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广州天河长安医院做处女膜修复手术怎么样好不好番禺妇幼医院男科Why refrigerators hum?为何冰箱会发出声音?Why refrigerators hum,on toays moment of science.On the recent program we have discussed how fluorocarboncoolant cools your food by coming to a boil in coils hidden in your fridge.今天的科学一刻的主题是冰箱会发出声音的原因。在近期的节目中,在最近的节目中我们讨论了碳氟化合物冷却剂是如何通过在冰箱内置的盘管中达到沸腾状态来冷却食物的。How is this possible?这是如何实现的?When you boil water on the stove, you supply heat energy by turning on the burner. In your fridge, liquid coolant boils at very chilly temperatures, but it still requires heat energy. The coolant absorbs this heat energy from the air inside the fridge. By the time all the coolant has boiled and evaporated into gas, the fridge has reached Arctic temperatures.当你在炉子上烧水的时候,你会打开燃灶来提供热量。在你的冰箱内部,虽然液态冷却剂是在很低的温度下沸腾,但它仍然会需要热能。冷却剂吸收的热能来自于冰箱内的空气。当冷却剂沸腾并蒸发为气体后,冰箱内的温度就接近北极地区了。What happens when the temperature starts to rise again? In order to repeat this chilling performance, the gas coolant has to release heat energy and change back to liquid state. To release heat, the coolant is forced into a second set of coils outside the fridge, in back. Sometimes these coils feel pretty warm.当温度重新上升的时候会发生什么?为了重复前面的降温过程,气态的冷凝剂必须释放热能并转化为液态。而为了释放热能,冷却剂需要被排到冰箱后部裸露在外的螺旋管内。有时候,这些螺旋管摸起来会感觉相当热。How does the gas coolant that just chilled your fridge make the coils warm?这些刚才还用来降温的气态冷却剂,现在为何却能使管道发热了呢?The secrets in the refrigerators hum. That humming is a pump that compresses and warms the gas while forcing it into the coils. Its like pumping up a bicycle tire; the tire feels warm because youve compressed the air inside.秘密就在于冰箱的发出的声音。这种嗡嗡声来自于用来把冷却剂压缩到外部螺旋管并使它发热的一个压缩泵。就像给自行车胎打气一样,轮胎摸起来会有点热,因为你把空气压缩进去了。Through compression, the gas coolant in the coils has become warmer than room temperature and can now release its heat energy to the air. As it releases heat, the gas cools and condenses back to liquid state. When your fridge hums, its releasing heat energy and changing fluorocarbon back to liquid state. Then it can cool your food by coming to a boil once more.通过压缩,螺旋管内气态冷却剂的温度变得比室温更高,这样便可能把热量释放到空气中。在气体释放热量物同时,它会重新变回液体状态。当你的冰箱嗡嗡响时,它是在向外释放热量并把碳氟化合物冷却剂重新转为液态。这样它就可以再一次通过沸腾给你的食物降温了。 /201207/188786广州长安人工授精生男孩怎么样好不好 In just a fraction of a second after the Big Bang, the building blocks of our Universe begin to take shape. But this first matter is like nothing we see today.大爆炸后短短的一瞬间,宇宙的组成元素开始出现。但第一种物质却并非今日所见。The stuff of matter has been very different over the ages of the Universe. What we now think is normal matter was not at all normal in the earliest moments of the Big Bang.宇宙形成百亿年以来,形成物质的元素不断变化。在现今宇宙里人们认为很常见的物质,在大爆炸最初时期并不存在。Thats because conditions were so extreme. There were no atoms yet. But there were tiny subatomic particles.那是因为当时环境非常极端。那时还没有原子,只有微小的次原子粒子。In the earliest moments of the Big Bang, the Universe was so hot and dense. There were great amounts of energy. And so particles will be created all the time and energy and matter will transform back and forth in this hot dense soup.大爆炸最初那一刻,宇宙温度极高,密度极大,蕴含了巨大的能量。因此才一直有粒子生成,能量和物质在这高温高密的大熔炉里反反复复互相转化。That earliest matter was too unstable to start forming the Universe as we know it. Think of it like this. Imagine rush hour at Grand Central in New York City as that superheated early Universe. The commuters racing through the main concourse are subatomic particles.