明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年12月10日 19:14:14
Breast-feeding longer can make children smarter. That#39;s the conclusion of a study published Monday in JAMA Pediatrics, a journal of the American Medical Association. 新近一项研究得出结论称,延长母乳喂养期可使孩子更加聪明。该研究发表于美国医学会(American Medical Association)主办的《美国医学会杂志#8226;儿科学》上(JAMA Pediatrics)。 In many ways, the study won#39;t surprise proponents of breast-feeding, who have long posited a connection between nursing and cognition and now have an additional piece of research to back up their argument. Skeptics could likely stick to the view that what matters most is how smart a baby#39;s mom is, or that social pressure to breast-feed can have its own problems for children#39;s development by creating stressed-out parents. However, the findings are likely to add muscle to public-health advocates#39; push to increase breast-feeding rates, which start out around 75% but slump to an average of 25% at a baby#39;s first birthday, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 就许多方面而言,这项研究并不会让母乳喂养的提倡者感到意外,他们在很早之前就提出母乳喂养与认知能力之间存在关联,现在他们只不过是又多了一项持他们论点的研究。对于那些持怀疑态度的人,他们则可能会坚持认为最重要的是婴儿母亲的智商,或是认为针对母乳喂养的社会压力会导致家长不堪重负,而这本身会给孩子的发育带来麻烦。然而,目前这些研究发现可能会给公共健康倡议者推动提高母乳喂养比例的行动提供强有力的持。美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)的数据显示,母乳喂养的比例在婴儿出生伊始为75%左右,但在婴儿一周岁时便降低至25%的平均水平。 The JAMA study isn#39;t the first to study a link between nursing and intelligence, but researchers say it is more conclusive because of its size and how it has isolated variables such as the mother#39;s IQ and the child#39;s upbringing. Previous studies have had difficulty adjusting for other factors that might influence a child#39;s IQ, were limited by their small size or didn#39;t account for length of nursing, said Mandy Belfort, the JAMA study#39;s lead author and assistant professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School. 这项发表在JAMA的研究并不是最早将母乳喂养与智商水平联系在一起的研究,但研究人员称它的实验样本大,而且它还排除了婴儿母亲的智商及孩子接受的教育等变量,因此更加让人信。该研究的第一作者、哈佛医学院(Harvard Medical School)的儿科学助理教授曼迪#8226;贝尔福特(Mandy Belfort)指出,以往的研究在对可能影响孩子智商的其他因素进行调整方面存在问题,而且它们的实验样本较小,或是未考虑到母乳喂养期的时间长短。 The latest study examined and rated each child#39;s environment based on factors such as how many books are available, and gave each mother an IQ test. They also asked detailed questions about factors that might influence IQ, such as child care, income and parental education. They then subtracted those factors using a statistical model. Dr. Belfort said she hopes that #39;what we have left is the true connection#39; with nursing and IQ. 新近这项研究根据他们可接触多少书籍等因素调查了每个孩子的生活环境,并对每个孩子的母亲进行了智商测试。他们还针对可能影响智商的因素提出了详细的问题,比如儿童保育、家庭收入及父母的教育程度等,然后利用统计模型剔除这些因素。贝尔福特称,她希望他们得出的是母乳喂养与智商之间的真实联系。 Breast-feeding is hard to study in a randomized trial because it is unethical to put some children in the non- group, Dr. Belfort said, which leaves researchers with observational studies such as the one she conducted. Researchers at Boston Children#39;s hospital followed 1,312 babies and mothers from 1999 to 2010. They found out how many of those children were still consuming their mothers#39; milk at their first birthday, and then tested the children#39;s intelligence at ages 3 and 7. 她指出,母乳喂养很难通过随机性的实验进行研究,因为把一部分孩子分在非母乳喂养组是不道德的行为,所以研究人员只能选择像她所展开的那种观察性研究。从1999年至2010年期间,波士顿儿童医院的研究人员对1,312名婴儿及他们的母亲进行了跟踪研究。他们要找出其中有多少孩子在一周岁时依然在吃母乳,然后分别在这些孩子三岁和七岁时对他们进行智商测试。 Intelligence is a strange brew of nature and nurture and isolating one factor is challenging. Breast-feeding in the first place has a lot to do with class and wealth, with richer, better educated women typically opting to make the effort to nurse their babies. 智商是天分与后天培养的奇特混合物,排除其中一个因素颇具难度。母乳喂养首先与社会阶层和财富存在很大关系,其中生活更富庶、教育程度更高的女性通常会选择尽力以母乳喂养孩子。 Children who were still nursing after a year had higher receptive language scores at age 3, which means they understood what was being said to them better than their formula-fed peers. At age 7, the breast-fed children scored higher on verbal and nonverbal intelligence tests. 那些在一周岁后依然吃母乳的孩子,他们在三岁时的语言理解能力测试中得分更高,这表示他们对所听到的话的理解能力要高于喝配方奶的同龄人。到七岁时,母乳喂养的孩子在口头及非口头智商测试中的得分也更高。 In 3 year olds, every month of breast-feeding raised cognition scores by an average of .21 point. Each month of breast-feeding was associated with a .35 more verbal IQ point and a .29 more nonverbal point in the 7 year olds. A full year of nursing would boost a child#39;s IQ by about 4 points over a child who didn#39;t nurse, said Dr. Belfort, a significant bump considering that IQs average around 100. That is for children getting some breast milk in their diets; those consuming only breast milk before starting to eat solid foods around six months of age saw even greater advantages. 在三岁大的孩子中,每个月的母乳喂养可使他们的认知能力分数平均提高0.21分。在七岁大的孩子中,每个月的母乳喂养可使他们的口头及非口头智商测试的得分分别提高0.35分和0.29分。