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中山大学附属第一医院收费标准服务时讯

2018年12月11日 11:06:51|来源:国际在线|编辑:预约大夫
Six months ago, tech entrepreneur Rohan Gilkes tried to rent a cabin in Idaho over the July 4 weekend, using the website Airbnb. 半年前,科技创业者罗恩.吉尔克斯(Rohan Gilkes)尝试通过Airbnb网站预订爱达荷州的一间小屋,在美国独立日长周末使用。All seemed well, until the host told him her plans had changed: she needed to use the cabin herself. 一切似乎都很顺利,直到房主告诉他,她的计划有变:她自己需要使用那间小屋。Then a friend of Rohan’s tried to book the same cabin on the same weekend, and his booking was immediately accepted. 之后,罗恩的一个朋友试着在同样时间预订那间小屋,他的预订被迅速接受了。Rohan’s friend is white; Rohan is black.罗恩的朋友是白人;罗恩是黑人。This is not a one-off. 这并非一次性事件。Late last year, three researchers from Harvard Business School — Benjamin Edelman, Michael Luca and Dan Svirsky — published a working paper with experimental evidence of discrimination. 哈佛商学院(Harvard Business School)的3名研究人员——本杰明.埃德尔曼( Benjamin Edelman)、迈克尔.卢卡(Michael Luca)和丹.斯维尔斯基(Dan Svirsky)去年年末发布了一份工作论文,其中的实验据明了歧视的存在。Using fake profiles to request accommodation, the researchers found that applicants with distinctively African-American names were 16 per cent less likely to have their bookings accepted. 研究人员使用假的资料来申请订房,他们发现,如果看申请者的姓名明显像是非裔美国人,其预订被接受的可能性要低16%。Edelman and Luca have also published evidence that black hosts receive lower incomes than whites while letting out very similar properties on Airbnb. 埃德尔曼和卢卡还发布了一些据,表明在Airbnb上出租类似房源时,黑人房主的租房所得会比白人房主低。The hashtag #AirbnbWhileBlack has started to circulate.#AirbnbWhileBlack(Airbnb上的黑人)的话题标签开始传播。Can anything be done to prevent such discrimination? It’s not a straightforward problem. 可以做些什么来防止这种歧视吗?这不是一个简单明了的问题。Airbnb condemns racial discrimination but, by making names and photographs such a prominent feature of its website, it makes discrimination, conscious or unconscious, very easy.Airbnb谴责种族歧视,但Airbnb网站的一个突出特征就是显示姓名和照片,这让有意或者无意的歧视变得非常容易。It’s a cheap way to build trust, says researcher Michael Luca. 这是一种成本低廉的建立信任的方式,研究员迈克尔.卢卡说。But, he adds, it invites discrimination.但他补充道,这招来了歧视。Of course there’s plenty of discrimination to be found elsewhere. 当然,其他地方也可以发现很多歧视现象。Other studies have used photographs of goods such as iPods and baseball cards being held in a person’s hand. 另一些研究使用了卖家手持商品(如iPod或者棒球卡)拍下的商品照片。On Craigslist and eBay, such goods sell for less if held in a black hand than a white one. 在Craigslist和eBay上,黑人手持的商品卖价会比白人手持商品的卖价低。An unpleasant finding — although in such cases it’s easy to use a photograph with no hand visible at all.这个发现令人不舒——尽管在这种情况卖家想避免受到歧视很容易,只需使用不露出手的商品照片就可以了。The Harvard Business School team have produced a browser plug-in called Debias Yourself. 哈佛商学院的团队制作了一个叫做Debias Yourself的防偏见浏览器插件。People who install the plug-in and then surf Airbnb will find that names and photographs have been hidden. 安装这个插件的人在浏览Airbnb的时候会发现姓名和照片被隐藏了。It’s a nice idea, although one suspects that it will not be used by those who need it most. 这是个好主意,不过我怀疑那些最需要这个功能的人不会使用它。Airbnb could impose the system anyway but that is unlikely to prove tempting.Airbnb可以强行实施这个系统,但这样做不太可能有吸引力。However, says Luca, there are more subtle ways in which the platform could discourage discrimination. 然而,卢卡表示,平台还可以使用一些更含蓄的方式来阻止歧视。For example, it could make profile portraits less prominent, delaying the appearance of a portrait until further along in the process of making a booking. 比如,平台可以让资料中的个人照片变得不那么突出,在预订进行到一定阶段后再显现照片。And it could nudge hosts into using an instant book system that accelerates and depersonalises the booking process. 平台还可以敦促房主使用即时预订系统,这种系统即能加快预订过程,又能去除预订过程中的个人因素。(The company recently released a report describing efforts to deal with the problem.)(该公司最近发布了一份报告,描述了为处理这一问题做出的努力。)But if the Airbnb situation has shone a spotlight on unconscious (and conscious) bias, there are even more important manifestations elsewhere in the economy. 如果说Airbnb的情况让人们关注到无意识(和有意识)的偏见,那么在经济的其他领域,还有一些更重要的反映出偏见的情况。