2018年12月10日 19:01:14|来源:国际在线|编辑:最新口碑
Mossberg's MailboxQ: My wife and I each use a different Windows laptop, so we end up having documents scattered between them. We back up data using a wired external hard drive, not knowing what has been saved where. Is there a solution that can allow file sharing and keep my files, my wife's files, and the backup files synced up?A: There are networked hard drives from several manufacturers that can back up both laptops wirelessly and allow sharing. One I reviewed recently is the My Book World Edition from Western Digital. Another approach would be to use a Web-based synchronization service. My favorite of these is called SugarSync, from a company called Sharpcast.SugarSync can automatically, and almost instantly, synchronize files in folders you select among multiple computers, while also backing them up to a password-protected Web account. SugarSync starts at a month or a year for 30 gigabytes of files, and goes up in price based on the amount you use. The company offers a free two-gigabyte account and a free trial of larger accounts for 30 days. More information is at sharpcast.com.Q: I have been a Windows user for may years but have wanted to change to Mac. Yet every article I says that Quicken, which I depend upon heavily, will not run -- at least reliably -- on a Mac, even with the Windows-compatible software. Is this true?A: The native Quicken version for the Mac is a less capable program than the Windows version, and doesn't use the same file format, which makes importing Windows Quicken files a tedious and imperfect process for many users. Intuit, the maker of Quicken, is promising a new, much better native Mac version early next year that it claims will solve these problems, but I haven't tested it, so I can't verify that pledge.However, in tests I have run periodically, Quicken for Windows ran just fine on a Mac equipped to run Windows and Windows programs. This was true when I used either Parallels or Fusion, which allow you to run Windows programs on a Mac simultaneously with Mac programs; or when I used Boot Camp, which converts the Mac into a full-fledged Windows machine, with Apple's operating system turned off.Q: I plan to get a new computer after Windows 7 is released in October, to replace my old Compaq running Windows XP. Will I have difficulty moving my files to the new one?A: You shouldn't have much difficulty with your personal data files. Microsoft is building in an Easy Transfer program to move personal files to a new Windows 7 PC. But the Microsoft program won't move over your programs. You will have to reinstall all your programs, which means finding your installation disks or installer files and re-installing all the updates from that have occurred over the years. A company called LapLink is promising to sell software it says will automate the entire process, including moving programs, to spare you this re-installation burden. But it isn't out yet, and I haven't tested it with Windows 7. /200909/84059

Why do I exist? This isn#39;t a philosophical cri de coeur; it#39;s an evolutionary conundrum. At 58, I#39;m well past menopause, and yet I#39;ll soldier, on, with luck, for many years more. The conundrum is more vivid when you realize that human beings (and killer whales) are the only species where females outlive their fertility. Our closest primate relatives--chimpanzees, for example--usually die before their 50s, when they are still fertile.我为什么存在?这不是一句哲学的呐喊,而是一个进化方面的谜题。58岁的我早已过了更年期,但如果幸运的话,我还会再活很多年。当你认识到人类(以及虎鲸)是雌性在生育期过后继续存活的唯一物种之后,这个谜题就显得更加突出了。与我们血缘最近的灵长类亲戚――比如黑猩猩――一般在还有生育能力的50多岁之前就死去了。This isn#39;t just a miracle of modern medicine. Our human life expectancy is much longer than it used to be--but that#39;s because far fewer children die in infancy. Anthropologists have looked at life spans in hunter-gatherer and forager societies, which are like the societies we evolved in. If you make it past childhood, you have a good chance of making it into your 60s or 70s.