贝尔福特称,一整年的母乳喂养可使孩子的智商分值比非母乳喂养的孩子高出四分左右,考虑到智商的平均分值大约为100分,这算得上一个大幅提升。这只是针对在饮食中会吃些母乳的孩子而言,那些在大约六个月大、开始食用固体食物之前只吃母乳的孩子具有更大的智商优势。 #39;For an individual person, it would be hard to tell a two or three point difference in IQ, but it would matter a lot for society,#39; said Dr. Belfort. #39;If we can shift the IQ up, we would have to invest less resources at the low end.#39; Meaning that with improved IQ scores across the board, less funding would have to be spent on remedial education programs. 贝尔福特说:“对于个人而言,我们难以分辨出两三分的智商差距,但它对整个社会而言非常重要。如果我们能提升智商水平,那么我们就不必向智商较低人群投入那么多资源。”这意味着,随着智商的整体提高,我们可以减少对补偿教育项目的资金投入。 Dr. Amy Tuteur, an obstetrician who writes a blog called skepticalob.com, is unconvinced by a four-point increase in IQ, saying the bump needs to be bigger to prove that it isn#39;t just random variation. #39;Intelligence is multifactoral and the idea that any one thing can make a big difference right away makes me skeptical,#39; she said. #39;American IQ has been increasing steadily, it rose when breast-feeding rates were going down and it rose when breast-feeding rates were going up.#39; 然而,埃米#8226;图特(Amy Tuteur)士却没有被母乳喂养可使智商提高四分的结论说,她是一名产科医生及客skepticalob.com的主。她说,若要明那并不只是随机变量,智商提升值还需更高些。她指出:“智商水平涉及多个方面,我对认为任意一件事就能马上使智商发生重大改观的观点持怀疑态度。美国民众的智商一直在稳步提高,它在母乳喂养率上升时有提高,在母乳喂养率下降时也有提高。” The possible link between breast milk and brain development is only starting to be teased out. Some theories suggest that it isn#39;t the content of the milk but the bond between mother and child developed while nursing that accounts for some of the boost. Other ideas hinge on nutrients found in breast milk such as DHA and ARA, which are fatty acids linked to brain development. Some formula companies put DHA and ARA in their offerings. 母乳与大脑发育之间的潜在关联只是刚开始得到梳理。有些观点提出,促成智商提升的并非母乳中的成分,而是母乳喂养过程中母亲与孩子之间产生的情感纽带。其他一些观点则把它归功于在母乳中发现的DHA和ARA等营养成分,这些脂肪酸都与大脑发育有关。一些配方奶厂家也在它们的产品中添加DHA和ARA。 #39;There are nutrients in breast milk that don#39;t really exist anywhere else, and we don#39;t fully know why,#39; says Dimitri Christakis, a pediatrician at Seattle Children#39;s Hospital Research Institute and wasn#39;t involved in the research. 西雅图儿童医院研究中心的儿科医生迪米特里#8226;克里斯塔基斯(Dimitri Christakis)称:“母乳中有一些确实在其他物质中找不到的营养成分,我们也不完全了解其中的原因。”他并未参与发表于JAMA的那项研究。 He wrote an editorial in JAMA pediatrics on the study and leads an advocacy group called the Global Breast-feeding Initiative. In the editorial he contends the JAMA study should put skepticism to rest about whether breast-feeding is best for brain development and that society should make it easier and more acceptable for moms to nurse. 克里斯塔基斯在《美国医学会杂志#8226;儿科学》上就该项研究撰写了一篇,他也是一个名为“母乳喂养全球倡议”(Global Breast-feeding Initiative)的倡导组织的领导者。他在中提出,该项研究有望平息对母乳喂养最有益于大脑发育的质疑,社会应当为母亲母乳喂养创造更轻松和更舒适的环境。 For Amra Chudleigh-Neal of Thousand Oaks, Calif., intelligence is just one more reason for her to breast-feed her 6-week old daughter. She said her older child, now 7, has above average IQ, which Ms. Chudleigh-Neal said could be in part because she exclusively breast-fed until her daughter was 6- months old. 对于住在加州千橡市的阿姆拉#8226;查德利-尼尔(Amra Chudleigh-Neal)而言,提高智商只是她以母乳喂养其六周大的女儿的原因之一。她说,她七岁大的大女儿的智商高于平均水平,她认为这在一定程度上是因为她在女儿六个月大之前只给她喂母乳。 #39;It tends to be a little more of a sacrifice to nurse the second child, you think #39;oh my gosh is it really worth it#39; but looking back with my older child I believe it did make a difference,#39; she said. Ms. Chudleigh-Neal receives extensive support from The Pump Station, a Los Angeles-area nursing resource center that helps with things like connecting moms to lactation professionals. 她说:“以母乳喂养这第二个孩子似乎是做出了一些牺牲,你会想‘哦,我的天,这真的值得吗’,但是回想一下我的大女儿,我就会认为这确实有关系。”查德利-尼尔受到了The Pump Station的广泛帮助,这家位于洛杉矶地区的母乳喂养资源中心为妈妈们提供各种帮助,比如帮她们联系哺乳问题专业人士。 Not everyone can breast-feed successfully, and that needn#39;t make parents worry. #39;Talk to your baby, hold your baby and to your baby,#39; Dr. Belfort said. #39;There are so many different factors in a child#39;s development.#39; 然而,并非每个人都能成功做到母乳喂养,家长们也不必为此担心。贝尔福特建议:“你可以和孩子说说话,抱着他,读书给他听,孩子的发育涉及许许多多不同的因素。” One difficulty in studying breast milk is that every feeding can vary based on the mother and what she has eaten. So the Boston researchers also examined a component in mothers#39; diets that might be responsible for children#39;s brain development: fish, which contains DHA. 研究母乳喂养问题的一个难处是,每次喂奶都会因为母亲的状况及其饮食而有所变动。因此,波士顿儿童医院的研究人员也调查了妈妈们的饮食中一个可能会影响孩子大脑发育的成分──富含DHA的鱼。 The authors found that more than two or more servings of fish per week seemed to confer IQ benefits, but that boost in children#39;s cognition wasn#39;t statistically significant. 那些研究人员发现,每周吃鱼两次以上或更多次似乎有益于智商,但这给儿童认知能力带来的提升在统计数据上并无显著差异。 /201308/251042