A classic study by economists Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan used fake CVs to apply for jobs. 经济学家玛丽安娜.贝特朗(Marianne Bertrand)和森德希尔.穆莱纳坦(Sendhil Mullainathan)所做的一项经典研究使用了假简历来申请工作。Some CVs, which used distinctively African-American names, were significantly less likely to lead to an interview than identical applications with names that could be perceived as white.使用明显是非裔美国人姓名的简历得到面试的几率,要低于内容一样但使用可能被认为是白人姓名的简历。Perhaps the grimmest feature of the Bertrand/Mullainathan study was the discovery that well-qualified black applicants were treated no better than poorly qualified ones. 或许贝特朗和穆莱纳坦进行的研究中最令人沮丧的一点是,完全够格的黑人申请者得到的待遇和不那么够格的申请者一样糟糕。As a young black student, then, one might ask: why bother studying when nobody will look past your skin colour? And so racism can create a self-reinforcing loop.那么,一个年轻的黑人学生或许会问:如果没人在乎你肤色以外的东西,为何还要费力学习呢?因此,种族主义可能会导致一个自我加强的循环。What to do?该怎么办?One approach, as with Debias Yourself, is to remove irrelevant information: if a person’s skin colour or gender is irrelevant, then why reveal it to recruiters? The basic idea behind Debias Yourself was proven in a study by economists Cecilia Rouse and Claudia Goldin. 有一种策略,就像Debias Yourself防偏见插件一样,是去除无关信息:既然一个人的肤色或者性别不影响其录用,那何必把这些信息透露给招聘人员呢?经济学家塞西莉亚.劳斯(Cecilia Rouse)和克劳迪娅.戈尔丁(Claudia Goldin)的一项研究明了Debias Yourself所依据的基本理念是正确的。Using a careful statistical design, Rouse and Goldin showed that when leading professional orchestras began to audition musicians behind a screen, the recruitment of women surged.通过细心的统计设计,劳斯和戈尔丁表明,当一流的专业管弦乐团开始隔着屏风面试音乐家时,女性被录取的几率激增。Importantly, blind auditions weren’t introduced to fight discrimination against women — orchestras didn’t think such discrimination was a pressing concern. 重要的是,在这里,盲试的引入并不是为了抗击对女性的歧视——管弦乐团并不认为他们在性别歧视方面存在紧迫问题。Instead, they were a way of preventing recruiters from favouring the pupils of influential teachers. 事实上,盲试是为了防止招聘者偏袒具有影响力的教师的学生。Yet a process designed to fight nepotism and favouritism ended up fighting sexism too.然而,这种旨在打击裙带关系和徇私行为的程序最终也打击了性别歧视。#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;A new start-up, Applied, is taking these insights into the broader job market. 新创立的企业Applied正把这些洞见应用到更广泛的就业市场中。Applied is a spin-off from the UK Cabinet Office, the Behavioural Insights Team and Nesta, a charity that supports innovation; the idea is to use some simple technological fixes to combat a variety of biases.Applied是由行为研究小组(Behavioural Insights Team,由英国内阁办公室(Cabinet Office)和持创新的慈善机构英国国家科技艺术基金会(Nesta)合作成立)和Nesta合作成立的公司,其创办理念是通过一些简单的技术性修正来抗击各种偏见。A straightforward job application form is a breeding ground for discrimination and cognitive error. 一份直观的工作申请表为偏见和认知错误提供了温床。It starts with a name — giving clues to nationality, ethnicity and gender — and then presents a sequence of answers that are likely to be as one big stew of facts. 这种表格把暴露申请者国籍、族裔和性别的姓名放在最开头,它接下来提供的一系列可能被看做各种事实的大杂烩。A single answer, good or bad, colours our perception of everything else, a tendency called the halo effect.只需一个我们喜欢或不喜欢的,就会影响我们对其余一切的看法,这是一种叫做光晕效应的倾向。A recruiter using Applied will see chunked and anonymised details — answers to the application questions from different applicants, presented in a randomised order and without indications of race or gender. 一个使用Applied务的招聘人员将会看到区块化和匿名化的细节——将不同申请者对申请表问题的用随机顺序列出来,不体现种族或者性别。Meanwhile, other recruiters will see the same answers, but shuffled differently. 同时,其他招聘人员将看到同样的,但以不同顺序列出。As a result, says Kate Glazebrook of Applied, various biases simply won’t have a chance to emerge.Applied的凯特.格莱兹布鲁克(Kate Glazebrook)表示,这样一来,各种偏见根本没有机会产生。When the Behavioural Insights Team ran its last recruitment round, applicants were rated using the new process and a more traditional CV-based approach. 当行为研究小组进行最后一轮招聘时,有的申请人接受的是新程序的评分,有的接受的是基于简历的更传统方式的评分。The best of the shuffled, anonymised applications were more diverse, and much better predictors of a candidate who impressed on the assessment day. 使用被打乱顺序、匿名化的申请表选出的最佳申请人更加背景各异,在评估日令人印象深刻的几率也大大提高。