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贵州市贵阳息烽县中医医院看肠道疾病好不好QQ互动贵州医科大学附属白云医院治疗直肠溃疡价格

2018年10月23日 19:55:45    日报  参与评论()人

贵阳市微创医院治疗直肠息肉价格云岩区黔灵人民医院看痔疮多少钱The Chinese government has been making bold announcements about the future of its space program — space stations Mars rovers Moon landings the whole shebang. And in addition to being of note space-wise the country#39;s plans have some pretty interesting political implications.中国政府对其太空计划的未来已经做出了大胆的预告:空间站、火星探测器、登月等等包罗万象。除了空间方面值得注意外,该国的计划还有一些很有意思的政治影响。This part of the Chinese space program — the non-military part — has operated on two main lines of effort: a robotic precursor line to explore places and establish basic technological competencies and a human spaceflight line that is always trying to catch up with the robotic line.、中国空间计划的这一部分----非军用部分----分成两条主线运作:一条是机器人前导主线,用以探索空间,并建立基础的技术能力;另一条是人类航天主线,总是试图赶上机器人主线的进度。The Chinese plan to launch the fourth lunar mission in their Chang#39;e series of lunar missions in 2018. Chang#39;e 1 and Chang#39;e 2 were both orbiters. The third and fourth in the series were intended to be landers. The upcoming fifth mission (expected to land in 2017) will land on the lunar surface and then return soil samples to Earth. And yes 5 is due to be launched before 4. But there#39;s a reason why.中国计划于2018年发射嫦娥系列月球探测的第四次任务。嫦娥1号和嫦娥2号都是绕月轨道器,嫦娥3号和嫦娥4号是着陆器。即将发射的第五次任务预计将于2017年在月球表面着陆,然后把月球土壤样品带回地球。没错,嫦娥5号的发射将会早于嫦娥4号,这是有原因的。Chang#39;e 3 launched in 2013 was China#39;s first moon landing and its first robotic lunar rover. Data from the lander led to the discovery of Ilmenite a commercially important titanium ore on the Moon. In other words the mission was a big success.2013年发射的嫦娥3号是中国的第一次月球着陆任务,携带了中国第一个机器人月球车。着陆器传回的数据使得人们在月球上发现了钛铁矿 —— 一种有着重大经济价值的钛矿。换而言之,此次任务取得了巨大成功。So big in fact that they didn#39;t know what to do with Chang#39;e 4 since the Chinese hit enough of their mission obxtives that they felt they could proceed directly to missions in which would return lunar samples to Earth. Announcements this year have revealed that the Chinese are going to attempt a first-ever landing of a robotic probe on the far side of the Moon in 2018 — that#39;s Chang#39;e 4#39;s modified obxtive.事实上他们不知道中国的嫦娥4号去做什么,自从中国达到他的目标,他们知道自己能够直接完成从月球取样返回地球。今年的报告显示,中国正在尝试在2018年使用机器人探测器首次着陆月球背--这是嫦娥4号任务。China has also announced its intention to land its first entirely Chinese-supported mission to Mars in 2020. The goals for this mission are pretty ambitious as this will be China#39;s first Mars orbiter lander and rover all in one. There have been informal statements floating around for a few years regarding the possibility of a Mars sample return mission in the 2030 timefrx though these press statements don#39;t appear to be official Chinese policy.中国也宣称计划在2020年发射第一个全中国造的探测器着陆火星。这一雄心勃勃的任务将包含中国首个火星着陆器和火星车。非正式的报告显示中国近几年在考虑2030年完成火星采样返回任务的可能性,该消息没有出现在政府官方政策中。 /201608/461547贵阳中医学院第二附属医院治疗肛门瘙痒价格 贵阳铁路医院看肠炎好不好