Boys are 14% more likely to be born premature than girls, and even at the same gestational age boys have a higher risk of death and complications because girls develop faster in the womb, new global research shows. #39;一项新的全球范围的研究发现,男孩的早产几率比女孩高14%,而且龄相同的情况下,男孩的死亡风险和出现并发症的危险也更高,因为女孩在子宫内发育的更快。 #39;The findings from six studies published Thursday in the journal Pediatric Research quantify for the first time what neonatologists have long observed. #39;《儿科研究》(Pediatric Research)杂志近日发表的六项研究的结果首次将新生儿学家长期观察到的现象进行量化。 #39;#39;Throughout development, girls are a little bit ahead of boys. Girls walk before boys, they talk before boys and it#39;s also true in utero,#39; said Joy Lawn, a neonatologist at the London School of Hygiene amp; Tropical Medicine and team leader of the studies. #39;伦敦卫生与热带医药学院(London School of Hygiene amp; Tropical Medicine)的新生儿学家、上述研究的团队领导者劳恩(Joy Lawn)说,在这个发育期,女孩都领先男孩一点,女孩比男孩更早会走路,比男孩更早会说话,而在母亲的子宫内情况也是如此。 #39;And for babies born before 37 weeks, which researchers call preterm, #39;being even a little bit more mature brings an advantage,#39; Dr. Lawn said. #39;劳恩说,对于怀37周之前出生的婴儿来说,就算多成熟那么一点点也是一个优势。研究人员将37周之前出生的婴儿称为早产儿。 #39;The research, funded through the Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation, involved 50 researchers in 35 institutions. It found that despite progress in many countries, about 15 million babies are born preterm world-wide each year, out of around 135 million total births. #39;来自35家研究机构的50名研究人员参与了这项由比尔及梅林达#12539;盖茨基金会(Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation)提供资金的研究。研究发现,尽管很多国家都有进步,全球每年出生的1.35亿名婴儿中,仍有1,500万名婴儿早产。 #39;More than one million babies die due to prematurity, and an estimated three-quarters of those babies could have been saved with even modest interventions such as antibiotics. Babies born before 37 weeks are 10 times as likely to die in low-income countries than in high-income countries, the research found. #39;每年有逾100万名婴儿死于早产,而据估计,即便是最简单的干预(比如使用抗生素)也能令其中四分之三的婴儿获救。研究发现,相比之下,低收入国家的早产儿的死亡风险是高收入国家的早产儿的10倍。 #39;Disabilities related to prematurity, including blindness, cerebral palsy and brain damage linked to breathing problems, are responsible for nearly 10% of the global burden of disease all around the world, the studies found. #39;上述研究发现,与早产相关的残障,包括失明、脑性麻 以及呼吸问题相关的脑损伤,几乎占全球疾病总量的10%。 #39;For boy babies, addressing the higher risks they face is difficult because scientists are still trying to understand what makes them more vulnerable. #39;对男婴来说,应对他们面临的较高风险这一问题非常困难,因为科学家们仍在试图理解,是什么原因让他们比女婴更容易受到伤害。 #39;#39;Boys face a triple whammy,#39; said Dr. Lawn. #39;They are more likely to be born preterm, and if they are, they have a greater risk of death, disability or blindness. And even when they are full term, they have a higher risk of birth complications such as jaundice and infection.#39; #39;劳恩说,男孩面临着三重魔咒:他们更有可能早产,而且如果早产,死亡、残障或失明的风险更高;而且即便他们没有早产,出现黄疸和感染等并发症的风险也更高。 #39;Separate new research from Scandinavia suggests that women carrying boys have a higher rate of problems in the placenta -- the sacks that surrounds and nourishes fetuses, Dr. Lawn said. #39;劳恩说,斯堪的纳维亚地区进行的其他新研究表明,怀男胎的妇胎盘出现问题的可能性更高。胎盘包裹着胎儿,为胎儿提供营养。 #39;One theory is that some mothers mount an autoimmune response to male tissue, which creates inflammation in the placenta and compromises its ability to deliver oxygen and nutrition to the fetus, according to Marianne Legato, founder of the Foundation for Gender-Specific Medicine in New York, who wasn#39;t involved in the new research. #39;纽约“性别特异性医学基金会”(Foundation for Gender-Specific Medicine)的创始人莱加托(Marianne Legato)说,一种理论认为,一些母亲会针对男性组织启动自动免疫反应,这会刺激胎盘发炎,损害其向胎儿输送氧气和营养的能力。莱加托没有参与这项新研究。 #39;Male hormones known as androgens may also delay lung maturation. Two-thirds of fetuses with immature lung development are male, writes Dr. Legato in her 2008 book, #39;Why Men Die First.#39; #39;莱加托在她2008年出版的书《男人为什么先死》(Why Men Die First)中写道,雄激素也可能延缓肺的成熟过程。肺发育不成熟的胎儿有三分之二是男性。 #39;Nearly twice as many boy babies are conceived as girls, but they are much more likely to miscarry, and by birth, the ratio is roughly 105 boys to 100 girls. #39;在受阶段,男婴的数量差不多是女婴的两倍,但男婴的流产率要高得多,而到生产的时候,男女婴的比例大致是105 :100。 #39; Most boys do catch up, and in some societies girls are more likely to die after the first few months of life because they get less attention and medical care, the study authors note. #39;研究的作者们还指出,诚然,大多数男孩后来都会跟上,而且在某些社群中,女婴在出生后最初的几个月里死亡的可能性更高,因为女婴得到的照顾和医疗护理更少。 #39;That men eventually grow bigger and stronger than women #39;is probably evolutionary,#39; adds Dr. Legato. #39;The genes that create higher height and stronger muscle are favored in terms of survival.#39; #39;莱加托补充说,最终男性体型更大、更强壮这一事实可能是演化的结果,从存活的角度来说,能够导致更大体重、更强壮的肌肉的基因会被优先选择。 #39;The release of the new research, timed to coincide with World Prematurity Day on Sunday, is part of an effort by more than 50 organizations to combat premature birth. #39;这份新研究的发布时机正好赶在11月17日的世界早产日(World Prematurity Day)之前,是逾50个组织为了对抗早产儿进行的努力的一部分。 #39;In the meantime, says Edward McCabe, chief medical officer of the March of Dimes, #39;the key thing is to provide the best possible care-for boys and girls.#39; #39;慈善组织March of Dimes的首席医疗长麦凯布(Edward McCabe)说,与此同时,最关键的是尽可能提供最好的照料,不管是男孩还是女孩。 /201311/265698