Too early to declare victory — but a promising start.宣布胜利还为时过早——但这是一个充满希望的开端。 /201611/480283One of the startling features of Anglo-American capitalism is that corporate investment remains so low when profits are so high. 英美资本主义当前的一个显著特征是在利润如此之高之际企业投资却保持低位。This lack of investment seems all the more puzzling given that money is cheap, infrastructure needs are glaring, fast-growing consumer markets are opening up all over the developing world, and smart technologies are making it possible to imagine and create new business models.鉴于资金低廉、基础设施需求显而易见、快速增长的消费市场正在发展中世界一个接一个涌现、智能科技让想象和创建新的商业模式成为可能,这种投资匮乏显得格外令人困惑。What is going on?怎么会这样?The most obvious answer is that corporate bosses are still traumatised by the financial crash of 2008 and remain highly risk averse. 最显而易见的是公司老板在2008年金融危机期间受到的创伤仍未痊愈,避险情绪强烈。It is easier to cling to what you have than to bet on something new. 相对于押注新的业务,守成是更容易的选择。Just ask Eli Lilly, the US pharmaceutical company that spent billions of dollars developing an Alzheimer’s drug that has sadly failed its clinical trials.问问美国制药公司礼来(Eli Lilly)吧,该公司曾斥资数十亿美元开发一种治疗阿尔茨海默病的药物,遗憾的是该药未能通过临床测试。A more sophisticated argument runs that there is too little new technology to spark investment. 一种更有水平的观点认为,激发投资的新科技太少。The great discoveries of the past 150 years, such as electricity, flight and the combustion engine, encouraged widesp investment as industries and infrastructures were built. 过去150年的伟大发现(例如电力、飞行和内燃机)鼓励了广泛投资,以打造新的产业和基础设施。But all the low-hanging technological fruit has been eaten.但这些易于摘取的技术成果都已被摘取。Others, though, argue the exact opposite: the latest cornucopia of technologies, such as artificial intelligence and robotics, threatens to destroy many existing businesses and is deterring investment. 然而,还有一些人的观点恰恰相反:最新一代的科技(例如人工智能和机器人)对很多现有业务构成生存威胁,因而在阻碍投资。A fatalism seems to have descended on many corporate boards: why invest when you have no idea whether an insurgent company will emerge from left field to eat your lunch?很多公司董事会似乎已经听天由命:如果你不知道会不会有一家天不怕地不怕的公司突然出现抢走你的午餐,为什么要投资呢?According to a survey by Fujitsu of almost 1,200 senior executives around the world, 52 per cent think their business will not exist in its current form in five years’ time. 根据富士通(Fujitsu)针对全球近1200名高管的一项调查,52%的受访者认为他们的业务在5年后将不会以现有形式存在。Innovation is viewed as a young company’s game.创新被视为年轻公司的游戏。But there is mounting evidence to suggest that the investment drought has also been caused by excessive short-termism and misaligned financial incentives , as many economists have long argued. 然而,越来越多的据似乎表明,就像许多经济学家一直辩称的那样,投资匮乏的原因也包括极度短视以及错位的金钱激励。Why should a chief executive, whose median tenure is less than five years, invest for the long term when they can juice up profits by slashing costs?对于一个任期中值不到5年的首席执行官,与其进行长线投资,何不通过削减成本提高利润?In a forthcoming paper in the Review of Financial Economics, Alex Edmans of London Business School and Vivian Fang of Carlson School of Management present telling evidence showing how chief executives chop research spending just ahead of stock vesting deadlines to drive up the share price.在《金融经济学》(Review of Financial Economics)即将发表的一篇论文中,伦敦商学院(LBS)的阿列克谢.埃德曼斯(Alex Edmans)和卡尔森商学院(Carlson School of Management)的维维安.方(Vivian Fang)提出了有力据表明,首席执行官会在股票行权截止期限前削减研究出,以推升股价。Having studied the record of 1,758 US companies, they conclude that reductions in investment are myopic.在研究过1758家美国公司的记录后,他们得出结论称,减少投资是短视行为。Investment is not an end in itself and should not be made willy nilly, Professor Edmans says. 埃德曼斯教授表示,投资本身并非目的,不应该以犹豫不决的心态作出。After all, the function of stock markets is often to recycle money from mature, cash-rich companies into faster-growing start-ups.毕竟,股市的功能往往是把资金从现金充裕的成熟公司导向增长更快的初创企业。But shareholders could certainly push managers to explore more fruitful long-term investment by extending the duration of stock vesting periods from a standard three years to seven or more. 但股东肯定可以通过将股票行权期从一般的3年延长到7年或更长,来鼓励管理者探索更有成效的长期投资。