贵阳肛肠专科专家The printers buzzed to life in every firehouse in New York City last week, and each spit out an identical bulletin. It bore the worst sort of news the Fire Department must relay to its members, the Code 5-5-5-5. A death in the line of duty.上周,纽约市每个消防站的打印机都开始嗡嗡作响,吐出一份相同的通告。上面是消防局必须传达给成员的最坏的那一类消息,代码5-5-5-5,意为有人因公殉职。“With regret, the department announces the death of Battalion Chief Lawrence T. Stack,” the note , “as a result of injuries sustained while operating at Manhattan Box 5-5-8087.”“消防局遗憾地宣布,消防大队长劳伦斯·T·斯戴克(Lawrence T. Stack),因在曼哈顿火警箱5-5-8087执行任务时负伤去世,”通告写道。That box number was grimly familiar to all firefighters. It was followed by the time of the call from that box — 8:47 a.m. — and the date: “September 11, 2001.”消防员熟悉这个令人毛骨悚然的火警箱号码 。紧跟在它后面的是从该箱打来电话的时间——上午8点47分——和日期:“2001年9月11日”。The announcement and the “four fives,” as the code is known, had not, until now, been made for Stack for an important reason: His remains had not been found. For his family, this is the end of a frustrating and ultimately fruitless wait of nearly 15 years.在这之前并未就斯戴克的死发出这样的公告和“四个五”,是源于一个重要原因:没找到他的尸骨。现在,对他的家人来说,这意味着近15年的等待结束了,希望最终落了空。Stack, 58, had served almost 33 years. His funeral will be held Friday at Sts. Philip and James Church in St. James on Long Island, with the expansive pageantry and huge turnout of firefighters and officers that accompany all departmental ceremonies.时年58岁的斯戴克从事消防员工作近33年。他的葬礼将于周五在长岛圣詹姆斯的圣斐理伯与圣雅各伯教堂(Sts. Philip and James Church)举行,消防局各部门也将举行盛大悼念仪式,组织大量消防员和官员参加。Its timing this week, alongside the first funerals of the shooting victims in Orlando, Florida, is accidental, but weighted, bringing an added poignancy. As the country mourns the latest victims of a terrorist attack on its soil, a funeral in New York lays to rest another.时间安排在本周,和第一批佛罗里达奥兰多击案受害者葬礼同期,这属于偶然,但也具有重要意义,让气氛更加伤感。在举国哀悼这片国土上距今最近的恐怖袭击的受害者时,纽约的一场葬礼将让另一名受害者得到安息。Stack’s family came to learn where and how he perished that day. But they put off the funeral, hoping that some trace of him would be identified from what was recovered at ground zero.斯戴克的家人后来得知了他那天去世的地点和死因。但他们推迟了葬礼,希望能从在世贸中心遗址找到的遗骸中发现他。“Weeks turned into months,” said Lt. Michael Stack, 46, one of the chief’s two sons, both firefighters. “Months turned into years. Two years turned into five, turned into 10. Now it’s 15.”“从几周变成了几个月,”斯戴克46岁的儿子迈克尔·斯戴克(Michael Stack)中尉说。“又从几个月变成了几年。先是两年变成五年,再变成10年。现在已经过去15年了。”斯戴克的两个儿子均为消防员。The Catholic funeral Mass requires the presence of remains of the deceased. This requirement was satisfied, unknowingly, by Lawrence Stack, in an act of generosity 18 months before his death.天主教的葬礼弥撒要求现场要有逝者的遗骸。劳伦斯·斯戴克去世18个月前的一次慷慨之举,无意间满足了这个条件。“Mom came home and said: ‘There’s a little boy in East Islip, and he has cancer. I’m going to donate blood. He needs it,#39;” Michael Stack recalled.“我妈回到家说:‘东艾斯利普有个小男孩得了癌症。我要去献血。他需要输血,’”迈克尔·斯戴克回忆说Lawrence Stack joined his wife, Theresa. He added his name to the bone marrow registry as a possible donor on March 6, 2000, and, in doing so, gave a blood sample for type matching. Stack’s marrow was not a match for an immediate transplant, and the blood sample was put into cold storage.劳伦斯·斯戴克和妻子特蕾莎(Theresa)一同前往。2000年3月6日,他把自己的名字写在了骨髓登记簿上,表示愿意捐献。在这个过程中,他提供了一份血液样本,用于配型。