这不只是现代医学创造的奇迹。我们人类的平均寿命比过去长了很多――但这是因为早夭的儿童大大减少。人类学家考察过狩猎采集社会的人类寿命。这些社会跟我们最终进化形成的各种社会有相似之处。如果活到童年过后,那么你就很有可能能够活到60多岁或70多岁。It turns out that my existence may actually be the key to human nature. This isn#39;t a megalomaniacal boast but a new biological theory: the #39;grandmother hypothesis.#39; Twenty years ago, the anthropologist Kristen Hawkes at the University of Utah went to study the Hadza, a forager group in Africa, thinking that she would uncover the origins of hunting. But then she noticed the many wiry old women who dug roots and cooked dinners and took care of babies (much like me, though my root-digging skills are restricted to dividing the irises). It turned out that these old women played an important role in providing nutrition for the group, as much as the strapping young hunters. What#39;s more, those old women provided an absolutely crucial resource by taking care of their grandchildren.原来,我的存在实际上可能是人类本性的关键。这不是狂妄自大的吹牛,而是一套新的生物学理论:“祖母假说”(grandmother hypothesis)。20年前,犹他大学(University of Utah)的人类学家克里斯滕#12539;霍克斯(Kristen Hawkes)去非洲研究狩猎采集族群“哈扎”(Hadza),以为她会揭开狩猎的起源。但去了之后她注意到很多身材精瘦的老妇人负责挖植物的根、做饭、照顾孩子(跟我很像,不过我挖植物根的技能仅限于掰鸢尾根)。原来这些老婆婆对于为集体提供营养发挥着重要的作用,不亚于那些年轻强壮的狩猎者。另外,老婆婆们照管孙辈,提供了一种绝对重要的资源。There are many controversies about what happened in human evolution. But there#39;s no debate that there were two dramatic changes in what biologists call our #39;life-history#39;: Besides living much longer than our primate relatives, our babies depend on adults for much longer.有关人类进化史上发生过哪些事情的争议有很多,但没有争议的是,生物学家所说的“生命史”上曾经有过两次重大变化:除了寿命在灵长类亲戚基础上大大延长以外,人类婴儿依赖成年人的时间也大大延长了。Young chimps gather as much food as they eat by the time they are 7 or so. But even in forager societies, human children pull their weight only when they are teenagers. Why would our babies be helpless for so long? That long immaturity helps make us so smart: It gives us a long protected time to grow large brains and to use those brains to learn about the world we live in. Human beings can learn to adapt to an exceptionally wide variety of environments, and those skills of learning and culture develop in the early years of life.幼年黑猩猩到七岁左右时采集的食物已经足够自己吃,人类儿童即便是在狩猎采集社会中,也要到十几岁的时候才能自给自足。我们的孩子为什么这么长的时间无法自立?这一漫长的未成熟期帮助我们变成了如今这般的聪明,因为它给我们很长的受保护的时间来长成硕大的大脑,并用这些大脑去了解周围的世界。人类可以学会适应各种各样的环境,而这些学习以及文化技能是在生命的早年形成的。But that immaturity has a cost. It means that biological mothers can#39;t keep babies going all by themselves: They need help. In forager societies grandmothers provide a substantial amount of child care as well as nutrition. Barry Hewlett at Washington State University and his colleagues found, much to their surprise, that grandmothers even shared breast-feeding with mothers. Some grandmoms just served as big pacifiers, but some, even after menopause, could #39;relactate,#39; actually producing milk. (Though I think I#39;ll stick to the high-tech, 21st-century version of helping to feed my 5-month-old granddaughter with electric pumps, freezers and bottles.)但这种不成熟有其代价。它意味着生物学意义上的母亲无法完全靠自己带孩子:她们需要帮手。在狩猎采集社会,祖母不仅提供营养,也做了大量的育儿工作。华盛顿州立大学(Washington State University)的巴利#12539;休利特(Barry Hewlett)及其同事非常意外地发现,祖母甚至和母亲共同哺乳。一些祖母仅仅是充当大奶嘴的作用,但有些祖母甚至在更年期过后都能“重新哺乳”(relactate),真的会分泌乳汁。(不过我想我自己会坚持采用21世纪的高科技方法,用电泵、冰箱和奶瓶来帮助喂养五个月大的孙女。)Dr. Hawkes#39;s #39;grandmother hypothesis#39; proposes that grandmotherhood developed in tandem with our long childhood. In fact, she argues that the evolution of grandmothers was exactly what allowed our long childhood, and the learning and culture that go with it, to emerge. In mathematical models, you can see what happens if, at first, just a few women live past menopause and use that time to support their grandchildren (who, of course, share their genes). The #39;grandmother trait#39; can rapidly take hold and sp. And the more grandmothers contribute, the longer the period of immaturity can be.霍克斯士的“祖母假说”提出,祖母现象是跟我们的漫长幼年期是一起形成的。她认为,事实上正是祖母的进化使得我们的漫长幼年期以及与之伴随的学习与文化得以出现。在数学模型中,你可以看到,如果最开始只有几个妇女活过更年期,用这些时间来抚养孙辈(孙辈当然也带有她们的基因),那么会出现什么情况。“祖母遗传特性”可以迅速形成并扩散。祖母贡献越大,未成熟期可能就越长。So on Mother#39;s Day this Sunday, as we toast mothers over innumerable Bloody Marys and Eggs Benedicts across the country, we might add an additional toast for the gray-haired grandmoms behind the scenes.所以在这个周日的母亲节,在全国各地人们用无数的血腥玛丽和班尼迪克蛋向母亲们表达祝福之际,我们不妨也向默默奉献的银发祖母们致以敬意。 /201405/296898