最早的物质太不稳定,从而不能形成我们所了解的宇宙。把纽约中心地带高峰期想像成炽热的早期宇宙,把在中央大厅飞速往返穿行的上班族想象成次原子粒子。If you look at a crowd of people, a large crowd of people, they may appear randomly. That random, cocky motion is very similar to what was happening to the particles in the Universe in the earliest moments of the Big Bang.如果你观察一群人,一大群人,他们可能是随机出现的。这种随机的运动与大爆炸最初宇宙内粒子的高速碰撞运动十分相似。The extreme temperature of the early Universe energizes the subatomic particles. They appear. They disappear. They race around at incredible speeds. Its pure chaos.早期宇宙内的高温提供给次原子粒子能量。它们不断创生,湮灭,以惊人的速率运动,宇宙内一片混乱。Its like people. If they are excited and running around fast to catch trains at a train station, they have to move around quickly. But eventually they calm down and get slower. Thats whats been happening to our Universe in a sense. The particles are moving around very fast and as Universe cools down, the particles move more slowly and in some sense, less randomly.就像人类。如果人们在火车站为赶火车而到处奔跑,心烦意乱时,他们必须得快速移动。但是最终他们会平静下来,越跑越慢。从某种意义上宇宙也是这样,起初粒子四处飞移,当宇宙冷却,粒子运动越来越慢,从某种意义上不再那么随机了。As the Universe cools, the particles stop changing back into energy.当宇宙冷却,粒子不再转化回能量的形式。201205/183076Its been said that that the first person on Mars is alive somewhere on earth today.据说,在火星上的第一个人今天仍然在地球上的某个地方活着。Imagine its you what do you need to know on might you get there what should you pack?想象你会到那里去,你需要什么,你该怎么打包?What are some of the must-see sights what should you avoid?什么是不容错过的景点,应当避免什么?Think of this as your personal travel guide to exploring the red planet.把这当作是你探索这颗红色行星的私人旅游指南。Mars has always had mystique.火星一直拥有神秘。Its one of the easiest planet to spot in night sky ,这是一个最简单的观望夜空的行星,a constant dot of red light moving through the heavens and now we know for sure that of all planets this red rocky one is the most similar to home.不断的红点穿越天空,现在我们知道,对于所有的行星而言,这颗红色的岩石就好像家一样。Here are polar caps in sunbake deserts, giant volcanoes ,mighty canyons.这里有沙漠的极地沙帽, 巨大的火山、神秘的峡谷。Mars even spins at about the same speed of earth making a martian day only about 40 minutes longer than hours.甚至火星旋转也和地球大约相同,而相比之下,火星的一天大约比地球多40分钟。注:听力文本来源于普特201204/177101广州番禺引产大概多少钱

从化人民医院在线咨询;Give me your tired, your poor...your huddled masses yearning to breathe free...挤在一起渴望自由呼吸的大众,那熙熙攘攘的被遗弃了的,可怜的人们。把这些无家可归的,饱受颠沛的人们一起交给我...These words, written by American poet Emma Lazarus and inscribed at the base of the Statue of Liberty, encouraged immigration to America in the early years of the twentieth century. For decades, a steady stream of immigrants arrived and assimilated themselves into American life.这是爱玛·拉扎露丝写的十四行诗,被雕刻在自由女神像底座上,用以鼓励移民来到在上世纪早期的美国。几十年过去了,移民们源源不断的涌进并融入到美国生活中。 But by the mid 1970s, Congress was hearing from Americans who believed they were losing jobs to illegal aliens. Senator Alan Simpson and Representative Romano Mazzoli proposed what came to be known as the Simpson-Mazzoli Immigration Reform and Control Act. It imposed sanctions on employers who hired undocumented aliens, while making allowances for aliens aly living and working in the U.S. Not everyone was in favor of this bill.但是到20世纪70年代,国会听了来自美国人的词,他们认为工作机会正向非法移民转移。参议员阿兰·辛普森以及国会代表 Romano Mazzoli 建议进行移民改革,后来发展为众所周知的 Simpson-Mazzoli 移民改革和控制法案。这条法案对雇佣非法移民的雇主实行制裁,同时为已经移居美国的移民发放津贴。但这项法案并不是对所有人都有利。Some believed it would handle illegal immigrants in an arbitrary fashion, and hurt local businessmen. Others thought it would prove to be too be costly, and in the end, ineffective. The Simpson-Mazzoli bill was ultimately signed into law on November 7, 1986.