斯戴克的骨髓与一位须立即接受骨髓移植的受者不符,于是他的血液样本被冷藏了起来On the morning of Sept. 11, 2001, Stack was in his office in Brooklyn near the waterfront, filling out a report on a recent fatal fire that brought three Code 5-5-5-5 transmissions. That fire, in a Queens warehouse on June 17, 2001, became known for the day it happened: the Father’s Day fire.2001年9月11日上午,斯戴克在布鲁克林滨水区附近的办公室里整理报告,是关于前不久的一场火灾的。火灾发生在2001年6月17日,导致消防系统发出了三次5-5-5-5代码。因为当天的日期,那场火灾也被叫做父亲节大火。Word arrived at the office immediately after the first plane hit the north tower of the World Trade Center. Stack and others hurried to the roof with binoculars. They saw the second plane strike the south tower.第一架飞机撞击世界贸易中心的北楼后,消息立刻传到了办公室。斯戴克和其他人急忙拿着双筒望远镜上到了屋顶。他们眼看着第二架飞机撞向南楼。“He lowered his binoculars and said, ‘Guys, I think they’re going to need us,#39;” Michael Stack said, recalling what he has been told of that day.“他放下望远镜说,‘伙计们,我想他们需要我们,’”迈克尔·斯戴克回忆说。他从其他人那里了解到了当天的情况。Michael Stack hurried to the World Trade Center site that day. “I came up, and I go, ‘Oh my God,#39;” he said. “It was just so vast. So big.”那天,迈克尔·斯戴克赶去了世界贸易中心的现场。“我来到这里,喊着‘啊,天哪,’”他说。“实在太大了。太大了。”He knew from the accounts of others that his father was dead, and he returned to the pit, day after day.他是从其他人的叙述中得知父亲去世的。他日复一日地回到现场。“Dig and look, search, hope,” he said. “That’s what I had in mind. I’m going to find him.”“挖、找、搜索,心存希望,”他说。“我当时的想法就是,我要找到他。”Nothing.但什么都没找到。“I always wanted that department phone call,” saying remains had been found, he said. The family visited a memorial site in Hauppauge on his birthday and sang to him. But it wasn’t like visiting a grave.他说,“我总是希望接到消防局打来的电话,”说找到他的遗体了。家人会在他生日那天去霍波格的一处纪念地,给他唱歌。但这和扫墓不一样。Finally, last year, Theresa Stack said enough. “She drew a line in the sand where she said, ‘We’re not doing it past 15 years,#39;” Michael Stack said.最终,特蕾莎·斯戴克在去年说够了。“她做出了决定,说‘已经过去15年了,我们不能再这么下去了,’”迈克尔·斯戴克说。The Office of Chief Medical Examiner has identified 65 percent of remains recovered from the World Trade Center. The rest is damaged enough that current identification technology is of no use, and remains in storage.首席法医办公室(Office of Chief Medical Examiner)已经确认了65%的世贸中心遗骸的身份。剩下的受损严重,目前的辨认技术没有用,至今存放在库房里。The New York Blood Center examined its list of donors after Sept. 11 and discovered that 143 firefighters who died that day had signed up to be marrow donors, most of them while still in training as rookies. The center notified the families and set aside their blood samples; over the years, it has given the small vials of blood to some relatives. Some put the vials in their freezers at home. Some bury them at funerals, as with Firefighter Michael Paul Ragusa in 2003.9·11事件后,纽约血液中心(New York Blood Center)检查了捐献者名单,发现有143名在当天牺牲的消防员做过骨髓捐献登记。他们中的大部分是尚在接受培训的新手。该中心通知了家属,并将他们的血液样本挑了出来。这些年里,该中心把那些装着血液的小瓶还给了遇难者的亲属。一些人把它们放在了家中的冷柜里。一些人在葬礼上把它们埋入土中。2003年消防员迈克尔·保罗·拉古萨(Michael Paul Ragusa)的葬礼上就出现了这一幕。Theresa Stack and her sons visited the blood center last year. The center located Lawrence Stack’s blood in a storage facility in Minnesota. The vial will be buried Friday at Calverton National Cemetery in recognition of Stack’s service in the U.S. Navy.去年,特蕾莎·斯戴克和儿子去了血液中心。中心在明尼苏达州的一处库房找到了劳伦斯·斯戴克的血液。周五,小瓶将被葬在卡尔弗顿国家公墓(Calverton National Cemetery),这一待遇是因为斯戴克曾在美国海军役。;We will have someplace to go,” Theresa Stack, 71, said Thursday.