  Growing up in a hard-working Midwestern city in the 1980s, I quickly learned that sleep is the first expense I should cut in a given day. The men I looked up to at a young age regularly boasted about running on just a few hours of sleep. While this was rooted in a good-natured work ethic, it led me to view needing sleep as a sign of weakness. I continue to see this perception in the workplace today, where it is considered a badge of honor to stay at the office late working on a project.我是上个世纪80年代在美国中西部一个崇尚努力工作的城市长大的,我很快就认识到睡眠是我在一天中应该削减的第一样东西。我小时候崇拜的人经常夸耀自己每天只睡几个小时。尽管这根源于一种良好的职业操守,但却使我认为对睡眠的需求是一种软弱的表现。如今在职场中我仍能看到有人持这样的观点。在办公室为一个项目工作到很晚被视为是一种荣耀。The problem is, one less hour of sleep is not equal to an extra hour of achievement. In many cases the opposite occurs. When you lose an hour of sleep, it decreases your well-being, productivity, health, and ability to think the following day. One of the most influential studies of human performance, conducted by professor K. Anders Ericsson, found that top performers slept 8 hours and 36 minutes per day. The average American, for comparison, gets just 6 hours and 51 minutes of sleep on weeknights.问题是,少睡一个小时并不等于多做出一个小时的成绩。很多时候情况恰恰相反。少睡一个小时,第二天的精神状态、效率、健康和思考能力就会降低。教授埃里克森(K. Anders Ericsson)的研究发现,表现优秀的人每天睡8小时36分钟。相比之下,普通美国人非周末每晚只睡6小时51分钟。这是有关人类表现的各种研究中最有影响的研究之一。You are simply a different person when you operate on insufficient sleep. And it shows. If you do not get enough sleep, it can lead to a cascade of negative events. You achieve less at work, skip regular exercise, and eat poorly.当你在睡眠不足的状态下工作时,你会失常。而且这会表现在方方面面。如果你睡眠不足,可能会导致一系列的不良后果。你的工作效率会下降,定期的体育锻炼也不再坚持,饮食也会一团糟。This lack of sleep is also costly. According to a study from Harvard Medical School, lack of sleep costs the American economy billion a year in lost productivity alone. The problem is not just people missing work on account of sleep, the larger issue is people who show up for work in a sleepless state. One scientist, who has studied this topic extensively, claims a loss of four hours of sleep produces as much impairment as consuming a six-pack of beer. According to a survey from the National Sleep Foundation, roughly two-thirds of people studied do not get enough sleep on weeknights.睡眠不足还会带来不菲的代价。据哈佛大学医学院(Harvard Medical School)的一项研究显示,睡眠不足导致生产效率低下,仅此一项每年就给美国经济造成630亿美元的损失。问题不止是人们因睡眠不足而翘班,更大的问题是以睡眠不足的状态上班的人。一位一直广泛研究这个主题的科学家称,少睡四个小时造成的损害与喝六瓶啤酒不相上下。据美国国家睡眠基金会(National Sleep Foundation)的一项调查显示,约有三分之二的被研究者非周末睡眠不足。However, if you are able to get an additional hour of sleep tonight, it can make the difference between a miserable day and a good one. A small adjustment, even 15 or 30 minutes, could make or break your next day. The key is to aim for somewhere between seven and nine hours of quality sleep per night. While getting this much sleep each night is easier said than done, there are a few small tricks to improve your odds of a good night#39;s sleep.不过,如果你今晚能够多睡一个小时,明天就会是一个美好的一天,而不是痛苦的一天。小小的调整,哪怕是15分钟或30分钟,都可能使第二天你的状态有天壤之别。关键是争取每天晚上能有七到九小时的高质量睡眠。尽管每天睡这么长时间的觉说起来容易、做起来难,但有一些小窍门可以帮助改善你的睡眠。What you do in the hours before bed could matter most. More than 90 percent of Americans admit to using electronic communications in the hour before bed. This is an obvious problem in terms of allowing things like late-night messages to enter your thoughts. What you may not realize is that the light from these devices alone could also suppress your melatonin levels by as much as 20 percent, which is a more direct threat to your sleep. To avoid these issues, impose a moratorium on all electronic devices in the hour before your normal bedtime and be cautious about bright light from any sources in the hours before bed.你上床睡觉前的几个小时都做些什么可能最重要。有九成以上的美国人承认在睡前一小时使用电子通讯工具。这是一个显而易见的问题,因为它使深夜发来的信息等可以进入你的头脑里。你可能没有意识到的是,这些设备发出的光本身也可能使你的褪黑素水平至多减少20%,这对你的睡眠是一个更为直接的威胁。为避免这些问题,在正常上床睡觉前的一个小时停止使用所有电子设备,避开任何光源发出的亮光。Creating the right environment for sleep in your bedroom can also give you a head start. It is easier to sleep in a room that is a few degrees cooler than the temperature you are accustomed to throughout the day. This prevents your natural body clock from waking you up in the middle of the night. The same principle applies to noise, where using white noise apps or devices can drown out sounds that wake you up unnecessarily throughout the night. What#39;s critical for a good night of sleep is to create a routine where you eliminate as much variance as possible.