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广州哪些医院输精管复通龙马热点

楼主:网上中文 时间:2018年12月11日 17:11:18 点击:0 回复:0
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Science and technology: Evolution: Bee kind to viruses科学技术:进化:蜜蜂爱病毒A strange tale of collaboration between plants, pathogens and insects.植物、病毒和昆虫的奇特合作。Cucumber mosaic virus is not restricted to its eponymous host.黄瓜花叶病毒能感染不是只有黄瓜。They could also ravage tomatoes—stunting them and causing them to produce contorted tendril-like leaves.这种病毒也荼毒番茄——病株会长出卷曲的病叶。Given this devastation, it is surprising susceptible plants continue to exist; natural selection should have produced resistance years ago.考虑到病毒的危害,至今还存在易感染植物着实让人惊奇——自然选择应该早就帮助它们形成了病毒抵抗力。A paper in this week’s PLoS Pathogens, however, explains the apparent contradiction.本周,PLoS Pathogens发表的一篇论文解释了这一明显矛盾。The team that wrote it, led by John Carr of Cambridge University, found that the virus actually helps its host to reproduce.发表这篇文章的团队由剑桥大学的约翰·卡尔带领,他们发现病毒实际上在帮助宿主繁衍。It does so using an unsuspecting accomplice: the bumble-bee.而达成这种目标借助的不是别的,正是大黄蜂。Like many discoveries, this one was accidental.像很多发现一样,这个发现也纯属偶然。Dr Carr had ordered some equipment to analyse the volatile chemicals emitted by infected tomato plants.卡尔士订购了一些设备用来分析番茄病株释放的易挥发化学物质。While he was waiting for it to arrive, a colleague offered to lend him some bees, as these pollinators are known for their sense of smell.在等候交货的这段时间,一位同事提出借给他一些蜜蜂,因为这些传粉使者具有灵敏的嗅觉。His team placed both healthy and infected plants in a greenhouse, covered them so that the bees could smell but not see them, and released the insects.于是团队人员把正常植株和感染植株一同放到温室,遮盖它们确保蜜蜂只能嗅到而不能看到它们,然后释放蜜蜂。The bees could indeed tell the difference—but to Dr Carr’s surprise they did not favour the healthy plants.蜜蜂确实可以嗅出植株的不同,但令卡尔士感到惊讶的是,它们并不喜欢健康植株。Rather, they strongly preferred the infected ones.相反,它们对感染植株青睐有加。For some viral strains, they were four times more likely to visit an infected plant than a healthy one.有一些受感染的病株甚至能吸引比健康植株多三倍的蜜蜂。Subsequent experiments, carried out after the analytical apparatus had arrived, showed that this difference in behaviour was, indeed, a response to differences in the chemicals that infected and uninfected plants give off.在分析设备到货以后进行的后续实验揭示了蜜蜂区别对待植株的原因——感染植株和健康植株释放的化学物质不同。The question was how the bees’ preference played into the plants’ evolution.那么蜜蜂的偏爱在植物进化中起到了什么作用呢?Tomatoes are able to fertilise themselves, without need of a pollinator, yet even this self-pollination can be assisted by a bee visiting a flower.番茄可以自我繁衍,不需要传粉者,但是如果有蜜蜂来传播花粉,这种自花授粉的植物也会得到帮助。Vibrations caused by the insect’s buzzing help release pollen from the flower’s anthers so that it can fall onto the stigma.昆虫翅膀的震动帮助播撒取自花药的花粉,并落到柱头上。Could this process, Dr Carr wondered, make up for the evolutionary disadvantage the virus otherwise inflicts?卡尔士疑惑这个过程能否弥补病毒在其他方面带来的进化劣势。To investigate, he and his colleagues grew both healthy and infected tomatoes in a greenhouse with no bees, and a similar mixture in a greenhouse into which bees were released one at a time, and their movements tracked.为了进一步调查,卡尔士和同事在一个温室里种植了健康番茄和感染番茄,但是没有蜜蜂,又在另一个温室里进行同样的种植,但是向这个温室每次释放一只蜜蜂,并追踪它的轨迹。They then analysed the seeds of the fruits of each plant as a proxy for evolutionary fitness.之后他们选取每株番茄的种子作为进化适应性的代表进行分析。