“我们以后也有地方去了,”71岁的特蕾莎·斯戴克周四说。 /201606/449938贵州省治疗肛瘘医院 As many of its competitors in the chip industry form partnerships in China, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing said on Monday that it was taking a different route: setting up a new manufacturing plant without help from a local partner.虽然台积电(TSMC)在芯片业的很多竞争对手都在中国大陆建立了伙伴关系,但该公司本周一表示,它将采取另外一种做法:不与当地伙伴合作,而是独立修建一家新的制造厂。The move is designed to protect its technology while playing to a China market brimming with makers of inexpensive smartphones. It is charting a course between keeping complex chip production facilities outside China and licensing technology to Chinese partners.这样做的目的是既保护自己的技术,同时又靠近充斥着廉价智能手机制造商的中国市场。一些公司坚持将复杂的芯片生产设施设在中国境外,另一些则向中国合作伙伴提供技术授权,台积电则选择了两者之间的第三条途径。In an announcement Monday, Taiwan Semiconductor said it had submitted an application to Taiwan’s Ministry of Economic Affairs to invest in an advanced chip production facility in Nanjing, China. The total value of the investment is expected to be about billion, though a spokesman for the company said it expected to save money by using equipment from facilities in Taiwan and capitalizing on Chinese subsidies.在本周一的声明中,台积电表示已经向台湾经济部提交申请,拟在南京投资兴建一家先进的芯片制造厂。投资总额预计约为30亿美元,不过该公司发言人表示,他们会使用来自台湾工厂的设备,并利用大陆政府提供的补贴,因此预计会节省一些资金。In a nod to concerns about advanced chip protection technology being leaked to Chinese competitors, Taiwan Semiconductor said in a separate statement that by the time the facility in China is up and running, an advanced operation in Taiwan would be churning out chips a generation more sophisticated.针对先进芯片技术可能会被泄露给中国竞争对手的担忧,台积电在另一则声明中说,当这家新工厂在大陆启动运行的时候,台湾的一处先进设施会大量产出更精密的新一代芯片。The company added that it “comprehensively protects its proprietary information” and, in referring to its fabrication plant, emphasized that it would “have whole ownership of the fab in China, which will help protect our intellectual property rights.”台积电还表示将“对自己的专有资料进行全面保护”。在提及这家新厂时,公司强调自己“全资拥有大陆这家工厂,这将有助于保护我们的知识产权”。Taiwan Semiconductor’s approach stands in contrast to some of its rivals and partners in chip making. With the Chinese government set to spend tens of billions of dollars to build its chip industry, many foreign companies have been setting up partnerships and licensing technology in China.台积电的做法与芯片制造业的一些竞争对手和合作伙伴形成了鲜明对比。随着中国政府开始投入数以百亿美元计的资金,建立自己的芯片产业,很多外国公司都已经与中国建立了合作关系,将技术授权给中方。During the past year, Qualcomm has partnered with the Chinese chip maker Semiconductor Manufacturing International to develop advanced chip production; Intel has invested in a subsidiary of China’s new national chip champion, Tsinghua Unigroup; and IBM has licensed some of its chip technology to a smaller Chinese partner.过去一年里,高通(Qualcomm)与中国芯片制造商中芯国际(Semiconductor Manufacturing International)合作开发先进芯片生产;中国新的国家级芯片龙头企业清华紫光集团的一个子公司获得了英特尔(Intel)的投资;IBM也已经将一些芯片技术授权给了一家较小的中国合作伙伴。As new links have grown, so, too, have concerns. In the ed States, politicians and defense analysts say they are worried about Chinese theft of technology or advantages gained by close cooperation in the semiconductor industry. Advanced chip technology powers supercomputers that are used to manage defense systems, research new weapons and model things like nuclear detonations.