Rather than obsessing about absolute pay levels, shareholders should focus on the period over which incentives are paid. 股东不应纠结于绝对的薪资水平,而是应关注于付激励的时间跨度。It is not the quantum that matters but the horizon, Prof Edmans says.埃德曼斯教授表示:重要的不是数字,而是时间长度。There may also be a case, he says, for appointing younger CEOs who will live with the consequences of their investment decisions and care more about their reputations over the longer term.他表示,任命较年轻首席执行官也可能是有理由的,他们将面对投资决定的后果,并更多地关注于自己的较长期声誉。Some other economists, though, suggest that far more radical steps are needed to reap the full benefits of the latest technological innovations.然而,还有一些经济学家提出,需要采取更加到位的措施来收获最新科技创新的所有成果。Carlota Perez, a professor at the London School of Economics, argues that an effective way of spurring more investment would be to rewrite our completely wacky tax regimes, which penalise goods rather than bads.伦敦政治经济学院(London School of Economics)教授卡洛塔.佩雷斯(Carlota Perez)认为,促进更多投资的有效方式是改革我们完全古怪的税收制度,目前它惩罚的是好行为而非坏行为。Why do we tax salaries so heavily when we consider employment to be a good thing? Why not shift the burden to energy, materials and transport to stimulate the greening of the economy? Why not tilt the playing field towards longer-term investment by taxing short-term capital gains at punitive rates while cutting them for those made over five years?如果我们认为就业是件好事的话,我们为什么要对薪资课以重税呢?为什么不把税务负担转移到能源、原材料和运输来刺激环保经济呢?为什么不通过对短期资本利得征收重税、同时降低5年期资本利得的税赋,让市场倾向于较长期投资呢?Few governments are likely to be so bold, given how beholden they are to corporate lobbying. 鉴于政府受制于企业游说,几乎没有政府可能会这么大胆。They appear way too susceptible to companies promising to invest more if only corporation tax was cut further and more research grants were forthcoming. 一些公司承诺只有在公司税赋进一步下调并获得更多研究补助时才会扩大投资,政府似乎太容易受到这些公司的影响了。But the benefits of such corporate welfare are to be doubted.但这些公司福利的好处应受到质疑。Maybe it is time to turn recent logic on its head. 或许是时候颠覆近年的逻辑了。If the private sector remains so reluctant to invest then governments should consider taxing companies more heavily and invest directly themselves.如果私营部门仍不愿投资,那么政府应考虑对公司调高税赋,然后自己直接投资。 /201612/484520

This year#39;s annual average salary of rural residents in China is expected to exceed 5,000 yuan (0), an increase of 10 percent compared with last year, according to the latest report.据最近一份报告指出,今年中国农村住户的年平均工资将有望超过5000元(约合770美元),与去年同比增长约10%。Released by the Rural Development Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and Social Sciences Academic Press on last Wednesday, the report said the income of rural residents has been increasing in recent years and the annual average net earnings in 2015 - which includes their salary and other sources of income - exceeded 10,000 yuan for the first time. It said this was due to the increase of wages and family business earnings.据中国社科院农村发展研究所和社科院学术出版社上周三联合发布的一项报告指出,近几年农村住户的收入一直在增加,2015年,农村住户包括工资和其他收入来源的平均净收入第一次超过了10000元。报告指出,这是工资增长和家庭业务收入增加的结果。;Chinese rural residents have begun to rely more on their wages,; said the report, adding that it is expected that their average salary will exceed 5,000 yuan in 2016.该报告中写道:“中国农村住户的工资收入占总收入的比重越来越大。”并指出农村住户平均工资将在2016年超过5000元。The report pointed out that the country#39;s economic transition and the accompanying policy adjustments greatly influenced their income.报告还提到,中国目前的经济转型和相应的政策调整在很大程度上影响了农村住户的收入。The country still maintains a medium-to-high economic growth rate, which will have an impact on their wages, the report said, adding that some rural residents have given up their small-scale agriculture businesses due to the price fluctuations of some agricultural products and sought jobs in other industries, which have led to an increase in migrant workers. About 168 million rural folk were working outside their hometowns in 2015.此外,这一报告指出,中国经济仍然保持一个中高速的增长势头,而这将对农村住户的工资带来影响。目前,由于部分农产品价格波动的原因,一些农村住户已经放弃了自家的小农产业,转而寻求其他行业的就业机会,这也导致了农民工人数的大量增加。2015年,全国共计约有1亿6800万在外务工人员。 /201605/441855

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