All of the seeds they looked at seemed viable.他们观察的种子似乎都有望存活。What differed was the number of seeds in each fruit.不同点在于每个番茄果实内所含的种子数量。In the bee-free greenhouse, infected plants had only about 50 seeds per fruit, whereas healthy ones averaged 70.在没有蜜蜂的温室里,感染番茄平均每个果实仅含50枚种子,健康番茄70枚。When bees were present, though, something strange happened.在蜜蜂活动的温室里,神奇的事情上演了。The seed count of fruits from healthy flowers visited by bees increased to 85—but that of the flowers of infected plants jumped much higher, to 115.蜜蜂拜访过的健康番茄果实内的种子增长至85枚,而感染番茄跃升至115枚。Further investigation showed a possible reason.更深入的调查提供了可能的解释。Not only did bees visit the infected plants more, but they also spent longer buzzing around infected flowers.感染番茄不仅能吸引更多蜜蜂,还能让它们环绕感染植物飞舞更久。The extra pollen thus displaced probably explains how the sickly plants outproduced their healthy confreres.充裕的花粉很可能是这些生病植株比它们健康的同伴更高产的原因。Using these experimental data, the researchers modelled how the system might have evolved.研究人员运用实验数据模拟了这一系统可能的发展过程。They found that the pollinator’s preference for the smell of infected plants was big enough to stop the emergence of viral-resistance in tomatoes.他们发现,传粉者对感染植株味道的青睐足以阻止番茄形成病毒抵抗力。That explains what is in it for the tomatoes and also for the virus.这同样解释了番茄和病毒的利害关系。What the bees get out of it, though, remains mysterious.但是蜜蜂能从中分一杯什么羹,还是个谜。翻译:Angela /201612/481820迷你对话:A: I’m fed up with marriage.我对结婚厌倦透了。B: Why do you say so? Everyone admires that you have a good wife.为什么?每个人都羡慕你有个还妻子呀。A: Oh, no. When we were poor, we often tried our best to make ends meet. It was a hard time.哦,不是这样。我们穷的时候都要尽力保持收平衡,那时非常难熬的日子。B: But now you are rich.但是你们现在有钱了。A: And we have some squabbles on some boring things.可是我们在一些无聊的事情上争吵。B: This is ordinary marriage life.这是正常的婚姻生活啊!地道表达:make the ends meet解词释义:end的本义为“尽头”。此语的字面意思是“使得两头碰面”,意为“出与收这两个金额能保持一致”,意即“钱够花”。持范例:Eg. We cant afford to buy this house because we wont make the ends meet.我们买不起这房子,因为我们将入不敷出。Eg. I have scarcely enough money to make ends meet at the moment, let alone lend you any.我目前都入不敷出,更别说借钱给你了。Eg. They could not earn enough to make ends meet for the whole family. 他们挣的钱不够应付全家的开。 Eg. After her husband was laid off, the wife tried every means to make ends meet. 丈夫下岗了,妻子想尽办法让家庭的收平衡。词海拾贝:1. be fed up with:受够了,对......厌倦了Eg. I am fed up with his laziness and carelessness.我受够了他的懒惰和粗心。Eg. I am rather fed up with your complaints.我真的厌倦了你的抱怨。Eg. Im fed up with this wet weather.我对这阴雨天气厌倦极了。Eg. I am fed up with your temper.我讨厌你的坏脾气。2. try one’s best:尽力,努力Eg. One should try ones best to serve the people.一个人应该尽最在努力为人民务。We must try our best to lay his doubts. 我们要尽力消除他的顾虑。3. have some squabbles(on):争吵,斗嘴,吵架Eg. I have some squabbles on money with my husband.我和我丈夫经常为钱争吵。 /201212/213959特别声明该文章中的迷你对话选自口语书籍,对话精讲为可可签约编辑编写。迷你对话A: Ted is so scared by dogs that he shakes in his shoes whenever he sees one.Ted非常害怕,他一见到,就会吓得发抖。B: The reason is that he once was bitten by a dog.那是因为他曾经被咬过。A: No wonder.怪不得。对话精讲第一、地道短语shake in one’s shoes1. 解词释义该习语用来形容人哆嗦,颤抖的样子,喻指人吓得发抖。2. 持范例He was shaking in his shoes as the large dog moved towards him.当那只向他走来时,他吓得直打哆嗦。The thief shook in his shoes when he saw the policeman. 那个小偷看到警察,吓得两腿直打抖。The thief shook in his shoes when he was caught in the act. 小偷作案时被当场抓住, 吓得发抖。 