有人认为这是以一种独断专行的方式处理非法移民问题,同时也损害了地方商人的利益。其他人则认为这是一项吃力不讨好的决策。最终 Simpson-Mazzoli 法案于1986年被签署成为法律。A delicate compromise, passed after five years of trying, the new law didnt solve the problems of immigration, but alleviated them. Immigration policies that challenge Congress today are even more complex… balancing new security issues with the desire to preserve the diversity and strength that immigrants bring.经过五年的努力,法案通过了微妙的妥协。最新的法律并没有解决移民问题,但却缓和了矛盾。如今国会面临的移民政策的挑战愈加复杂...移民会带来多样性和新的力量,在这样的愿景下权衡新出现的安全问题。原文译文属!201211/207602广州东圃红十字医院看不孕医生 Yael: We often hear about how human activity and expansion can endanger wildlife habitats. But can you think of any animals that might be threatened by the disappearance of humans?雅艾尔:我们经常听说人们的行为,人类的扩张会如何危害到野生栖息地。但是你能想到一些动物,它们的生存会因人类的消失而受到威胁?Don: It must be something that depends on humans for food or shelter. What about rats?唐:那肯定是依靠人类获得食物和庇护所的动物。老鼠包括在内吗?Yael: Youre on the right track. I was thinking of house mice. Have you heard the story of the extinct St. Kilda House Mouse?雅艾尔:你的思路很对。我想到了家鼠。你听说过灭绝的圣基尔达家鼠的故事吗?Don: No.唐:没有。Yael: St. Kilda is a small group of islands about one-hundred miles off the west coast of Scotland. The isolated archipelago was inhabited by humans for more than two thousand years, from the Bronze Age until 1930. In 1930 the few remaining residents of St. Kilda were permanently evacuated because of sickness, crop failure and casualties of World War I. Scientists believe that as early as 500 , Norse settlers arrived in St. Kilda and brought along a few unwanted stowaways—European house mice. Isolated from their mainland relatives, these house mice evolved over time into a distinct species, larger and shaped differently from their ancestors. St. Kilda is also home to a unique subspecies of field mouse, that probably also arrived as stowaways and evolved into a new species. But the St. Kilda house mouse needed the warm houses, farms and dropped food crumbs of its human neighbors to survive. Within three years of the humans evacuating, all the St. Kilda house mice had died off. In contrast, the field mice survived and are still living on St. Kilda today.雅艾尔:圣基尔达是一座距离苏格兰西海岸100英里的小岛群。人类在这片孤独的群岛上栖息生活了两千多年(从铜器时代到1930年)。在1930年,仅存的为数很少的圣基尔达居民也因疾病,粮荒和一战伤亡,被迫永久地迁离家园。科学家们认为早在公元500年,古代北欧人就来到圣基尔达,同时带来一些不请自来的偷渡者——欧洲家鼠。因为长期与大陆隔离,这群老鼠进化成独特的物种,它们的个头比祖先更大,体型也变得不同。圣基尔达也是一类特殊田鼠的故乡,它们也可能是偷渡过来,经过进化成为新的物种。然而,圣基尔达的家鼠需要温暖的住所,农田还有它们的人类邻居掉落的食物屑而生存。居民搬迁后的三年里,圣基尔达家鼠全部灭绝。相反,田鼠却幸存下来,至今仍生活在圣基尔达岛上。Don: Is that because they didnt depend on humans for food or shelter?唐:这是因为它们不依靠人类获取食物和住所吗?Yael: Exactly.雅艾尔:正是这样。Don: Wow. What a fascinating example of evolution in action!唐:哇,多么引人入胜的行为进化案例啊!原文译文属!201207/191302广州白云哪家医院能做处女膜修复

广州天河区南方医院不孕科怎么样好不好Business.商业。Business ethics.经营道德。Going bananas.购买香蕉。Chiquita has tried hard to be good—and got no credit for it.奇基塔一直努力作为一个好企业,但一直得不到信任。SOMETIMES you bend over backwards to please, but still get nowhere. That is what appears to have happened to Chiquita Brands, an American firm which is one of the worlds biggest suppliers of bananas and other fruit. Despite accommodating eco-warriors, social activists and unions, it has found little reward.有时你使出浑身解数来取悦对方,但仍毫无结果。这就像是在奇基塔身上发生的一样,美国奇基塔公司是世界上一个大的香蕉及其他水果供应商。