在卧室营造一个良好的睡眠环境也可能有助于睡眠。在一个温度比你全天习惯的温度略低几度的房间里,可能更容易安睡。这可以防止你的天然生物钟在半夜把你唤醒。同样的原则也适用于噪音。使用白噪音应用或设备可以掩盖会在夜间将你意外吵醒的声音。一夜好眠的关键是制定一套固定程序,尽可能消除各种变数。Prioritize seven to nine hours of high-quality sleep ahead of all else. You will be more likely to have a good workout, get more done at your job, and treat your loved ones better when you put sleep first. Keep in mind that every hour of sleep is a positive investment - not an expense. Based on all of the research on this topic, we need to make sleep a core value at home and work.把每天力争七到九个小时的高质量睡眠摆在其他任何事之前。当你把睡眠放在第一位的时候,你更有可能开心地健身,工作效率提高,更好地对待你的亲人。记住每一个小时的睡眠都是积极的投资,而不是一种出。根据有关这一主题的各种研究显示,我们需要在家庭和工作中把睡眠作为一个核心价值。Sacrificing sleep may no longer be a sign of strength.牺牲睡眠可能不再是实力的表现。 /201312/270457

  There#39;s no question that cilantro is a polarizing herb. Some of us heap it onto salsas and soups with gusto while others avoid cilantro because it smells like soap and tastes like crushed bugs.毋庸置疑,香菜受到了两种最为极端的对待:喜欢它的人会把成堆的香菜放到沙拉和汤里,而讨厌它的人却觉得香菜闻着像肥皂,尝起来像是在嚼臭虫。A large chunk of the US population—including the likes of culinary goddess Julia Child—have claimed that it tastes offensive. Kinda like soap, in fact. It sps further than these shores, too: a recent survey suggested that 21 percent of east Asians, 17 percent of Europeans, and 14 percent of people of African descent all claim to be repulsed by the stuff.包括著名厨师朱莉娅·查尔德在内的许多美国人都不喜爱香菜散发出的肥皂一样的味道。但实际上并非只有美国人这样认为,最近一项调查显示,21%的东亚人、17%的欧洲人和14%的非洲人都说他们讨厌这种蔬菜。But what separates the cilantro lovers from the haters? Is it hard-wired in our genes, as Harold McGee suggested a few years ago in the New York Times? It#39;s probably not so simple.但为什么有人对香菜爱得要死,有人却避之不及呢?是像食物专家哈洛德·麦基几年前在《纽约时报》上撰文说的那样,我们体内的基因决定对香菜的喜好吗?也许并没有那么简单。Geneticists at 23andMe in California asked about 25,000 people whether they like cilantro or think it smells soapy. When they searched the people#39;s DNA for regions that correlate with a distaste for the herb, a single spot jumped out. And, it sits right next to a cluster of odor-detecting genes, including one that is known to specifically recognize the soapy aromas in cilantro#39;s bouquet.位于加州的个人基因信息网站23andMe曾调查过25000人,问他们是否认为香菜闻着像肥皂。当网站的基因学家研究DNA,看是否有专门控制排斥香菜的基因位点时,他们找到了一个点,而且这个位点就在嗅觉检验基因簇的旁边,将香菜的味道归入肥皂味的基因也位于这个基因簇中。The strongest variant lies within a cluster of olfactory-receptor genes—part of the genome which influences our sense of smell. Buried within that cluster is a gene called OR6A2, which encodes a receptor that makes people sensitive to the aldehyde chemicals contributing to cilantro#39;s characteristic flavor.在这簇嗅觉受体基因中,有一称作OR6A2的最强变体,它负责编码一种受体基因,能使人们对香菜特殊气味的醛类物质异常敏感。But, ;it didn#39;t make a huge a difference in cilantro preference from person to person,; Nicholas Eriksson, the lead author on the study says. In fact, their results suggest that a hatred for cilantro has only a small underlying genetic component. He and his team just published their findings on the arXiv.org.不过该研究的主要作者尼古拉斯·埃里克森告诉记者:“个人对香菜的喜好和这个基因的关系并不大。”实际上,这个研究表明,基因组成只是某些人反感香菜的一小部分原因。埃里克森和他团队的这一研究已经发表在arXiv.org网站上。The scientists pinpointed three more genes that influence our perception of cilantro: Two of the genes are involved with tasting bitter foods and one gene detects pungent compounds, like those in wasabi.通过研究,这些科学家又指出三个影响我们对香菜接受度的基因。其中有两个和品尝苦味有关,第三个和探测类似芥末的刺激性气味有关。Overall, Eriksson says these studies demonstrate that DNA does shape our opinion of cilantro, but probably not enough that we can#39;t overcome it. ;It isn#39;t like your height, that you#39;re stuck with. People can change it,; he says.总之,埃里克森认为,虽然DNA的确会影响人们对香菜的好恶,但却还在可控范围内。他说:“这并不像你的身高一样,一旦定型就不可改变。我们还是可以改变对香菜的看法的。”As Nature reports, McGee offers a strategy for building up an appreciation for the herb: Try a cilantro pesto. Crushing the leaves, he says, releases enzymes that convert the soapy, stinky compounds into more mild aromas.根据《自然杂志》的报道,麦基为我们提供了一个接受香菜的食谱:香菜蒜香酱。把香菜的叶子捣碎,这样香菜就能释放出多种酶,把刺鼻的肥皂味变成更轻微的香气。But Julia Child, an avowed cilantro hater, said she would just pick it out and throw it on the floor, Nature reports.不过《自然杂志》也报道,查尔德依然坚定地站在反对香菜的阵营里,她说她更愿意把香菜挑出来扔到地上。 /201305/240212IT’S time to count your lucky stars — if you are a Gemini.如果你是双子座,那么你现在可以去计算自己的幸运指数了!A study of the 1,000 richest people in Britain has found that those born under the sign of the twins have the best chance of making a fortune.英国开展的一项研究调查了最有钱的1000名富人后发现,双子黄道出生的人更有机会赚大钱。They represent nearly one in ten of our wealthiest and include Sir Paul McCartney, Sir Tom Jones and Jamie Oliver.双子座出生的这些人几乎占富人群体的十分之一,其中有著名歌手保罗·麦卡特尼、爵士歌手汤姆·琼斯和名厨杰米·奥利弗。Our analysis, based on a sneak preview of the 25th Sunday Times Rich List, shows which star signs are best represented by our wealthiest citizens.