随着新的关系日益建立,一些人的顾虑也在增加。美国政界人士和防务分析人士表达了担忧,认为中国可能会通过密切合作而窃取技术或取得竞争优势。先进芯片技术可以为超级计算机提供动力,后者可用于管理防务系统、研发新型武器、模拟核爆炸等任务。With an economy still based heavily on the chip supply chain, Taiwan’s government has also been particularly careful about allowing its most advanced semiconductor firms, like Taiwan Semiconductor, to cooperate closely with China.芯片供应链仍然是台湾经济的重要柱,因此,对于是否批准台积电这样的顶尖半导体公司与大陆开展密切合作,台湾政府也特别谨慎。Still, the recent spending spree by the Chinese government and chip companies has made a major impression on the island, and people in the industry in Taiwan acknowledge that the Chinese market is critical. For example, in its statement Taiwan Semiconductor said more than 50 percent of its revenue over the past five years had come from Chinese customers.然而,中国大陆的政府和芯片公司最近的投资热潮给台湾留下了深刻印象,台湾业内人士也承认大陆市场非常重要。例如台积电就在声明中表示,过去五年里,该公司收入的50%以上都来自于大陆客户。 /201512/414912贵阳云岩区微创医院治疗肛门瘙痒价格

毕节市第一人民医院看肠息肉好不好Minister of Environmental Protection Chen Jining last Monday said that Chinese cities reported more ;good air; days in 2016.环保部部长陈吉宁上周一表示,2016年,全国城市空气优良天数有所增加。Last year, the 338 cities monitored by the ministry enjoyed good air quality on 78.8% of days, up 2.1 percentage points from 2015, said Chen at a bimonthly session of the National People#39;s Congress Standing Committee.陈吉宁在每两月举行一次的全国人大常委会会议上介绍称,去年,环保部监测的338个城市的空气质量优良天数比例为78.8%,同比提高2.1个百分点。Those cities reported heavy or even worse air pollution on 2.6% of days, down 0.6 percentage points, Chen said.陈吉宁表示,重度及以上空气污染天数比例为2.6%,同比下降0.6个百分点。China received 33,000 tip-offs on environmental violations, issued fines worth over RMB440m in more than 8,500 cases, and detained 720 people in more than 800 cases in 2016, he added.他还表示,2016年,我国受理群众环境违法行为举报3.3万件,立案处罚8500余件、罚款超过4.4亿元,立案侦查800余件、拘留720人。Chen called for beefed up efforts to fight air, water, and soil pollution and fully implement action plans.陈吉宁呼吁要加强治理空气、水、土壤污染的力度,全面实施行动计划。According to the minister, the State Council last year approved the establishment of 18 national nature reserves and carried out remote monitoring of human activities in 446 national nature reserves.据这位部长称,国务院去年批准新成立18处国家级自然保护区,并在446处国家级自然保护区对人人类活动进行遥感监测。Chen also stressed tightening nuclear and radiation safety supervision.此外,陈吉宁还强调了加强核与辐射的安全监督。 /201705/506915 It hasn’t escaped the notice of pundits that the political iconoclasts Bernie Sanders and Donald Trump have something in common: they’re sceptical about trade. Trump, for example, has riffed expansively: “We don’t win any more. We don’t beat China in trade. We don’t beat Japan … We can’t beat Mexico, at the border or in trade.” Sanders expressed his concerns with a little more precision: “While bad trade agreements are not the only reason why manufacturing jobs in the US have declined, they are an important factor.” 专家们注意到,伯尼#8226;桑德斯(Bernie Sanders)和唐纳德#8226;特朗普(Donald Trump)这两位政治上的离经叛道者有一个共同之处,即都对贸易抱着怀疑态度。例如,特朗普多次宣称:“我们不再赢得胜利,我们没有在贸易上打败中国。我们没有打败日本……我们不可能在边境或贸易上打败墨西哥。”