尽管帮助于生态保护斗士,社会积极分子及其组织,但是奇基塔公司没得到什么好处。After a campaign by a green group called ForestEthics, Chiquita agree d in November to avoid fuel from Canadian tar sands. Extracting this oil is a dirty process. Environmentalists have worked furiously to block a pipeline, called Keystone XL, which would carry it from Canada to America. Chiquita told ForestEthics that it does not use such fuel in its ships and agreed to avoid its use in lorries.环保组织;森林伦理;(ForestEthics)发起环保运动后,奇基塔公司11月承诺不再从加拿大焦油砂中提取燃油。提取这种燃油是一个污染环境的过程。环保人士竭力阻止加拿大通往美国的Keystone XL输油管道的修建。奇基塔公司告诉环保组织;森林伦理;(ForestEthics),在其船运中他们不再使用这种燃油,同时也避免将这种燃油使用于陆运。This may have pleased environmentalists, but it infuriated Canadians who depend on the oil industry. A pro-business lobby called EthicalOil.org is urging a boycott of Chiquitas products that is said to be costing the company a fortune. Chiquita would not quantify its losses.这样的举动或许能讨好环保人士,但是激怒了依赖于这种燃油产业的加拿大人。一个称为EthicalOil.org的商业主义游说团体呼吁抵制奇基塔公司的产品,据称这将损失公司一大笔钱。奇基塔公司不会量化其损失。Chiquita traces its origins to the late 1890s and the ed Fruit Company, which treated some of the Central American countries it operated in as banana republics. In recent years, however, the firm has made huge efforts to promote social responsibility and sustainability, working with activist groups such as the Rainforest Alliance. ;We can do good and do well at the same time,; Fernando Aguirre, the firms chief executive, wrote in the companys latest social responsibility report, issued in 2008.追溯奇基塔公司的起源可到19世纪90年代末,当时还是联合果品公司,把操控着一些的中美洲国家戏称为;香蕉共和国;。然而,近几年,该公司同像雨林联盟这样的激进分子组织在促进社会责任和提升可持续发展能力上作出了巨大的努力。该公司总裁兼首席执行官费尔南多.阿格里在公司最新社会责任报告中写到,;我们能做好事同时也能做好;,该报告发行于2008年。Chiquita has signed and largely upheld a global agreement with local and international food unions. It has embraced sustainable farming techniques and allows products to be certified for environmental and other standards. Last year it promised to promote more women and to ensure there is no sexual harassment on the plantations it owns and buys from. But that has not provided protection from big retailers buying bananas direct from plantations and bypassing Chiquita and its main rivals, Dole and Fresh Del Monte Produce.奇基塔同当地和国际食品组织已签署了并很大程度上持的一份全球协议。该协议囊括了可持续农业技术,给予产品环保认以及其他标准。去年,该公司承诺将提升更多的女性同时确保在其拥有和购买的种植园内不存在性骚扰。但是,对于那些避开奇基塔和其主要竞争对手的杜尔和德尔蒙食品公司直接在种植园从大零售商那里购买香蕉并不能够提供相应的保障。Many firms in conflict zones face extortion. In 2003 Chiquita became the only American company voluntarily to admit to the Department of Justice that it had paid protection money to Colombian paramilitary forces surrounding its plantations. Now it is facing a raft of American and Colombian lawsuits.冲突地区的许多公司都面临着勒索敲诈。2003年,奇基塔就是美国唯一家公司主动承认他们向驻扎在种植园附近的哥伦比亚军事部队交过保护费。现在正面临着一系列美国和哥伦比亚的诉讼。Chiquitas conspicuous lack of reward is beginning to worry some veteran campaigners. Neither Dole nor Del Monte has been interested in following Chiquita in signing a global union agreement, says Ron Oswald, head of IUF, the international foodworkers union.;Its not sustainable for any company in a competitive sector to make progress and gain no recognition for it,; he grumbles.奇基塔显著的不讨好开始有点让一些资深活动家感到担心。国际食品劳联首领罗恩?奥斯瓦德讲到,在奇基塔同全球联盟签订一份协议后杜尔和德尔蒙食品公司对此都不会感兴趣。并抱怨到这对于在一个竞争激烈的行业中取得发展和得到认可都是不可持续的。 /201209/198566 广州长安不孕不育医院绝育接通多少钱江门微创复通术哪家医院最好

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