根据《星期日泰晤士报》第25届年度英国富人榜,我们分析得出最富有的英国人体现出的鲜明星座特征。Geminis, born May 22 to June 21, topped the horoscope league for the third year in a row with 9.9 per cent of our richest.出生于5月22日到6月21日的双子座占了富人群体的9.9%,这是双子座星人第三年问鼎星座富人排行榜。But bottom of the pile were Scorpios, with only 6.5 per cent.而排在末尾的是天蝎座,只占6.5%。They include Chelsea owner Roman Abramovich and Macca’s third wife Nancy Shevell who has a lucrative stake in her family’s US transport business.这一群体包括切尔西州长罗曼·阿布拉莫维奇和麦卡的第三任妻子南茜·谢维尔。南茜·谢维尔拥有其家族在美国的物流产业的股份。Capricorn was the second richest sign, with 9.6 per cent. Third with 9.4 per cent was Aries, then Taurus (8.9%), Leo (8.6%), Sagittarius (8.2%), Cancer (8%), Pisces (7.9%), Libra (7.8%), Aquarius (7.7%) and Virgo (7.5%).羯座是第二有钱的星座,占富人群体的9.6%。白羊座占9.4%,排第三。接着是金牛座8.9%;狮子座8.6%;射手座8.2%;巨蟹座8%;双鱼座7.9%;天平座7.8%;水瓶座7.7%;处女座7.5%。 /201307/246850


  When you#39;re in your 40s, it#39;s pretty common to need ing glasses. You might need smaller wine glasses, too. 到了40岁,需要佩戴老花镜是很常见的。与此同时,你可能也需要换更小的酒杯了。 That#39;s because alcohol hits people harder in their 40s and 50s than it did during their 20s and 30s. The reasons for this include changes in body composition to brain sensitivity and liver functioning. Lifestyle factors are at play, too. And since people tend to take more medications -- both prescription and over-the-counter -- as they age, there are more chances for uncomfortable and even dangerous booze-drug mixing. 这是因为人到了四五十岁时,酒精的影响比二三十岁的时候更厉害。原因包括身体组成、大脑敏感度和肝功能等各方面的变化。生活方式也有影响。另外,由于人们年纪增大时会用更多药物――包括处方药和非处方药――酒精和药物混合的机率就会更大,从而造成身体不舒甚至出现危险。 #39;All of the effects of alcohol are sort of amplified with age,#39; says David W. Oslin, a professor of psychiatry at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. #39;Withdrawal is a little bit more complicated. Hangovers are a little bit more complicated.#39; 宾夕法尼亚大学佩雷尔曼医学院(Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania)精神病学教授大卫#12539;奥斯林(David W. Oslin)说:“酒精的作用会随着年龄的增长而放大。戒酒变得更复杂了,宿醉也变得更复杂了。” Part of the issue is that people in their 40s and older simply tend not to drink as much or as often as those in their 20s and 30s, which lowers tolerance. #39;You#39;re becoming more work-oriented, more family-oriented,#39; says Robert Pandina, director of the Center of Alcohol Studies at Rutgers University. 一个原因在于40岁以上的人往往不会像二三十岁时那样喝得那么多和那么频繁了,这样会降低酒量。罗格斯大学(Rutgers University)酒精研究中心(Center of Alcohol Studies)主任罗伯特#12539;潘迪纳(Robert Pandina)说:“人会变得更以工作和家庭为重。” So when you do drink #39;you might have a more sensitive response to alcohol because you#39;ve lowered your exposure to alcohol over all.#39; 所以当你喝酒的时候,“你可能会对酒精的反应更敏感,因为你已经整个降低了酒精消耗量”。 Some people swear that only certain types of alcohol -- red wine, tequila -- are a problem. Generally, doctors say there#39;s little science indicating that some drinks make people drunker or lead to more miserable hangovers. It is true, however, that people at any age can develop sensitivities to sulfites and tannins in wine, which can cause headaches and an upset stomach, Dr. Pandina says. And the carbonation in sparkling wines or even in mixed drinks like whiskey and Coke #39;seems to increase how rapidly alcohol is absorbed,#39; says Reid Blackwelder, president of the American Academy of Family Physicians and a practicing family doctor in Kingsport, Tenn. 有人断定只有某些种类的酒会有问题,比如葡萄酒和龙舌兰酒。医生普遍表示,鲜有科学依据表明某些种类的酒会让人更容易醉或者导致更严重的宿醉。不过潘迪纳士说,人在任何年纪确实都会对葡萄酒里的亚硫酸盐和单宁酸形成敏感性,这两种物质会造成头痛以及胃部不适。美国家庭医生学会(American Academy of Family Physicians)主席、田纳西州金斯波特(Kingsport)执业家庭医生瑞德#12539;布莱克韦尔德(Reid Blackwelder)说,起泡酒甚至威士忌和可乐等混合饮料中的碳酸“似乎会增加酒精吸收的速度”。 About 52% of people age 45 to 64 are #39;regular#39; drinkers, meaning they had at least 12 drinks in the previous year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention#39;s 2011 National Health Interview Survey. 美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,简称CDC)2011年全国健康采访调查(National Health Interview Survey)的结果显示,45岁至64岁的人群中,约52%是“经常性”饮酒者,也就是他们上一年至少喝过12杯酒。 Body composition starts to change as early as the 30s. As people age, they tend to lose muscle mass, while fat content increases. Alcohol isn#39;t distributed in fat. People also have less total body water as they get older. So if several people have the same amount to drink, those with more fat and less muscle and body water will have more alcohol circulating in their bloodstream. (This is also partly why women of any age tend to feel alcohol#39;s effects more than men.) 身体组成早在人30多岁的时候就开始改变。随着年龄增长,肌肉往往会开始减少,而脂肪含量会增加。酒精不能溶于脂肪。身体所含水分也会随着年龄增长而减少,因此如果几个人喝同量的酒,脂肪多而肌肉和身体水分少的人就会有更多的酒精在血液中循环。(这也是为何各个年龄段的女性通常比男性更容易感受到酒精的影响。) #39;A lot of older people are borderline dehydrated. They have less body water just from the natural effects of aging,#39; Dr. Blackwelder says. It helps to drink water and have a full stomach when knocking one back. 