桑德斯更为有的放矢地表达了他的担忧:“尽管糟糕的贸易协定不是美国制造业就业岗位下降的唯一原因,但它们是一个重要因素。” Both men have vastly outperformed expectations in the primary campaigns. There are many reasons for that but perhaps the simplest explanation is that freer trade has inflicted a more grievous toll than economists, myself included, had expected. 两人在美国总统初选中的表现都比外界预期的好得多。这有许多原因,但最简单的解释或许是,自由贸易深化所引发的负面影响超过了经济学家(包括我自己)的预期。 Fifteen years ago, the conventional economic wisdom was that free trade was almost unambiguously a good idea. Here’s the basic logic. There are two ways for the British to get hold of wine. We can grow and press our own grapes, or we can make something that the French want and trade with them. If we’re good at making, say, computer games and the French are good at making wine, then trading is the better way to get what we want. 15年前,传统的经济观点是,自由贸易几乎毋庸置疑是个好主意。基本逻辑如下。英国有两种方式可以得到葡萄酒。我们可以自己种植葡萄来酿酒,或者我们制造法国人想要的东西,并和他们进行贸易。如果我们擅长制造,比如开发计算机游戏,而法国人擅长酿酒,那么贸易就是我们各取所需的更好方式。 The idea that we might, Trumpishly, “beat the French in trade” sounds appealing but is incoherent. And while a British Sanders might point to the loss of jobs in the UK wine industry, that would miss the gains in the software industry. There is little economic difference between a tariff on the import of French wine and a tariff on the export of British software. 我们可能——用特朗普式的措辞——“在贸易上打败法国人”的观点听起来很有吸引力,但它是不合逻辑的。尽管英国版桑德斯可能指出英国葡萄酒产业的就业岗位下降,但这种说法没有考虑软件产业的就业增加。法国葡萄酒进口关税和英国软件出口关税在经济学上几乎没有差别。 Here’s a parable beloved of economists. An entrepreneur announces a technological breakthrough: he has a machine that can disintegrate computer game discs and reconstitute the atoms into fine wine. He sets up a factory on the coast of Kent with the machine inside. Computer games go in, and cases of wine emerge. But then an investigative reporter from the Financial Times gains access to the factory and finds that there is no machine — just a dock where a forklift truck operator busily unloads French wine from a boat, replacing it with computer games for export to the French market. Should we care? From the point of view of the British, isn’t France merely a technology for converting computer games into wine? 经济学家们喜欢这则寓言。一名企业家宣布取得技术突破:他有一台机器可以将计算机游戏光盘分解为原子,然后将这些原子重新组合为葡萄酒。他在肯特海岸建了一家装配有上述机器的工厂。计算机游戏光盘进入工厂,然后成箱的葡萄酒就生产出来了。但随后一位来自英国《金融时报》的调查记者进入工厂,却发现根本没有什么机器,只是一个码头,叉车司机正忙着将法国葡萄酒从船上卸下,然后把计算机游戏光盘装上船出口到法国。我们应该在乎吗?从英国人的角度来看,法国不就相当于一种将计算机游戏光盘转化为葡萄酒的技术吗? With formal models to back up this sort of story, most economists took the view that when countries lower their trade barriers, even unilaterally, they prosper. What the British wine industry loses, the UK computer games industry gains. Meanwhile, consumers get better and cheaper wine into the bargain. 随着这种故事受到正式模型的持,大多数经济学家认为,当各国降低贸易壁垒的时候,即便是单方面的,这些国家也会蓬勃发展。英国葡萄酒产业失去什么,英国计算机游戏产业就获得什么。与此同时,消费者还获得了品质更好、价格更为便宜的葡萄酒。 It was always clear that, despite the win-win nature of trade at the national level, freer trade could create losers — such as British vineyards and French computer game studios. But the conventional wisdom was that these losses were both small and fixable with the right policies of retraining or redistribution. Most importantly, people who lost their jobs could find new ones in booming export industries. 始终明确的一点是,尽管贸易的本质在国家层面上是双赢的,但自由贸易程度加深可能产生输家——比如英国的葡萄酒庄园和法国的计算机游戏工作室。