Google#39;s rich, reliable Maps app is back on the iPhone, and that means iPhone users can stop relying on the flawed, fledgling Apple maps app that replaced it as a built-in feature in September。谷歌(Google)详尽且可靠的地图应用程序回归iPhone,这意味着iPhone用户可以不再依赖于尚不成熟、漏洞百出的苹果(Apple)地图。今年9月,苹果将其自有地图应用作为一项内置功能替换掉了原有的谷歌地图。Apple#39;s version is still bolted into the phone, and the new, free Google app must be downloaded from Apple#39;s app store. Google says the app was downloaded 10 million times in just its first two days of availability last week。Google 更多的信息:在谷歌地图上输入一个地名后,再点击屏幕上的信息栏,你就能获取包括营业时间和街景照片在内的各种信息。苹果的地图仍然内置在iPhone 中,而新的免费谷歌地图必须通过苹果的应用程序商店下载。谷歌说,该应用仅仅在其上线的头两天就被下载了1,000万次。The reappearance of Google Maps on the iPhone closes a big advantage Google#39;s own Android phones had gained when Apple#39;s replacement turned out to lack some key features, such as labeling of buildings and businesses, street-view photos and public-transit routing. It also offered too much inaccurate location data。谷歌地图回归iPhone使得搭载谷歌安卓(Android)系统的手机失去了其自苹果地图作为替代应用上线以来赢得的一大优势。苹果地图缺少一些关键功能,诸如建筑物和商家的标签,街景照片以及公交线路。它还提供了太多不准确的位置数据。However, the biggest news here is that the new iPhone version of Google Maps isn#39;t just better than Apple Maps. For now, at least, Google Maps is better in most respects on the iPhone than it is on Android phones. It has been redesigned with a cleaner, simpler user interface that makes it easier to use. Google officials say they took the sudden need to build a new iPhone version as an opportunity to rethink the popular app from the ground up。然而,最大的新闻是新的iPhone版谷歌地图不仅仅比苹果地图好,至少目前来看,iPhone版谷歌地图在大多方面都要比安卓版谷歌地图强。它在经过重新设计后拥有更清爽、更简洁的用户界面,这使得它更加易用。谷歌高层说,面对突如其来的开发新iPhone版地图的需求,他们借此机会重新调整了这款备受欢迎的应用程序。I#39;ve been testing the new Google Maps on iPhone for a week or so in the San Francisco and Washington metro areas, and I really like it. It isn#39;t perfect, but I prefer it to any other iPhone Maps app I#39;ve used, and to Google Maps on Android. The latter will likely also gain the new design in time, but for now, it looks inelegant by comparison。我在旧金山和华盛顿地铁区域对这款新的iPhone版谷歌地图进行了大约一周的测试,我真的很喜欢它。它并不完美,但与我所用过的所有其他iPhone地图应用以及安卓版谷歌地图相比,我都更喜欢它。安卓版很可能也会及时地拥有这些新功能,但目前来说,iPhone版看起来更为精致。Why would Google bail out iPhone users and give its rival#39;s phone a better version of its Maps app than its own Android customers enjoy, even temporarily? Because, while Apple makes its money from hardware, Google is a services and advertising company, and wants its products to be heavily used on a popular platform like Apple#39;s。为什么谷歌要来解救iPhone用户,并且给予其竞争对手的手机一款比其自己的安卓系统用户所能享用到的更好的地图应用,即便只是暂时的?因为,苹果凭借硬件挣钱,而谷歌是一家务和广告公司,希望其产品能够在像苹果产品这样的受欢迎平台上被广泛使用。The Android version still has a few features the new iPhone version lacks: maps of the interiors of stores, malls and airports; bicycling directions; the ability to view map segments offline; and special offers that show up for some businesses. Google says it left these out for now because they aren#39;t heavily used and the company wanted a new Apple version pronto. It says these may be added over time。安卓版本仍然有一些新iPhone版没有的功能:商店、购物中心和机场的内部地图;自行车行驶线路;地图片段的离线查看功能;商家特别优惠信息的显示。谷歌说它目前尚未在iPhone版中加入这些功能是因为它们被用得并不是很多,并且公司希望尽快打造出一款新的苹果版本。谷歌说这些功能可能会在以后被加入。More important are the Android app#39;s traits Google abandoned in the new iPhone version: too many s and steps to get things done, confusing icons, and a concept called Layers that was techie talk for things like switching from map view to satellite view。Google 纪录地名:点击屏幕上的一个按钮,就会打开一个你最近保存和分享过的位置列表。更重要的是谷歌在新的iPhone版本中抛弃了安卓版本的一些特性:繁多的菜单和繁琐的操作步骤、容易混淆的图标以及被称作“层”(Layers)的东西。“层”是在谈到诸如从地图视图转换到卫星视图这样的操作时所涉及的一个技术性很强的概念。