-Fi network is weak and automatically switch to cellular; and Wi-Fi calling over ATamp;T, previously limited to T-Mobile.这款手机拥有远超前几代产品的1200万像素摄像头、4K视频录制功能、更快的处理速度、更长的电池续航时间(据Tech Insider引用的多项调研显示,用户认为这一点极为重要)、类似Apple Watch和安卓手机的动态墙纸。这款手机能识别较差的Wi-Fi网络信号,并在这类环境中自动切换至蜂窝网络。这代手机的Wi-Fi通话功能还持ATamp;T的网络,此前仅限于T-Mobile。But what’s expected to be the most important new feature of all: force touch, a technology that enables a device to distinguish between light and strong taps by a user and assign different functions to them, as it currently does on the Apple Watch and MacBooks. Applied to the iPhone, this could potentially be the killer feature that solidly differentiates the new iPhone from its predecessors by enhancing ease-of-use and utility.不过该手机最重要的新特色还是压感触控(force touch),这项技术能让设备识别用户的轻度和重度触屏,并为它们分配不同的功能。它目前已经在Apple Watch和Macbook上实现了。一旦该技术应用于新款iPhone上,就可能成为一项王牌特色,使其在操作简便性和功能实用性方面远远甩开前几代产品。An improvement to the user experience has always been at the heart of Apple’s success with new models and the force touch feature can provide this. Force touch is also new enough to encourage buyers to replace their existing phones, a major driver of sales in in China, one of Apple’s key markets. Force Touch should also help Apple maintain its position in the Asian market, where competitor Huawei is reportedly introducing a similar feature to its smartphones.增强用户体验一直是苹果成功的不二法门,而新款机型和压感触控特色就能做到这一点。压感触控这项技术足够新颖,能让用户有动力替换现有机型,在苹果的重要市场中国,这是提高销量的一大因素。压感触控还能帮助苹果维持其在亚洲市场的地位,据说中国的竞争对手华为即将在智能手机上推出类似功能。Another factor working in Apple’s favor is that while the company may have a hard time outdoing its blockbuster sales for the iPhone 6, new equipment installment plans from wireless carriers might encourage adoption for the new iPhone by consumers. An increasing percentage of ATamp;T and Verizon customers have been opting for these plans, which don’t tie them down to two-year contracts and allow them to upgrade early.另一个因素也可能成为苹果一大利好。诚然,在iPhone 6大获成功之后,苹果公司的业绩或许很难再上一层楼。不过,无线网络运营商提供的新设备分期付款计划也许会鼓励用户购买新iPhone。越来越多的ATamp;T和威瑞森的顾客都开始选择这类计划。这些计划不会把他们束缚在两年的合约中,可以让他们尽早升级手机。Sanford C. Bernstein analyst Toni Sacconaghi estimates that about 14.9 million U.S. customers will be eligible for upgrades at the end of this year, compared to 5.3 million last fall when the iPhone 6 launched, according to The Wall Street Journal.斯坦福伯恩斯坦公司分析师托尼萨克纳西预计,大约有1490万美国用户可以在今年年底前升级手机。而据《华尔街日报》所述,去年秋天iPhone 6发布时,这一数值是530万。Finally, even though Apple continues to trail Samsung in terms of worldwide smartphone sales, which fell in the second quarter of 2015, Apple’s market share rose to 14.6% from 12.2% a year ago, while Samsung’s declined to 21.9% from 26.2%, according to research firm Gartner. In China, too, Apple’s iPhone sales grew by 68% last quarter to 11.9 million units, indicating that the company is making inroads in that market despite its challenges. “It’s a big brand and people really associate that with their status and it’s kind of an aspirational brand so many of the consumers in China expect to own an iPhone at some point of time,” says Gartner research director Anshul Gupta.最后,尽管苹果在全球智能手机销量上仍然不及三星,后者的销量在2015年第二季度有所下滑。研究公司高德纳的数据显示,苹果的市场占有率从去年的12.2%上升到14.6%,而三星从26.2%下降到21.5%。在中国,苹果的iPhone销量上季度大涨68%,达到1190万部。这充分明,尽管中国市场充满挑战,苹果依然能够披荆斩棘,高歌猛进。高德纳研究总监安舒尔古普塔表示:“苹果是一个大品牌,人们真的很认同它的地位。这也是一个让许多人梦寐以求的品牌,很多中国顾客都希望有朝一日能拥有一部iPhone。”Some words of caution here. Apple’s new product launches are always surrounded by hype and predictions that don’t always come true. It remains to be seen how good the final product will be and, of course, how many people will buy it. In addition, analyst expectations could be inflated, as they were last quarter, setting Apple up to disappoint Wall Street even with a great smartphone.不过这里也要提个醒。苹果的新产品总是被吹得天花乱坠,但这些预言并不是总能实现。最终发布的产品究竟有多好,以及有多少人愿意买单,还需拭目以待。此外,就想上个季度一样,分析师的预计也可能过高,华尔街最终可能以失望告终。Nonetheless, given the importance of the new iPhone as investors add pressure on Apple’s stock, it’s a safe bet that the company is going take this particular launch very seriously. Stay tuned for September 9th.尽管如此,由于投资者不断对苹果股价施压,新款iPhone的重要性不言而喻,我们可以肯定苹果会严肃对待这次特别的发布会。9月9日的确是令人期待的一天。 /201509/397951