但传统观点认为,这些损失很小,而且还可以通过再培训或再分配的正确政策补救。最重要的是,失业者可以在蓬勃发展的出口行业找到新工作。 Admittedly, it was evident even 20 years ago that median household incomes were stagnating in the US, inequality was rising in anglophone countries, and manufacturing employment was steadily falling. But these trends seemed to owe more to technological change than to globalisation. 诚然,美国家庭收入中值增长停滞,以英语为母语的国家的不平等现象加剧,以及制造业就业人数持续下降,这些现象在20年前就很明显。但这些趋势似乎更多地源于技术变革而非全球化。 I’ve been phrasing all this “conventional wisdom” in the past tense but, for the most part, it stands up. However, it is acquiring an important and depressing footnote. A new research paper, “The China Shock”, from David Autor, David Dorn and Gordon Hanson, is part of a rethink under way in the economics profession. 我一直用过去时来指称这种“传统观点”,但如今这种观点基本上仍然盛行。然而,现在这种观点得到了一个重要而令人沮丧的注脚。戴维#8226;奥托尔(David Autor)、戴维#8226;多恩(David Dorn)和戈登#8226;汉森(Gordon Hanson)合作撰写的新研究报告《中国冲击》(The China Shock)就是经济学界反思的一个成果。 Autor and his colleagues try to zoom in on the impact of China’s emergence as a trading power. China’s rise has been dramatic, driven almost entirely by internal policy changes inside China, and has had a differential effect on different regions and industries. For example, Tennessee and Alabama are both US manufacturing centres exposed to global competition. But Tennessee’s furniture manufacturing industry is much more exposed to China in particular than is Alabama’s heavier manufacturing industries. This helps the researchers to figure out with more confidence what the impact of the China shock has been. 奥托尔及其同事试图聚焦中国成为贸易大国的影响。中国的崛起引人瞩目,几乎完全受到国内政策改变的推动,对不同地区和行业产生了不同的影响。例如,田纳西州和亚拉巴马州都是美国的制造业中心,遭受全球范围的竞争。但与亚拉巴马州的重工业制造业相比,田纳西州的家具制造业遭受中国竞争的影响大得多。这有助于研究员更加肯定地得出“中国冲击”是什么样的影响。 Autor, Dorn and Hanson conclude that the American workers who have been hurt by competition with China have been hurt more deeply, and for a longer period, than many economists predicted. Employment has fallen in industries exposed to trade competition, as expected. But it has not shown much signs of rising in export-oriented sectors. 奥托尔、多恩和汉森得出结论称,受到中国竞争影响的美国工人受到的伤害、以及受影响的时间超过许多经济学家的预期。遭遇贸易竞争的行业的就业人数如预期那样下降,但没有多少迹象表明出口导向型行业的就业人数上升。 The US labour market is less flexible than we thought, it seems. In a simplified economic model, workers move smoothly to a new home, a new industry, even a new level of education. In practice, Autor and his colleagues find that communities hit by Chinese competition often do not adapt; they wither. It may take a generation or two, rather than a few years, to adjust. 美国劳动力市场的灵活性似乎低于我们的预期。在一个简化的经济模型中,工人会顺利地搬到一个新家、进入一个新的行业,甚至获得新的教育水平。但事实上,奥托尔及其同事发现,遭受中国竞争冲击的群体往往适应不了;他们会萎靡。适应的过程可能需要一两代人的时间,而非几年时间。 In the long run, of course, that adjustment will happen — just as we have adjusted to the decline of agricultural labour or the need for typewriter repairs. But the long run is longer than many economists feared. It is easy to see why supporters of Trump and Sanders have run out of patience. 当然,长期而言,这种适应总会发生,就像我们已经适应了农业劳动力减少或者打字机维修需求下降一样。但这个长期比许多经济学家担心的还要长。不难理解,特朗普和桑德斯的持者为何已经耐心告尽。 /201603/433924六盘水市治疗腹泻哪家医院好排名哪里贵州治疗混合痔多少钱

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