布莱克韦尔德士说:“很多年纪大的人都处于濒临脱水状态。由于衰老的自然效应,他们体内的水分会减少。”喝酒的时候大量饮水以及保持饱腹状态会有帮助。 The majority of alcohol is metabolized by the liver, which changes when people hit their 50s. (A small amount is metabolized in the stomach and mouth.) The liver gets bigger as people get older, but the organ becomes less efficient. Blood flow decreases, as do the number of hepatocytes, the liver#39;s functional cells, says Gary Murray, acting director of the Division of Metabolism and Health Effects at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism at the National Institutes of Health. 酒精大部分由肝脏代谢(小部分在胃和口腔代谢),而人到了50岁的时候就会不一样。年纪越大,肝脏就会越大,但功能却越来越弱。美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)国家酒精滥用及酗酒问题研究所(National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism)代谢和健康影响部门代理主任加里#12539;穆雷(Gary Murray)说,血液流动会减缓,肝细胞的数量也会减少。 Certain enzyme levels dip, too, including one type of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, which breaks down alcohol. Women of all ages tend to have lower levels of this enzyme in the stomach. But between the ages of 50 and 60, men see their levels slide, too. All these changes mean #39;you have a prolonged exposure to alcohol and possibly a little bit bigger buzz,#39; when you drink, Dr. Murray says. There#39;s also some evidence that hormonal changes around menopause can increase women#39;s sensitivity to alcohol. Healthy young people tend to metabolize about one drink per hour, Dr. Murray says. 某些酶的水平也会降低,包括一种降解酒精的脱氢酶。各个年龄段女性胃里的脱氢酶水平都较低,但男性到了50岁和60岁,脱氢酶水平也会降低。穆雷士说,所有这些变化都意味着,在你喝酒的时候“消耗酒精的时间会延长,可能酒劲儿也会更大一点”。穆雷说,还有据表明,更年期前后荷尔蒙水平的改变会增加女性对酒精的敏感度。健康的年轻人通常大概一小时代谢掉一杯酒。 Stephanie Draeken used to enjoy a glass or two of wine several nights a week. #39;I have four kids. I need my wine,#39; says the stay-at-home mother in Austin, Texas. But since turning 40 nearly two years ago, Ms. Draeken says if she has even one glass of wine now she#39;ll #39;wake up in the middle of the night with a horrible headache and the next day is like a college-style hangover without the college-style fun,#39; she says. 得克萨斯州奥斯汀(Austin)的全职母亲斯蒂芬妮#12539;德雷肯(Stephanie Draeken)以前喜欢每周有几天晚上喝一两杯葡萄酒。她说:“我有四个孩子,我需要喝酒。”但近两年前快40的时候,她说即使只喝一杯酒,她都会“在半夜醒来,头疼得厉害,而且第二天感觉就像大学时的宿醉一样,只不过没有大学时的那种乐趣”。 She tried switching to higher-priced wine, then stuck with white wine. She tried champagne. #39;It didn#39;t matter,#39; she says. She says she now rarely drinks wine and limits herself to an occasional vodka and soda. 她尝试过换成更高价格的葡萄酒,然后老是喝白葡萄酒。她尝试过香槟。她说:“不起作用。”她说她现在很少喝葡萄酒,只偶尔喝伏特加或苏打饮料。 Alcohol-drug interactions can become more of a problem, too, since older people are more likely to take medications. Alcohol and many medications are metabolized by the same enzymes in the liver, which can enhance the effects of alcohol or the medications. Heartburn drugs like Zantac interfere with the metabolism of alcohol, thus raising blood-alcohol levels. 酒精和药物的互相作用也是一个问题,因为年纪较大的人更有可能用药物。酒精和许多药物都是由肝脏中同样的酶代谢的,这就会加强酒精或药物的作用。善卫得(Zantac等缓解胃灼热的药物会干扰酒精的代谢,从而增加血液中的酒精浓度。 Acetaminophen (Tylenol) poses another problem because, combined with alcohol, it can damage the liver. 对乙酰氨基酚(商品名“泰诺”(Tylenol))会造成另外一个问题,因为它和酒精混合后会损伤肝脏。 Mixing alcohol with blood thinners like Coumadin can be particularly dangerous, causing bleeding. #39;People on Coumadin shouldn#39;t really drink at all,#39; says Dr. Oslin. And taking alcohol with some pain medications and benzodiazepines (antianxiety drugs) can make you #39;more prone to sedation, more prone to cardiovascular risk and more prone to overdose,#39; Dr. Oslin says. 酒精和可密定(Coumadin)等抗凝血药物混合尤其危险,会导致出血。奥斯林士说:“用可密定的人其实一点酒都不应该喝。”他说,酒精和某些止痛药及苯二氮平类药物(抗焦虑药物)一起用会让人“更容易进入镇静状态,更易患心血管病,更容易药过量”。 People with certain medical conditions should also be cautious with alcohol, doctors say. Long-term alcohol use can raise blood pressure. And alcohol tends to irritate the stomach. 医生们表示,身患某些疾病的人也应在喝酒上多加注意。长期饮酒会使血压升高,酒精还会刺激胃部。 Barring health problems and medication interactions, doctors generally become concerned when people drink more than a moderate amount of alcohol. That is defined as up to two drinks per day for men and up to one drink per day for women, according to the latest federal Dietary Guidelines for Americans. (A standard drink is about 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine or 1.5 ounces of liquor, according to the CDC.) 除健康问题和药物作用以外,医生通常还担心饮酒过量的问题。根据联邦政府最新的美国人膳食指南(Dietary Guidelines for Americans),适度饮酒的定义是男性每天最多两杯,女性每天最多一杯。(根据CDC标准,标准的一杯酒约为12盎司的啤酒、五盎司的葡萄酒或1.5盎司的烈酒。) In fact, there#39;s some evidence that a moderate amount of alcohol can have health benefits. Studies have linked moderate alcohol consumption with a reduced risk of cardiovascular problems and death overall. Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risks of liver disease, stroke, high blood pressure, certain types of cancer and dementia, beyond the obvious accidents and injuries. 事实上,有据显示适量饮酒有益健康。有研究表明适量饮酒可降低心血管疾病和死亡的风险。过量饮酒除了会导致显而易见的事故和受伤之外,还会增加肝脏疾病、中风、高血压、某些种类的癌症和痴呆的风险。 Particularly beginning in the 50s and 60s, the brain is more sensitive to alcohol. Booze basically enhances normal age-related cognitive decline. Neurons lose speed. Specifically, the insulating myelin sheaths around the axons of neurons -- the parts responsible for transmitting information to other neurons -- get smaller. As people age, #39;neurons are not as efficient. So you impair them with a little bit of alcohol, they are that much more inefficient,#39; says Dr. Oslin. #39;Somebody who goes to a cocktail party at 65 can have one or two drinks and be really impaired.#39; 尤其是从50和60多岁开始,人的大脑就会对酒精更敏感。酒精基本上会加重正常的衰老引起的认知功能衰退。神经元传播速度也会降低。具体来说,神经元轴突周围的绝缘性髓鞘――负责将信息传送至其他神经元的部分――变小了。奥斯林士说,随着年纪增加,“神经元的效率会不如以前,所以你用一点酒精损害它们后,它们就会变得更没有效率。65岁的人去鸡尾酒会时喝一两杯酒就会损害很大”。 Older people are also more affected by alcohol#39;s impact on sleep, a fact that can turn a mild hangover into a must-stay-in-bed-all-day affair. #39;Alcohol in all ages wrecks our REM sleep,#39; says Alison A. Moore, professor of medicine and psychiatry at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles. #39;Older adults are more likely to have poor sleep. [Alcohol] can make sleep even more fragmented.#39; 年纪大的人的睡眠也会更容易受到酒精的影响,轻微宿醉会变成全天都得躺在床上。加州大学洛杉矶分校(University of California, Los Angeles)大卫格芬医学院(David Geffen School of Medicine)医药及精神病学教授艾莉森#12539;尔(Alison A. Moore)说:“无论任何年龄,酒精都会破坏快速眼球运动睡眠,年长的人更有可能睡眠不好。(酒精)会导致睡眠更分散。” /201312/266996




  For many of us, it is the rocket fuel that gets us going first thing in the morning.对我们许多人来说,早起第一件事就喝咖啡则如同火箭燃料一般,能让我们清醒起来动起来。But one expert has argued that to get the maximum effect of caffeine, it#39;s better to hold on a few hours - because coffee is most effective if consumed between 9.30am and 11.30am.但是有专家认为,要想获得咖啡因的最佳效果还得再等上些许时间。因为在上午9:30-11:30这个时间段喝咖啡才是最有效的。Steven Miller, a neuroscientist from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Maryland, says it is best to drink coffee when the body’s levels of the hormone cortisol are low because caffeine interacts with the hormone.马里兰州健康科学统一务大学的神经学家史蒂芬·米勒认为,最好在身体中的荷尔蒙皮质醇水平偏低时喝咖啡,因为这时咖啡因和荷尔蒙相互作用。He explained that people who drink coffee when their cortisol levels are high –namely, between 8am and 9am –develop a tolerance to caffeine, meaning it becomes less effective.他解释道,当人们在上午8-9点中皮质醇水平较高时喝咖啡,身体对咖啡因有耐受性,并不是很有效。Cortisol controls the body clock and causes people to feel wide awake, The Telegraph reports. The body’s levels of the hormone are usually high just after a person wakes up but start to fall about an hour afterwards.据《每日电讯报》报道,皮质醇控制人体生物钟,让人们感觉很清醒。人体内的激素水平在刚刚睡醒后通常较高,但大约一小时后便开始下降。Mr Miller argues that it is during this drop in cortisol levels that people get the most benefit from the caffeine in coffee –it gives them a boost as it encourages cortisol production when their cortisol levels start to drop and they do not become resistant to its benefits.米勒先生认为,正是因为这种皮质醇水平下降,人们从咖啡中所含的咖啡因获得了最大益处——因可以振奋精神,在皮质醇激素下降时刺激皮质醇产生,而且人体对咖啡因的吸收不会受到皮质醇的抵制。He explained that cortisol levels also peak at lunchtime and between 5.30pm and 6.30pm, meaning that these would also not be good times to drink coffee.他解释道,皮质醇水平在中午以及下午5:30-6:30之间达到峰值,这也就意味着这两个时间段也不是喝咖啡的最佳时间。Writing on his blog he said: ‘If we are drinking caffeine at a time when your cortisol concentration in the blood is at its peak, you probably should not be drinking it.他在客中写道:“如果当我们的皮质醇浓度在血液中达到高峰时喝了咖啡,那么你可能不应该在这个时候喝咖啡了。‘This is because cortisol production is strongly related to your level of alertness and cortisol peaks for your 24 hour rhythm between 8 and 9am on average.“这是因为皮质醇激素的生产与人的警醒度紧密相关,在一天24小时的生物钟里,早上8-9点皮质醇达到顶峰。”He added that people who drink a coffee first thing in the morning, when their cortisol levels are naturally high, will soon find themselves needing to make their coffee stronger and stronger to get the desired effect.他补充道,人们早起第一件事就是喝咖啡,他们的皮质醇水平自然就高了,很快他们就会发现自己需要喝咖啡来达到所需的效果。However, he did accept that cortisol levels at different times of day vary from person to person meaning that the best time of day to drink a coffee also differs between people.不过,他确实赞同每个人在一天中的不同时间段所接受的皮质醇水平因人而异这个说法,即每天喝咖啡的最佳时间也因人而异。For example, people who get up very early may find their cortisol levels drop earlier than those of people who get up late.例如,起的很早的人可能会发现他们的皮质醇水平比那些起的晚的人的皮质醇水平下降的早。He says it helps turn energy into sugar to be utilised by cells in the body and that it also plays a role in controlling the body clock.他说,这有助于利用体内细胞把能量转化成糖,并且对控制人体生物钟也起作用。 /201311/266006

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