Instead, the new iPhone version of Google Maps emphasizes two things: uncluttering the map itself, and swiping vertically and horizontally to move quickly among places, map views and information. In my tests, I found this design refreshingly easy to use. It even enhances the voice-prompted, automatic turn-by-turn navigation whose absence on the original iPhone version of Google Maps was the key thing that prompted Apple to get into the maps business。新的iPhone版谷歌地图加强了两个功能:自动调整地图视图,以及可通过横向和纵向滑动操作来迅速地在地点、地图视图和信息页面之间跳转。在测试中,我发现这项设计用起来格外地简便。它甚至强化了带语音提示的自动逐项导航功能。而原先的iPhone版谷歌地图不持语音导航功能是促使苹果自己开发地图业务的关键原因。When you first open the new Google Maps, all you see is a map with a search bar across the top and two small icons at the bottom. In the lower left is a button that brings up your current location, and in the lower right is a tiny icon that lets you switch to satellite view, to see public transit and traffic information, or to launch the separate Google Earth app. You can also get to these latter choices by swiping left with two fingers。当你首次打开新谷歌地图时,你所能看到的全部内容就是一张地图和横跨顶部的一个搜索栏以及底部的两个小图标。左下角的是显示你目前位置的按钮,右下角那个极小的图标点开后,你可以切换到卫星视图,查看公交线路以及路况信息,或者启动独立的谷歌地球(Google Earth)应用程序。你还可以通过用两个手指在屏幕上向左滑动来查看上述选项。The top search bar includes two buttons on the right -- one to start a navigation, and one to bring up a list of places you#39;ve recently saved and shared. These are automatically synced with places you#39;ve saved and shared via Google Maps on other devices, such as PCs and Macs, or Android phones。顶部的搜索栏包括位于其右部的两个按钮──一个用以开始导航,另一个会打开一个你最近保存和分享过的位置的列表。你在PC电脑、苹果电脑和安卓手机等设备上使用谷歌地图时保存或分享过的位置记录将与此处的信息自动同步。In addition to this clear, clean, main view, Google Maps for iPhone simplifies other functions. If you enter the name or address of a place, a small bar appears at the bottom of the map with summary information, like the estimated travel time or, with restaurants, a summary of reviews。除了这个明了、清爽的主视图外,iPhone版谷歌地图简化了其他一些功能。如果你输入一个地点的名称或者地址,地图底部会出现一个小的摘要信息栏,显示例如预计行程时间等信息,或者,如果是餐馆,会显示简短的评价。If you tap on this bar, you get an #39;info sheet#39; with a wealth of information and functions, including the photographic street view of the location, interior photos, reviews, hours, s, and the ability to phone the place or share its location. If your search is for a category, like #39;cigars,#39; swiping horizontally will bring up alternate info sheets for other locations。Google 导航帮助:当你开始朝目的地行进的时候,地图顶部会出现一个大大的绿色导航条,显示导航步骤中下一步的行驶方向。如果你点击该信息栏,你将会看到一个“信息页面”,包含了丰富的信息和功能,包括该地点的街景照片、内部照片、评价、营业时间、菜单以及可拨打其电话和分享该位置的功能。如果你搜索的是一类位置,比如“雪茄店”,在屏幕上横向滑动会跳转至显示另一位置信息的备选页面。You can start the navigation process by tapping on a colored icon showing travel time, either in the initial small bar at the bottom of the map, or on the info sheet。无论是在最初的地图底部信息栏还是在信息页上,你都可以通过点击一个色的显示预计行程时间的图标来开始导航步骤。Once you choose to get directions, a list of routes pops up, with estimated time and traffic. You can switch routes by simply swiping on the bar。一旦你选择获取路线,一个线路列表就会弹出来,并注明了预计耗时以及路况。你只要在信息栏上水平滑动就可以切换线路。Once a navigation is under way, the map is topped by a large green bar showing the current step in the directions. You can peek ahead by just swiping this bar to the left. You also can quickly call up a text list of the route。一旦导航开始,地图顶部会出现一个大大的绿色导航条,显示导航步骤中目前的行驶方向。你可以往左滑动这个导航条来查看下一步路线。你还可以快速调出该线路的文本列表。In my tests, location and navigation were generally accurate. A couple of flubs: A location pin was a few hundred yards off, and Google put me on a freeway when local streets would have been faster. But overall it worked well. It guided me on two routes between Silicon Valley and a bowling alley in San Francisco#39;s Presidio area, where I had once been lost. It provided accurate directions for Washington#39;s subway。在我的测试中,位置和导航信息总的来说很准确。也有一两个错误:一个位置标记被打在了几百码外;谷歌地图指引我上高速路,而那时走地面街道应该更快。但总的来说它表现得很好。它给我指了从硅谷到旧金山Presidio地区一个保龄球馆的两条线路,我以前去那里曾经走丢过。它还准确地给出了华盛顿地铁的路线信息。Apple is aly improving its competing app, but for now, iPhone users, my recommendation is to go with Google Maps。苹果正在改进它的地图应用,但就目前来看,我还是推荐iPhone用户使用谷歌地图。 /201301/220073

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