He was shaking in his shoes at the thought of flying for the first time. 他想到这是他第一次乘飞机就吓得要命。第二、口语句型1. Something is so+adj.+that+从句。释义:某物或某事如此......以至于......范例:The workers did so well that he was pleased with them.工人们干得很好,他对他们很满意。 I was so busy here (that) I had no time to write a letter.我在这里很忙,没时间写信。2. No wonder+(that)+从句。释义:难怪......范例:No wonder you were late--you ate your breakfast so slowly. 难怪你迟到——早饭吃得这么慢。 No wonder you cant find anybody here; theyre all away at a meeting. 难怪找不到人, 都开会去了。 No wonder Byron fell for you. My God, youre pretty. 怪不得拜伦让你迷住了。我的上帝,你可真漂亮。No wonder he is not hungry ; he has been eating sweets all day. 难怪他不饿,他整天在吃糖果。 /201304/233145It seemed that used to be my world, that was it, you know, its kind of all to you.以前好像篮球就是我的一切,生活就这么点东西,它就是你的全部How you felt about the day. But now, obviously you are frustrated when things dont go your way.影响你每天的心情,但现在,生活不顺的时候,我当然还是会沮丧But when I go home, theres nothing more gratifying than coming home and spending time with daughter and your wife.但回到家能与老婆女儿在一起,没有比这跟让人满足的了Just enjoy what Gods blessed me with, and I dont really know what I used to do with my free time, thats the other thing.享受上帝赐予我的一切,以前我真的不知道闲下来的时间该干什么You have a daughter, me and my wife would sit around other day, just watching her play.有了女儿,我和老婆就可以坐那一整天,看她玩儿Now shes two, shes kind of little more independent,现在她两岁了,也有些独立了but we used to have things like when you came out of practice what do we do?我们以前,训练之后都会苦思冥想干什么好呢Cause now its all about Riley, so its a good thing going on.现在就围着莱利转,所以肯定是件好事Thats why the road trips are so great though because you get to catch up some sleep from your last game. Exactly.所以客场比赛其实很幸福吧,毕竟能多睡一会儿。肯定的You wouldnt hear Riley calling, hit me in my face yelling Daddy, wake up.不会被莱利吵醒,她会过来拍我脸,叫爸爸起床But its 7:30, no matter what I did the night before, cause she doesnt care. Shes the time to go.但那会儿才七点半,她才不管我昨晚干了什么,到时间陪她玩儿了更多精内容请关注微信公众号:篮球英文堂 新浪微:篮球英文堂201706/514633

特别声明该文章中的迷你对话选自口语书籍,对话精讲为可可编辑编写。迷你对话A: How is your angle?你的脚踝怎么样了?B: My what? Oh, that, right as a trivet.我的什么?哦,好多了。A: Please be careful next time.下次一定要注意。B: I will, thank you.嗯,好的,谢谢您。对话精讲【核心短语】(as) right as a trivet【解词释义】这个隐喻来自于三脚架(trivet)的形状,三脚架放在火上撑水壶等炊具非常稳当。此语最早出现于Dickens的《匹克威客外传》中宝步索耶的话:“right as a trivet.”(好得很。)此语的意思即为:身体十分健康,事情十分顺利等。【持范例1】Well have your ankle and you as right as a trivet. 我们会让你的踝部和身体恢复健康。 【持范例2】Joan was feverish last night, but she is as right as a trivet his morning. 琼昨晚发烧,但是今早她完全好了。 /201308/250973

off year果树结果少,竹木生长慢的年份an off year for soybean crops大豆收成的小年小年快乐Happy Xiao Nian Festival!/ Happy Small Spring Festival!Many people around China are celebrating Xiao Nian, also known as "Small Spring Festival.灶王爷the Kitchen God / Zao Wang 这一天,人们会祭灶。 People offer a sacrifice to the Kitchen God on this day. 年货 supplies needed or purchased for the lunar New Year periodgoods for the Spring Festival买年货 do new year Festival shopping你们都买了些什么年货呢? What shopping have you done for the Spring Festival celebration?人们走来走去置办年货。People are busy doing new year Festival shopping.每年这个时候主妇们就忙着买年货。At this time of the year, housewives are busy doing Spring Festival shopping. ☆可可口语课堂将继续推出新年口语系列,请继续关注。如果你喜欢这个节目,请不要吝惜自己的持,在栏写下学习心得,有大家的持,相信我们会做得更好!☆ /201101/124596

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