  

  

  

  A patent dispute has dealt a blow to Xiaomi’s international expansion, leaving the fast-growing Chinese smartphone maker facing a temporary ban on sales in India and further pressure on margins.一场专利纠纷给小米(Xiaomi)的国际扩张造成打击,这家发展迅速的中国智能手机制造商在印度遭遇暂时禁售,利润率面临更大压力。Xiaomi, anointed a valuation in excess of bn at its latest fundraising in November, is keen to replicate its popularity in China into other major emerging markets. In April it unveiled plans to expand into as many as 10 foreign markets.小米希望将其在中国的受欢迎程度复制到其他主要新兴市场。在11月的最新一轮融资中,小米估值超过400亿美元。今年4月,该公司宣布了进军10个国外市场的计划。However, a Delhi High Court case suggests that this march abroad may also open it to more patent disputes, with companies demanding it pay royalties — something that rivals are less keen to pursue in China where claims are harder to press. Such payments would, in turn, eat into margins or drive up handset prices. In a ruling on a patent dispute with technology group Ericsson, the court ordered Xiaomi to suspend sales until February, pending a further hearing relating to its dispute with the Swedish company.然而,印度案件预示着小米在进军海外路上可能还会遭遇更多专利纠纷,拥有专利的企业将要求其付许可费——竞争对手不太愿意在中国起诉,因为在中国索赔会比较困难。这些出将进而侵蚀利润率或推升手机价格。在一项有关小米与瑞典科技企业爱立信(Ericsson)专利纠纷的裁决中,德里高等法院下令小米在明年2月前暂停销售,等待有关其与爱立信诉讼的进一步审理结果。Wednesday’s ruling stated that Xiaomi was “restrained from manufacturing, assembling, importing, selling or advertising” its products in India pending a further hearing, while India’s customs authorities were “directed not to allow the import” of mobiles and other products that may infringe Ericsson’s patents.周三的裁决称,小米被“禁止”在印度“制造、组装、进口、销售或宣传”其产品,需等待进一步审理结果,同时印度海关被“指示不要放行”可能侵犯爱立信专利的手机和其他产品的“进口”。Without a trove of its own patents, manufacturers such as Xiaomi could ultimately see their costs inflated by 5-20 per cent due to licensing fees, according to some experts. Xiaomi says it acquired 1,141 patents last year, a number considered unimpressive in the tech industry.一些专家表示,在缺少自主专利的情况下,小米等制造商的成本最终可能会因为许可费而上升5%至20%。小米表示,去年该公司获得1141项专利,在科技行业,这一数字并不起眼。Experts said this appeared to be the first patent litigation targeting Xiaomi since it outlined plans to launch into up to 10 foreign markets.专家们表示,这似乎是小米宣布计划进军10个国外市场以来,首例针对该公司的专利诉讼。“It looks like Xiaomi is experiencing a bit of culture shock in India,” said Wang Yanhui, secretary-general of the Mobile Phone China Alliance, an industry lobbying group. He said Xiaomi was not the first Chinese smartphone maker to be sued in India, however, it was the first time imports had been halted.行业游说组织——手机中国联盟(Mobile Phone China Alliance)秘书长王艳辉表示:“看来小米正在印度遭遇文化冲击。”他表示,小米并非唯一一家在印度被起诉的中国智能手机制造商,但它是首个被暂停进口的中国企业。The Delhi court ruling is likely to raise new concerns about possible intellectual property challenges affecting other Chinese smartphone and device makers — a group that includes Huawei, ZTE and Lenovo, analysts said.分析人士称,德里高等法院的这项裁决,可能会重新引起外界对其他中国智能手机和设备制造商面临潜在知识产权挑战的担忧,其中包括华为(Huawei)、中兴(ZTE)和联想(Lenovo)。Manu Jain, head of Xiaomi in India, said the group had not received official notification of the ruling from the court, but that its legal team was “evaluating the situation”.小米印度分公司负责人马努#8226;贾因(Manu Jain)表示,小米尚未接到法院方面关于裁决的正式通知,但公司法律团队正“对目前的形势进行评估”。 /201412/348651

  

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